Stefan Magez

Summary

Affiliation: Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Country: Belgium

Publications

  1. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-1 (TNFp55) signal transduction and macrophage-derived soluble TNF are crucial for nitric oxide-mediated Trypanosoma congolense parasite killing
    Stefan Magez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology, Brussels, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 196:954-62. 2007
  2. ncbi P75 tumor necrosis factor-receptor shedding occurs as a protective host response during African trypanosomiasis
    Stefan Magez
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Recognition, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Free University of Brussels VUB, Brussels, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 189:527-39. 2004
  3. doi African trypanosomiasis and antibodies: implications for vaccination, therapy and diagnosis
    Stefan Magez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology, Rijvisschestraat 120, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
    Future Microbiol 4:1075-87. 2009
  4. doi Mouse models for pathogenic African trypanosomes: unravelling the immunology of host-parasite-vector interactions
    S Magez
    Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, VIB Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    Parasite Immunol 33:423-9. 2011
  5. doi Current status of vaccination against African trypanosomiasis
    Stefan Magez
    Unit of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Parasitology 137:2017-27. 2010
  6. ncbi VSG-GPI anchors of African trypanosomes: their role in macrophage activation and induction of infection-associated immunopathology
    Stefan Magez
    Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Free University of Brussels Flemish Interuniversity, Institute for Biotechnology, Paardenstraat 65, Sint Genesius Rode, Belgium
    Microbes Infect 4:999-1006. 2002
  7. pmc Control of experimental Trypanosoma brucei infections occurs independently of lymphotoxin-alpha induction
    S Magez
    Department of Immunology, Parasitology and Ultrastructure, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Paardenstraat 65, B 1640 Sint Genesius Rode, Belgium
    Infect Immun 70:1342-51. 2002
  8. ncbi A conserved flagellar pocket exposed high mannose moiety is used by African trypanosomes as a host cytokine binding molecule
    S Magez
    Department of Immunology, Parasitology and Ultrastructure, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Paardenstraat 65, B 1640 Sint Genesius Rode, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 276:33458-64. 2001
  9. pmc Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a key mediator in the regulation of experimental Trypanosoma brucei infections
    S Magez
    Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Free University of Brussels Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    Infect Immun 67:3128-32. 1999
  10. ncbi Interferon-gamma and nitric oxide in combination with antibodies are key protective host immune factors during trypanosoma congolense Tc13 Infections
    Stefan Magez
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 193:1575-83. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-1 (TNFp55) signal transduction and macrophage-derived soluble TNF are crucial for nitric oxide-mediated Trypanosoma congolense parasite killing
    Stefan Magez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology, Brussels, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 196:954-62. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the control of T. congolense infection depends on macrophage/neutrophil-derived soluble TNF and intact TNFp55 signaling, which induces trypanolytic nitric oxide...
  2. ncbi P75 tumor necrosis factor-receptor shedding occurs as a protective host response during African trypanosomiasis
    Stefan Magez
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Recognition, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Free University of Brussels VUB, Brussels, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 189:527-39. 2004
    ....
  3. doi African trypanosomiasis and antibodies: implications for vaccination, therapy and diagnosis
    Stefan Magez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology, Rijvisschestraat 120, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
    Future Microbiol 4:1075-87. 2009
    ....
  4. doi Mouse models for pathogenic African trypanosomes: unravelling the immunology of host-parasite-vector interactions
    S Magez
    Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, VIB Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    Parasite Immunol 33:423-9. 2011
    ....
  5. doi Current status of vaccination against African trypanosomiasis
    Stefan Magez
    Unit of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Parasitology 137:2017-27. 2010
    ..This paper reviews past and current attempts to design both anti-trypanosome vaccines, as well as vaccines directed towards the inhibition of infection-associated pathology...
  6. ncbi VSG-GPI anchors of African trypanosomes: their role in macrophage activation and induction of infection-associated immunopathology
    Stefan Magez
    Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Free University of Brussels Flemish Interuniversity, Institute for Biotechnology, Paardenstraat 65, Sint Genesius Rode, Belgium
    Microbes Infect 4:999-1006. 2002
    ..Their interaction with various cells of the immune system underlies the severe infection-associated pathology. Recent results have shown that anti-GPI vaccination can prevent the occurrence of this pathology...
  7. pmc Control of experimental Trypanosoma brucei infections occurs independently of lymphotoxin-alpha induction
    S Magez
    Department of Immunology, Parasitology and Ultrastructure, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Paardenstraat 65, B 1640 Sint Genesius Rode, Belgium
    Infect Immun 70:1342-51. 2002
    ....
  8. ncbi A conserved flagellar pocket exposed high mannose moiety is used by African trypanosomes as a host cytokine binding molecule
    S Magez
    Department of Immunology, Parasitology and Ultrastructure, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Paardenstraat 65, B 1640 Sint Genesius Rode, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 276:33458-64. 2001
    ....
  9. pmc Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a key mediator in the regulation of experimental Trypanosoma brucei infections
    S Magez
    Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Free University of Brussels Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    Infect Immun 67:3128-32. 1999
    ..These results demonstrate that, during trypanosome infections, TNF-alpha is a key mediator involved in both parasitemia control and infection-associated pathology...
  10. ncbi Interferon-gamma and nitric oxide in combination with antibodies are key protective host immune factors during trypanosoma congolense Tc13 Infections
    Stefan Magez
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 193:1575-83. 2006
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that host protective immunity against T. congolense is critically dependent on the combined action of the proinflammatory mediators/effectors IFN- gamma , TNF, and NO and antiparasite IgGs...
  11. ncbi A glycosylphosphatidylinositol-based treatment alleviates trypanosomiasis-associated immunopathology
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels, Belgium
    J Immunol 179:4003-14. 2007
    ....
  12. doi Scrutinizing the mechanisms underlying the induction of anemia of inflammation through GPI-mediated modulation of macrophage activation in a model of African trypanosomiasis
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
    Microbes Infect 12:389-99. 2010
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that reprogramming macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory state alleviates anemia of inflammation by normalizing iron homeostasis and restoring erythropoiesis...
  13. ncbi The central role of macrophages in trypanosomiasis-associated anemia: rationale for therapeutical approaches
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Brussels, Belgium
    Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 10:71-82. 2010
    ....
  14. ncbi Parallel selection of multiple anti-infectome Nanobodies without access to purified antigens
    Dirk Saerens
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    J Immunol Methods 329:138-50. 2008
    ..Due to the omnipresence of these targets on different parasite species and forms, these antibody fragments are a valuable source for validation of novel, not yet identified targets to design new diagnostics and therapeutics...
  15. ncbi Control of Trypanosoma evansi infection is IgM mediated and does not require a type I inflammatory response
    Toya Nath Baral
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Interactions, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Laboratorium voor Cellulaire en Moleculaire Immunologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, B 1050, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 195:1513-20. 2007
    ..evansi displays a distinct host-parasite interaction profile, give that, despite an infection-associated induction of proinflammatory molecules, only IgM antibodies contribute significantly to parasite control...
  16. pmc Tsetse fly saliva accelerates the onset of Trypanosoma brucei infection in a mouse model associated with a reduced host inflammatory response
    Guy Caljon
    Unit of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Infect Immun 74:6324-30. 2006
    ..We propose that tsetse fly saliva accelerates the onset of trypanosome infection by inhibiting local and systemic inflammatory responses involved in parasite control...
  17. doi Role of iron homeostasis in trypanosomiasis-associated anemia
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, VIB Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Building E, Level 8, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Immunobiology 213:823-35. 2008
    ....
  18. pmc Trypanosomiasis-induced B cell apoptosis results in loss of protective anti-parasite antibody responses and abolishment of vaccine-induced memory responses
    Magdalena Radwanska
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, ULB, Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000078. 2008
    ..In particular, these last results call for detailed studies of the effect of HAT on memory recall responses in humans, prior to the planning of any mass vaccination campaign in HAT endemic areas...
  19. ncbi Experimental therapy of African trypanosomiasis with a nanobody-conjugated human trypanolytic factor
    Toya Nath Baral
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Interactions, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Laboratorium voor Cellulaire en Moleculaire Immunologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussel, Belgium
    Nat Med 12:580-4. 2006
    ..Treatment with this engineered conjugate resulted in clear curative and alleviating effects on acute and chronic infections of mice with both NHS-resistant and NHS-sensitive trypanosomes...
  20. ncbi [Experimental therapy of African trypanosomiasis with a nanobody-conjugated human trypanolytic factor]
    Toya Nath Baral
    Département des Interactions cellulaires et moléculaires, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Laboratorium voor Cellulaire en Moleculaire Immunologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Bruxelles, Belgique
    Med Sci (Paris) 22:914-6. 2006
  21. pmc High affinity nanobodies against the Trypanosome brucei VSG are potent trypanolytic agents that block endocytosis
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002072. 2011
    ....
  22. pmc iNOS-producing inflammatory dendritic cells constitute the major infected cell type during the chronic Leishmania major infection phase of C57BL/6 resistant mice
    Carl De Trez
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000494. 2009
    ....
  23. ncbi Efficient targeting of conserved cryptic epitopes of infectious agents by single domain antibodies. African trypanosomes as paradigm
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Interactions, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 279:1256-61. 2004
    ..This was illustrated by the specific trypanolysis induced by an antibody::beta-lactamase fusion activating a prodrug...
  24. ncbi Tsetse fly saliva biases the immune response to Th2 and induces anti-vector antibodies that are a useful tool for exposure assessment
    Guy Caljon
    Unit of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Int J Parasitol 36:1025-35. 2006
    ..We propose that anti-saliva as well as anti-Tsal1/2 antibody responses can be used in epidemiological studies as a tool to analyze human exposure to tsetse flies...
  25. pmc Affinity is an important determinant of the anti-trypanosome activity of nanobodies
    Guy Caljon
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Unit of Veterinary Protozoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1902. 2012
    ..The anti-trypanosomal activity relies on perturbing the highly active recycling of the Variant-specific Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) that occurs in the parasite's flagellar pocket...
  26. ncbi African trypanosomosis: from immune escape and immunopathology to immune intervention
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Vet Parasitol 148:3-13. 2007
    ..Finally, the possibility to interfere with such activation states hereby providing new therapeutical modalities in the treatment of this infectious disease will be illustrated...
  27. pmc Immune Evasion Strategies of Trypanosoma brucei within the Mammalian Host: Progression to Pathogenicity
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Laboratory of Myeloid Cell Immunology, VIB Inflammation Research Center, Ghent, Belgium Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Brussels, Belgium
    Front Immunol 7:233. 2016
    ....
  28. pmc The non-mammalian MIF superfamily
    Amanda Sparkes
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Brussels, Belgium Myeloid Cell Immunology Lab, VIB Inflammation Research Center, Gent, Belgium
    Immunobiology . 2016
    ..Consequently, a combined targeting of both parasitic and host MIF could lead to more effective treatment strategies for parasitic diseases of socioeconomic importance...
  29. pmc Tsetse salivary gland proteins 1 and 2 are high affinity nucleic acid binding proteins with residual nuclease activity
    Guy Caljon
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Unit of Veterinary Protozoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp ITM, Antwerp, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 7:e47233. 2012
    ..Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents...
  30. pmc NK-, NKT- and CD8-Derived IFNγ Drives Myeloid Cell Activation and Erythrophagocytosis, Resulting in Trypanosomosis-Associated Acute Anemia
    Jennifer Cnops
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium Department of Structural Biology, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie VIB, Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS Pathog 11:e1004964. 2015
    ....
  31. pmc Vaccination against trypanosomiasis: can it be done or is the trypanosome truly the ultimate immune destroyer and escape artist?
    Florencia La Greca
    Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    Hum Vaccin 7:1225-33. 2011
    ....
  32. pmc Development of a pHrodo-based assay for the assessment of in vitro and in vivo erythrophagocytosis during experimental trypanosomosis
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium Department of Myeloid Cell Immunology, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie VIB, Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9:e0003561. 2015
    ..In addition, we show that trypanosomosis itself leads to a rapid alteration of RBC membrane stability, priming the cells for accelerated phagocytosis. ..
  33. ncbi Selective pressure can influence the resistance of Trypanosoma congolense to normal human serum
    Hoang Van Xong
    Department of Immunology, Parasitology and Ultrastructure, Flanders Interuniversity for Biotechnology, 65 Paardenstraat, B 1640, St Genesius Rode, Belgium
    Exp Parasitol 102:61-5. 2002
    ..congolense can be reversed like in T. b. rhodesiense. Our data suggest that T. congolense might be able to infect man in regions where animals may serve as reservoirs for the infection...
  34. doi Camelid immunoglobulins and nanobody technology
    S Muyldermans
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 128:178-83. 2009
    ..We have successfully developed recombinant Nbs for research purposes, as probe in biosensors, to diagnose infections, and to treat diseases like cancer or trypanosomosis...
  35. ncbi Trypanosoma brucei infection elicits nitric oxide-dependent and nitric oxide-independent suppressive mechanisms
    A Beschin
    Unit of Cellular Immunology, Flemish Interuniversity Institute of Biotechnology, Free University of Brussels, Sint Genesius Rode, Belgium
    J Leukoc Biol 63:429-39. 1998
    ..Thus during late-stage infection, an IFN-gamma-independent suppressive mechanism is elicited in the spleen, whereas in the lymph nodes, IFN-gamma is required yet not sufficient to inhibit T cell proliferation...
  36. pmc MIF-Mediated Hemodilution Promotes Pathogenic Anemia in Experimental African Trypanosomosis
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS Pathog 12:e1005862. 2016
    ..Hence, these data prompt considering MIF as a potential target for treatment of natural bovine trypanosomosis. ..
  37. pmc Iron Homeostasis and Trypanosoma brucei Associated Immunopathogenicity Development: A Battle/Quest for Iron
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, 1050 Brussels, Belgium Department of Myeloid Cell Immunology, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie VIB, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Biomed Res Int 2015:819389. 2015
    ..Finally, we also discuss different strategies at the level of both the host and the parasite that can/might be used to modulate iron availability during African trypanosome infections. ..
  38. doi Adenylate cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei inhibit the innate immune response of the host
    Didier Salmon
    Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Institute for Molecular Biology and Medicine, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 12, rue des Professeurs Jeener et Brachet, B6041 Gosselies, Belgium
    Science 337:463-6. 2012
    ..Thus, adenylate cyclase activity of lyzed trypanosomes favors early host colonization by live parasites. The role of adenylate cyclases at the host-parasite interface could explain the expansion and polymorphism of this gene family...
  39. pmc An Anti-proteome Nanobody Library Approach Yields a Specific Immunoassay for Trypanosoma congolense Diagnosis Targeting Glycosomal Aldolase
    Steven Odongo
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology CMIM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10:e0004420. 2016
    ..In this study, Trypanosoma congolense was chosen as a model system...
  40. pmc Experimental African Trypanosome Infection by Needle Passage or Natural Tsetse Fly Challenge Thwarts the Development of Collagen-Induced Arthritis in DBA/1 Prone Mice via an Impairment of Antigen Specific B Cell Autoantibody Titers
    Carl De Trez
    Research Unit of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium VIB Department of Structural Biology, Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 10:e0130431. 2015
    ..brucei-infected tsetse flies. Together, these results demonstrate that T. brucei infection is impairing the maintenance of the antigen specific plasma B cell pool driving the development of CIA in DBA/1 prone mice. ..
  41. doi Nitric oxide production by endotoxin preparations in TLR4-deficient mice
    Anje Cauwels
    Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium Electronic address
    Nitric Oxide 36:36-43. 2014
    ..Surprisingly, the excessive iNOS-derived systemic NO production induced by impure LPS in TLR4⁻/⁻ is not accompanied by hypotension or morbidity...
  42. pmc Stimulation of Toll-like receptor 3 and 4 induces interleukin-1beta maturation by caspase-8
    Jonathan Maelfait
    Unit of Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
    J Exp Med 205:1967-73. 2008
    ..These results implicate a novel role for caspase-8 in the production of biologically active IL-1beta in response to TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation...
  43. doi Comparative evaluation of the nested ITS PCR against the 18S PCR-RFLP in a survey of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kwale County, Kenya
    Steven Odongo
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium Odongo, Bekkele, Magez Structural Biology Research Center SBRC, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie VIB, Brussels, Belgium Odongo, Bekkele, Magez Department of Biotechnical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio security, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Odongo Interuniversity Programme Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Bio engineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium Delespaux Department of Animal Health and Production, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya Ngotho
    J Vet Diagn Invest 28:589-94. 2016
    ..8) showed good agreement between the tests. The nested ITS PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP had comparable sensitivity, although the nested ITS PCR was better at detecting mixed infections (χ(2) = 5.4, df = 1, p < 0.05). ..
  44. doi Escape mechanisms of African trypanosomes: why trypanosomosis is keeping us awake
    Jennifer Cnops
    Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Building E8 01, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Parasitology 142:417-27. 2015
    ..Here we review the recent work on the different escape mechanisms employed by African Trypanosomes to ensure infection chronicity and transmission potential...
  45. pmc Generation of a nanobody targeting the paraflagellar rod protein of trypanosomes
    Emmanuel Obishakin
    Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium Structural Biology Research Center, VIB Flanders Institute for Biotechnology, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 9:e115893. 2014
    ..e., PFR1 in the flagella of trypanosomes. Nb392 is an excellent marker for the PFR and can be useful in the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. In addition, as demonstrated, Nb392 can be a useful research or PFR protein isolation tool. ..
  46. pmc Acute Disruption of Bone Marrow B Lymphopoiesis and Apoptosis of Transitional and Marginal Zone B Cells in the Spleen following a Blood-Stage Plasmodium chabaudi Infection in Mice
    Viki Bockstal
    Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    J Parasitol Res 2011:534697. 2011
    ..In contrast, Folllicular (Fo) B cells levels were retained in the spleen throughout the infection, suggesting that these are essential for parasite clearance and proper infection control...
  47. ncbi Functional convergence of invertebrate and vertebrate cytokine-like molecules based on a similar lectin-like activity
    A Beschin
    Department of Immunology, Parasitology and Ultrastructure, Flemish Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Free University Brussels VUB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Prog Mol Subcell Biol 34:145-63. 2004
    ....
  48. pmc Deletion of IL-4Ralpha on CD4 T cells renders BALB/c mice resistant to Leishmania major infection
    Magdalena Radwanska
    PLoS Pathog 3:e68. 2007
    ..Furthermore, a beneficial role for IL-4Ralpha signaling in L. major infection is revealed in which IL-4/IL-13-responsive non-CD4+ T cells induce protective responses...
  49. ncbi The serum resistance-associated gene as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
    Magdalena Radwanska
    Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:684-90. 2002
    ..b. rhodesiense in 17 of 17 SRA gene-positive strains in which it was tested. These data strongly suggest that expression of the SRA gene is generally involved in resistance to lysis by NHS in T. b. rhodesiense strains...
  50. ncbi The induction of a type 1 immune response following a Trypanosoma brucei infection is MyD88 dependent
    Michael B Drennan
    Immunology of Infectious Disease Medical Research Council University of Cape Town Unit, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Health Science Faculty, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Immunol 175:2501-9. 2005
    ..brucei infections. These results implicate the mammalian TLR family and MyD88 signaling in the innate immune recognition of T. brucei...
  51. ncbi Interleukin-12p70-dependent interferon- gamma production is crucial for resistance in African trypanosomiasis
    Mark Barkhuizen
    Division of Immunology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 196:1253-60. 2007
    ....
  52. pmc The role of B-cells and IgM antibodies in parasitemia, anemia, and VSG switching in Trypanosoma brucei-infected mice
    Stefan Magez
    Division of Immunology, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine IIDMM, Health Science Faculty, University of Cape Town, and International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology ICGEB, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000122. 2008
    ..brucei trypanosomiasis, B-cells were crucial for periodic peak parasitemia clearance, whereas parasite-induced IgM antibodies played only a limited role in the outcome of the infection...
  53. ncbi Novel primer sequences for polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
    Magdalena Radwanska
    Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:289-95. 2002
    ..The TgsG-PCR was shown to be specific for T. b. gambiense and was suitable for detection of trypanosome DNA in blood samples of patients with confirmed sleeping sickness...