R Elwyn Isaac

Summary

Affiliation: University of Leeds
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Insect angiotensin-converting enzyme. A processing enzyme with broad substrate specificity and a role in reproduction
    R E Isaac
    School of Biology, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 897:342-7. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint Angiotensin-converting enzyme as a target for the development of novel insect growth regulators
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Peptides 28:153-62. 2007
  3. pmc Structural basis of peptide recognition by the angiotensin-1 converting enzyme homologue AnCE from Drosophila melanogaster
    Mohd Akif
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK
    FEBS J 279:4525-34. 2012
  4. pmc Molecular recognition and regulation of human angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) activity by natural inhibitory peptides
    Geoffrey Masuyer
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, UK
    Sci Rep 2:717. 2012
  5. doi request reprint The degradome and the evolution of Drosophila sex peptide as a ligand for the MIP receptor
    R Elwyn Isaac
    School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK Electronic address
    Peptides 53:258-64. 2014
  6. doi request reprint Neuropeptidases and the metabolic inactivation of insect neuropeptides
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 162:8-17. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Proctolin in the post-genomic era: new insights and challenges
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Research Group, Faculty of Biological Sciences, L C Miall Building, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, UK
    Invert Neurosci 5:51-64. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Inactivation of a tachykinin-related peptide: identification of four neuropeptide-degrading enzymes in neuronal membranes of insects from four different orders
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Miall Building, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, UK
    Peptides 23:725-33. 2002
  9. ncbi request reprint Metabolic inactivation of the circadian transmitter, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), by neprilysin-like peptidases in Drosophila
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    J Exp Biol 210:4465-70. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Identification and localization of a neprilysin-like activity that degrades tachykinin-related peptides in the brain of the cockroach, Leucophaea maderae, and locust, Locusta migratoria
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Miall Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    J Comp Neurol 457:57-66. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. ncbi request reprint Insect angiotensin-converting enzyme. A processing enzyme with broad substrate specificity and a role in reproduction
    R E Isaac
    School of Biology, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 897:342-7. 1999
    ..In this paper we review some of the recent findings about insect ACE, and we speculate as to the physiological role of this enzyme in insect reproduction...
  2. ncbi request reprint Angiotensin-converting enzyme as a target for the development of novel insect growth regulators
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Peptides 28:153-62. 2007
    ..We will also present some new genetic and pharmacological data that strengthens our conclusion that ACE should be considered as a potential target for the development of new insect growth regulators...
  3. pmc Structural basis of peptide recognition by the angiotensin-1 converting enzyme homologue AnCE from Drosophila melanogaster
    Mohd Akif
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK
    FEBS J 279:4525-34. 2012
    ..Thus the new structures of AnCE complexes presented here improves our understanding of the binding of peptides and the mechanism by which peptides inhibit this family of enzymes...
  4. pmc Molecular recognition and regulation of human angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) activity by natural inhibitory peptides
    Geoffrey Masuyer
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, UK
    Sci Rep 2:717. 2012
    ..Moreover, Ang II showed selective competitive inhibition of the carboxy-terminal domain of human somatic ACE providing evidence for a regulatory role in the human renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
  5. doi request reprint The degradome and the evolution of Drosophila sex peptide as a ligand for the MIP receptor
    R Elwyn Isaac
    School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK Electronic address
    Peptides 53:258-64. 2014
    ..melanogaster. SP has evolved relatively recently as a MIP receptor ligand that is particularly well adapted to surviving in the hostile degradome of the male accessory gland and seminal fluid. ..
  6. doi request reprint Neuropeptidases and the metabolic inactivation of insect neuropeptides
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 162:8-17. 2009
    ..We also discuss how the sequencing of insect genomes has led to the molecular identification of candidate neuropeptidase genes...
  7. ncbi request reprint Proctolin in the post-genomic era: new insights and challenges
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Research Group, Faculty of Biological Sciences, L C Miall Building, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, UK
    Invert Neurosci 5:51-64. 2004
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Inactivation of a tachykinin-related peptide: identification of four neuropeptide-degrading enzymes in neuronal membranes of insects from four different orders
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Miall Building, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, UK
    Peptides 23:725-33. 2002
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Metabolic inactivation of the circadian transmitter, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), by neprilysin-like peptidases in Drosophila
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    J Exp Biol 210:4465-70. 2007
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Identification and localization of a neprilysin-like activity that degrades tachykinin-related peptides in the brain of the cockroach, Leucophaea maderae, and locust, Locusta migratoria
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Miall Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    J Comp Neurol 457:57-66. 2003
    ..The data reported provide evidence for an evolutionary conserved role for NEP in the inactivation of tachykinin-related peptides in the brain...
  11. pmc Drosophila male sex peptide inhibits siesta sleep and promotes locomotor activity in the post-mated female
    R Elwyn Isaac
    Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 277:65-70. 2010
    ..The stress resulting from SP-dependent sleep deprivation might be an important contribution to the toxic side-effects of male accessory gland products that are known to reduce lifespan in post-mated females...
  12. ncbi request reprint Conserved roles for peptidases in the processing of invertebrate neuropeptides
    R E Isaac
    School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, U K
    Biochem Soc Trans 28:460-4. 2000
    ..Invertebrates will continue to provide insights into the evolutionarily conserved functions of known peptidases and of those additional family members that are expected to be identified in the future from genome-sequencing projects...
  13. ncbi request reprint Hydrolysis by somatic angiotensin-I converting enzyme of basic dipeptides from a cholecystokinin/gastrin and a LH-RH peptide extended at the C-terminus with gly-Arg/Lys-arg, but not from diarginyl insulin
    R E Isaac
    School of Biology, University of Leeds, UK
    Eur J Biochem 262:569-74. 1999
    ..6 in favour of the N-domain). We conclude that somatic forms of ACE should be considered as alternatives to CPs for the removal of basic residues from some Arg/Lys-extended peptides...
  14. doi request reprint High-resolution crystal structures of Drosophila melanogaster angiotensin-converting enzyme in complex with novel inhibitors and antihypertensive drugs
    Mohd Akif
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Building 4 South, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    J Mol Biol 400:502-17. 2010
    ..This study provides information about the structure-activity relationships that could be utilized for designing new inhibitors with improved domain selectivity for sACE...
  15. ncbi request reprint Expression of NEP2, a soluble neprilysin-like endopeptidase, during embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster
    Nicholas D Bland
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Peptides 28:127-35. 2007
    ..The secretion of NEP2 from tissues during embryogenesis suggests a possible developmental role for this endopeptidase in peptide signalling in D. melanogaster...
  16. pmc Structural characterization of angiotensin I-converting enzyme in complex with a selenium analogue of captopril
    Mohd Akif
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK
    FEBS J 278:3644-50. 2011
    ....
  17. pmc Crystal structures of highly specific phosphinic tripeptide enantiomers in complex with the angiotensin-I converting enzyme
    Geoffrey Masuyer
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK
    FEBS J 281:943-56. 2014
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Peptidyl dipeptidases (Ance and Acer) of Drosophila melanogaster: major differences in the substrate specificity of two homologs of human angiotensin I-converting enzyme
    Richard J Siviter
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Miall Building, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT, UK
    Peptides 23:2025-34. 2002
    ..This low affinity for DTK-5 is the likely reason why the peptide was not rapidly degraded in D. melanogaster hemolymph, where Ance was shown to be a major peptide-degrading activity...
  19. doi request reprint Crystal structure of a phosphonotripeptide K-26 in complex with angiotensin converting enzyme homologue (AnCE) from Drosophila melanogaster
    Mohd Akif
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 398:532-6. 2010
    ..A detailed structural comparison of AnCE.K-26 complex with individual domains of human somatic ACE provides useful information for further exploration of ACE inhibitor pharmacophores involving phosphonic acids...
  20. pmc Bioinformatic analysis of the neprilysin (M13) family of peptidases reveals complex evolutionary and functional relationships
    Nicholas D Bland
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 8:16. 2008
    ..The recent sequencing of animal genomes has greatly increased the number of M13 family members in protein databases, information which can be used to reveal evolutionary relationships and to gain insight into conserved biological roles...
  21. pmc The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene family of Anopheles gambiae
    Susan Burnham
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, Miall Building, University of Leeds, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    BMC Genomics 6:172. 2005
    ..Sequencing of the A. gambiae genome has revealed a number of ACE-like genes but probable errors in the Ensembl annotation have left the number of ACE-like genes, and their structure, unclear...
  22. ncbi request reprint An essential role in molting and morphogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans for ACN-1, a novel member of the angiotensin-converting enzyme family that lacks a metallopeptidase active site
    Darren R Brooks
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Miall Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:52340-6. 2003
    ....
  23. pmc Drosophila melanogaster NEP2 is a new soluble member of the neprilysin family of endopeptidases with implications for reproduction and renal function
    Josie E Thomas
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Research Group, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Biochem J 386:357-66. 2005
    ..A soluble isoform of a mouse NEP-like peptidase is strongly expressed in spermatids, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved role for a soluble endopeptidase in spermatogenesis...
  24. ncbi request reprint Male accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster make a secreted angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ANCE), suggesting a role for the peptide-processing enzyme in seminal fluid
    Caroline M Rylett
    Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Exp Biol 210:3601-6. 2007
    ..The accessory gland ACE-like activity might have an evolutionarily conserved function processing biologically active peptides with a role in male fertility...
  25. ncbi request reprint The Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of mammalian puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase has roles in embryogenesis and reproduction
    Darren R Brooks
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Miall Bldg, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:42795-801. 2003
    ..We conclude that pam-1 encodes an aminopeptidase that clusters phylogenetically with the PSAs, despite attenuated sensitivity toward puromycin, and that it functions in embryo development and reproduction of the nematode...
  26. ncbi request reprint Structural diversity of angiotensin-converting enzyme
    Richard J Bingham
    Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, UK
    FEBS J 273:362-73. 2006
    ..These structural and enzymatic studies provide insight into the molecular basis for the distinctive enzymatic features of ANCE and ACER...
  27. ncbi request reprint Unravelling the moulting degradome: new opportunities for chemotherapy?
    Hannah Craig
    Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK
    Trends Parasitol 23:248-53. 2007
    ..In particular, we argue that further understanding of the moulting degradome and its key peptidase members offers an important opportunity for the development of novel antinematode agents...
  28. pmc The host-seeking inhibitory peptide, Aea-HP-1, is made in the male accessory gland and transferred to the female during copulation
    Chiara Naccarati
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Peptides 34:150-7. 2012
    ..A. aegypti often mate close to the host and therefore it is possible that male-derived Aea-HP-1 induces short-term changes to female host-seeking behavior to reduce potentially lethal encounters with hosts soon after insemination...
  29. ncbi request reprint Functional redundancy of two nucleoside transporters of the ENT family (CeENT1, CeENT2) required for development of Caenorhabditis elegans
    Peter J Appleford
    School of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Mol Membr Biol 21:247-59. 2004
    ..Although disruption of ent-1 or ent-2 expression alone had no effect, simultaneous disruption of both genes yielded pronounced developmental defects involving the intestine and vulva...
  30. ncbi request reprint Functional conservation of the active sites of human and Drosophila angiotensin I-converting enzyme
    D Coates
    School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Biochemistry 39:8963-9. 2000
    ..The conservation of ACE enzymes with distinct active sites in the evolution of both vertebrate and invertebrate species provides further evidence that these two kinds of active sites have different physiological functions...
  31. ncbi request reprint Extracellular peptidases of imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster
    Claire L Wilson
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Miall Building, University of Leeds, UK
    Peptides 23:2007-14. 2002
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint ACE inhibitors reduce fecundity in the mosquito, Anopheles stephensi
    Uma Ekbote
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Miall Building, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, UK
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 134:593-8. 2003
    ..stephensi...
  33. pmc Ance, a Drosophila angiotensin-converting enzyme homologue, is expressed in imaginal cells during metamorphosis and is regulated by the steroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone
    Richard J Siviter
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, L C Miall Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, U K
    Biochem J 367:187-93. 2002
    ..The enzyme activity may be required for the processing of a developmental peptide hormone or may function in concert with other peptidases to provide amino acids for the synthesis of adult proteins...
  34. pmc Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase
    Michael J Walker
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
    Proteome Sci 4:9. 2006
    ..melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions...
  35. doi request reprint An analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans lipid raft proteome using geLC-MS/MS
    Wei Rao
    Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    J Proteomics 74:242-53. 2011
    ..elegans becoming a useful model for the study of lipid rafts...
  36. ncbi request reprint Expression and characterisation of a Psoroptes ovis glutathione S-transferase
    Alison J Lee
    School of Biology, The University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, UK
    Vet Parasitol 105:49-63. 2002
    ..Neutrophil, mast cell and basophil counts were not significantly different to the controls. Eosinophil numbers were significantly higher than controls, but were not due to an IgE response...
  37. ncbi request reprint Functional expression and characterization of the cytoplasmic aminopeptidase P of Caenorhabditis elegans
    V Laurent
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Miall Building, University of Leeds, UK
    Eur J Biochem 268:5430-8. 2001
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Exploring the Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster genomes to understand neuropeptide and peptidase function
    D Coates
    School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, U K
    Biochem Soc Trans 28:464-9. 2000
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint The neprilysin (NEP) family of zinc metalloendopeptidases: genomics and function
    A J Turner
    School of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Bioessays 23:261-9. 2001
    ..These model organisms also provide convenient systems for examining cell-specific expression, developmental and functional roles of this peptidase family, and reveal the power of functional genomics...
  40. ncbi request reprint Identification of an antigen from the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, homologous with house dust mite group I allergens
    A J Lee
    School of Biology, The University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Parasite Immunol 24:413-22. 2002
    ..The IgE-antibody response to whole mite extract was poor in four of five animals. However, a marked IgE response occurred in the fifth animal, and IgE anti Pso o 1 was detected in the serum...
  41. ncbi request reprint Cloning and expression of an evolutionary conserved single-domain angiotensin converting enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster
    M J Cornell
    Department of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 270:13613-9. 1995
    ..6 x 10(-9) M) and trandolaprilat (IC50 = 2 x 10(-8) M). The evolutionary significance of these results is discussed...
  42. ncbi request reprint Characterisation of putative Drosophila angiotensin converting enzyme cDNA clones
    M J Cornell
    Department of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Leeds, UK
    Biochem Soc Trans 21:243S. 1993
  43. ncbi request reprint Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea: changes in levels of activity during development and after copulation suggest roles during metamorphosis and reproduction
    U V Ekbote
    Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, LC Miall Building, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 33:989-98. 2003
    ..Evidence for such a proteolytic pathway and its role in providing substrates for the TCA cycle has been obtained previously in a study of reproduction in Bombyx mori...
  44. doi request reprint The sexually dimorphic behaviour of adult Drosophila suzukii: elevated female locomotor activity and loss of siesta is a post-mating response
    Calum T J Ferguson
    School of Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Exp Biol 218:3855-61. 2015
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Functional genomics of parasitic worms: the dawn of a new era
    Darren R Brooks
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Parasitol Int 51:319-25. 2002
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of parasite-induced sex reversal in Gammarus duebeni
    Trevor P Rodgers-Gray
    School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Int J Parasitol 34:747-53. 2004
    ..The high frequency of infection in intersexes (89.3%) suggests that this phenotype results from incomplete feminisation by the parasite...
  47. ncbi request reprint Expression and functional characterization of a Drosophila neuropeptide precursor with homology to mammalian preprotachykinin A
    R J Siviter
    School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 275:23273-80. 2000
    ..These data provide additional evidence for the conservation of both the structure and function of the tachykinin peptides in the brain and gut during the course of evolution...
  48. ncbi request reprint The detection of AKH/HrTH-like peptides in Ascaridia galli and Ascaris suum using an insect hyperglycaemic bioassay
    T R Davenport
    Department of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Leeds, UK
    Parasitology 108:479-85. 1994
    ..11, confirming the peptidic nature of the bioactive material. These results provide evidence for the existence of peptides related to the insect AKH/HrTH family of peptides in parasitic nematodes...
  49. ncbi request reprint Identification of a proctolin preprohormone gene (Proct) of Drosophila melanogaster: expression and predicted prohormone processing
    Christine A M Taylor
    Biological Sciences, University of Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United Kingdom
    J Neurobiol 58:379-91. 2004
    ..The distribution of proctolin suggests roles as a neuromodulator in motoneurons and interneurons, and as a neurohormone that could be released from brain neurosecretory cells with terminations in the ring gland...
  50. ncbi request reprint Beta-amino acid analogs of an insect neuropeptide feature potent bioactivity and resistance to peptidase hydrolysis
    Pawel Zubrzak
    Areawide Pest Management Research Unit, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, U S Department of Agriculture, 2881 F B Road, College Station, TX, USA
    Biopolymers 88:76-82. 2007
    ..This paper describes the first instance of beta-amino acids analogs of an arthropod peptide that demonstrate significant bioactivity and resistance to peptidase degradation...
  51. ncbi request reprint The drosophila angiotensin-converting enzyme homologue Ance is required for spermiogenesis
    Debra Hurst
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA 1 4YQ, UK
    Dev Biol 254:238-47. 2003
    ..Taken together, the expression pattern and mutant phenotype suggest that Ance is required for spermatid differentiation, probably through the processing of a regulatory peptide synthesised within the developing cyst...
  52. ncbi request reprint Neuronal expression of tachykinin-related peptides and gene transcript during postembryonic development of Drosophila
    Asa M E Winther
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Comp Neurol 464:180-96. 2003
    ..The continuous expression of TRPs in neurons throughout postembryonic development suggests specific functional roles in both larval and imaginal flies and possibly also in some neurons during pupal development...
  53. ncbi request reprint Identification and mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved in dipyridamole interactions with human and Caenorhabditis elegans equilibrative nucleoside transporters
    Frank Visser
    Membrane Protein Research Group, Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, and the Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    J Biol Chem 280:11025-34. 2005
    ..This study demonstrated that the corresponding residues in TMs 1 and 11 of hENT1, hENT2, and CeENT1 are important for dipyridamole interactions and nucleoside transport...