D J Alexander

Summary

Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi An overview of the epidemiology of avian influenza
    Dennis J Alexander
    Virology Department, VLA Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Vaccine 25:5637-44. 2007
  2. ncbi Avian influenza and human health
    Ilaria Capua
    National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Via Romea 14 A, 35020 Legnaro, Padua, Italy
    Acta Trop 83:1-6. 2002
  3. pmc Recombination resulting in virulence shift in avian influenza outbreak, Chile
    David L Suarez
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:693-9. 2004
  4. ncbi Avian influenza viruses and human health
    D J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol (Basel) 124:77-84. 2006
  5. ncbi Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses
    D J Alexander
    Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Rev Sci Tech 19:443-62. 2000
  6. doi Newcastle disease in the European Union 2000 to 2009
    Dennis J Alexander
    Virology Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 40:547-58. 2011
  7. ncbi Newcastle disease virus (strain Herts 33/56) in tissues and organs of chickens infected experimentally
    Dennis J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
    Avian Pathol 35:99-101. 2006
  8. doi Avian influenza - diagnosis
    D J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Zoonoses Public Health 55:16-23. 2008
  9. ncbi Heat inactivation of Newcastle disease virus (strain Herts 33/56) in artificially infected chicken meat homogenate
    Dennis J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 33:222-5. 2004
  10. ncbi Antigenic and genetic analyses of H1N1 influenza A viruses from European pigs
    I H Brown
    Central Veterinary Laboratory Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    J Gen Virol 78:553-62. 1997

Detail Information

Publications40

  1. ncbi An overview of the epidemiology of avian influenza
    Dennis J Alexander
    Virology Department, VLA Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Vaccine 25:5637-44. 2007
    ....
  2. ncbi Avian influenza and human health
    Ilaria Capua
    National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Via Romea 14 A, 35020 Legnaro, Padua, Italy
    Acta Trop 83:1-6. 2002
    ..Presumably this represents a very rare coincidence, but one which could result in a true influenza pandemic...
  3. pmc Recombination resulting in virulence shift in avian influenza outbreak, Chile
    David L Suarez
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:693-9. 2004
    ..Sequence comparison of all eight gene segments showed the Chilean viruses were also distinct from all other avian influenza viruses and represent a distinct South American clade...
  4. ncbi Avian influenza viruses and human health
    D J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol (Basel) 124:77-84. 2006
    ..The H5N1 virus is alarming because 51 (64 %) of the 80 people confirmed as infected since 1997 have died...
  5. ncbi Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses
    D J Alexander
    Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Rev Sci Tech 19:443-62. 2000
    ..Both types of viruses cause respiratory disease and egg production losses which may be severe when exacerbated by other infections or environmental stresses. No reports exist of natural infections of chickens with APMV-3 viruses...
  6. doi Newcastle disease in the European Union 2000 to 2009
    Dennis J Alexander
    Virology Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 40:547-58. 2011
    ..Future legislation or recommendations aimed at the control and eradication of ND will need to encompass these three sources of virulent ND viruses...
  7. ncbi Newcastle disease virus (strain Herts 33/56) in tissues and organs of chickens infected experimentally
    Dennis J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
    Avian Pathol 35:99-101. 2006
    ..2) EID50/g in the leg muscle and 10(4) EID50/g in the breast muscle and faeces. A median oral infectious dose of Newcastle disease virus strain Herts 33/56 for 3-week-old chickens was estimated to be equivalent to 10(4) EID50...
  8. doi Avian influenza - diagnosis
    D J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Zoonoses Public Health 55:16-23. 2008
    ..In this paper, clinical signs, the molecular basis for virulence of AI viruses, international definitions, conventional diagnosis and the use of molecular techniques are reviewed and discussed...
  9. ncbi Heat inactivation of Newcastle disease virus (strain Herts 33/56) in artificially infected chicken meat homogenate
    Dennis J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 33:222-5. 2004
    ..For the four higher temperatures the time taken to reduce the infectivity by 90% (1 log10) at the specified temperature (Dt) were estimated as: D65=120 sec, D70=82 sec, D74=40 sec and D80 29=sec...
  10. ncbi Antigenic and genetic analyses of H1N1 influenza A viruses from European pigs
    I H Brown
    Central Veterinary Laboratory Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    J Gen Virol 78:553-62. 1997
    ..Genetic analyses of two recent 'avian-like' swine viruses indicated that all the RNA segments are related most closely to those of avian influenza A viruses...
  11. doi Infection dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza and virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses in chickens, turkeys and ducks
    E W Aldous
    Virology Department, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 39:265-73. 2010
    ..6) EID(50)), but none died. In marked contrast, chickens were shown to be extremely susceptible to infection and all infected chickens died (ID(50)/LD(50)=10(1.9) EID(50))...
  12. doi A molecular epidemiological investigation of avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses isolated from game birds of the order Galliformes
    E W Aldous
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 39:519-24. 2010
    ....
  13. ncbi Rapid pathotyping of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using fluorogenic probes in a PCR assay
    E W Aldous
    Virology Department, Central Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Vet Microbiol 80:201-12. 2001
    ..The results of this study suggest that using this modified TaqMan protocol, the likely virulence of most ND isolates can be determined rapidly and reproducibly...
  14. ncbi Outbreak of Newcastle disease due to pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 in grey partridges (Perdix perdix) in Scotland in October 2006
    R M Irvine
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB
    Vet Rec 165:531-5. 2009
    ..However, the virus could not be isolated from or detected in dead pigeons collected from the affected buildings...
  15. ncbi Low pathogenic avian influenza in domestic fowl in Norfolk, England, March and April, 2006
    R J Manvell
    Virology Department, VLA Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB
    Vet Rec 162:278-80. 2008
  16. ncbi Outbreak of Newcastle disease in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in south-east England in July 2005
    E W Aldous
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey
    Vet Rec 160:482-4. 2007
  17. ncbi Changes in the haemagglutinin and the neuraminidase genes prior to the emergence of highly pathogenic H7N1 avian influenza viruses in Italy
    J Banks
    Avian Virology, VLA Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Arch Virol 146:963-73. 2001
    ..e. domestic poultry...
  18. ncbi Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by Asian lineage H5N1 virus in turkeys in Great Britain in January 2007
    R M Irvine
    Virology Department, VLA Weybridge, Surrey KT15 3NB
    Vet Rec 161:100-1. 2007
  19. ncbi Partial characterisation of five cloned viruses differing in pathogenicity, obtained from a single isolate of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) following passage in fowls' eggs
    C M Fuller
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Arch Virol 152:1575-82. 2007
    ..49, T --> C at position 1769 in the untranslated region of the fusion gene and G --> A at position 437 of the HN gene, resulting in the amino acid change G --> R at position 116 in the HN protein...
  20. ncbi Multiple genetic reassortment of avian and human influenza A viruses in European pigs, resulting in the emergence of an H1N2 virus of novel genotype
    I H Brown
    Central Veterinary Laboratory Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    J Gen Virol 79:2947-55. 1998
    ..These findings suggest multiple reassortment and replication of influenza viruses may occur in pigs many years before their detection as clinical entities...
  21. ncbi Report on avian influenza in the Eastern Hemisphere during 1997-2002
    D J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
    Avian Dis 47:792-7. 2003
    ..Other more restricted outbreaks in poultry have resulted in the isolation of LPAI viruses of H5, H6, H7, and H10 subtypes...
  22. doi Development of a real-time reverse-transcription PCR for the detection and simultaneous pathotyping of Newcastle disease virus isolates using a novel probe
    Chad Marshal Fuller
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
    Arch Virol 154:929-37. 2009
    ..This assay demonstrates a rapid means for simultaneous detection and pathotyping of notifiable avian disease due to NDV...
  23. ncbi The evolution of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) in Great Britain: a molecular epidemiological study
    E W Aldous
    AHVLA Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    Transbound Emerg Dis 61:134-9. 2014
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed that all were closely related and placed in the genetic sublineage 4b (VIb), subdivision 4biif. ..
  24. ncbi A molecular epidemiological investigation of isolates of the variant avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus (PPMV-1) responsible for the 1978 to present panzootic in pigeons
    E W Aldous
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 33:258-69. 2004
    ..There were two large distinguishable groups, 4bi and 4bii. The earliest isolate available, PIQPI78442, isolated in 1978 in Iraq, was situated at the node from which the two groups diverge...
  25. ncbi Should we change the definition of avian influenza for eradication purposes?
    D J Alexander
    European Union Community Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Virology Department, VLA Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
    Avian Dis 47:976-81. 2003
    ....
  26. ncbi Recent epidemiology and ecology of influenza A viruses in avian species in Europe and the Middle East
    I H Brown
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol (Basel) 124:45-50. 2006
    ....
  27. ncbi History of highly pathogenic avian influenza
    D J Alexander
    World Organisation for Animal Health Food and Agriculture Organization European Union Community Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
    Rev Sci Tech 28:19-38. 2009
    ..Even without these H5N1 outbreaks, the period 1995 to 2008 will be considered significant in the history of HPAI because of the vast numbers of birds that died or were culled in three of the other ten epizootics during this time...
  28. doi Pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 H5N1 in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally
    Brandon Z Londt
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 37:619-27. 2008
    ..and coincided with the appearance of clinical signs and death. Our experimental results demonstrate the systemic spread of this HPAI H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks, and the localization of virus in the brain and heart tissue preceding death...
  29. ncbi Development of an L gene real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for the detection of avian paramyxovirus type 1 RNA in clinical samples
    Chad M Fuller
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Surrey, UK
    Arch Virol 155:817-23. 2010
    ..05%) and specificity (98.18%) when compared with virus isolation in embryonated fowls' eggs. It is proposed that this assay could provide a first-line screening tool for the detection of APMV-1 in clinical samples...
  30. ncbi A review of avian influenza in different bird species
    D J Alexander
    Avian Virology, VLA Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Vet Microbiol 74:3-13. 2000
    ..Secondary spread is usually associated with human involvement, probably by transferring infective faeces from infected to susceptible birds...
  31. ncbi Newcastle disease in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus): a review
    E W Aldous
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Vet J 175:181-5. 2008
    ..This article reviews the available literature relating to infections in pheasants, describing the clinical presentation of the disease and the epidemiological role these hosts may have in the spread of ND...
  32. ncbi Rapid in vitro assessment of the virulence of Newcastle disease virus isolates using the ligase chain reaction
    M S Collins
    Virology Department, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Arch Virol 148:1851-62. 2003
    ..1% and 0.01% by volume respectively of the viral population. The results indicate that LCR offers a potential in vitro alternative to current in vivo tests for virulence determination of Newcastle disease virus isolates...
  33. ncbi Overview of incursions of Asian H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus into Great Britain, 2005-2008
    Dennis J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
    Avian Dis 54:194-200. 2010
    ..3 virus and the other four to clade 2.2 viruses. This article describes the outbreaks, their control, and the possible origins of the responsible viruses...
  34. ncbi Summary of avian influenza activity in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australasia, 2002-2006
    Dennis J Alexander
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Avian Dis 51:161-6. 2007
    ..Many isolations of LPAI viruses of other subtypes were reported from domestic and wild birds. Infections with H9N2 subtype viruses have been widespread across Asia during 2002-06...
  35. ncbi Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with low virulence for chickens in in vivo tests
    Brandon Z Londt
    Virology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 36:347-50. 2007
    ....
  36. doi The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally
    Brandon Z Londt
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 4:17-25. 2010
    ..Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl...
  37. ncbi Avian influenza: recent developments
    Ilaria Capua
    OIE and National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell Universita 10, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy
    Avian Pathol 33:393-404. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi Antigenic and genotypical characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Taiwan between 1969 and 1996
    Hsiang Jung Tsai
    Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, No 1, Sec 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan
    Vet Microbiol 104:19-30. 2004
    ..Also there were epizootiological links between strains isolated in 1969 and 1984, whereas the 1995-1996 epidemic was caused by new antigenic variants...
  39. ncbi Animal and human health implications of avian influenza infections
    Ilaria Capua
    OIE, FAO and National Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell Universita 10, Legnaro, Padova, 35020, Italy
    Biosci Rep 27:359-72. 2007
    ....
  40. ncbi The challenge of avian influenza to the veterinary community
    Ilaria Capua
    OIE, FAO and National Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell Universita 10, 35020, Legnaro, Padova, Italy
    Avian Pathol 35:189-205. 2006
    ..Only through the exchange of data, experiences, views and information will it be possible to combat this zoonosis, which represents a major threat to public health and animal well-being...