- Gilboa S, Desrosiers T, Lawson C, Lupo P, Riehle Colarusso T, Stewart P, et al. Association between maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents and congenital heart defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2002. Occup Environ Med. 2012;69:628-35 pubmed publisher..1, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). The authors found evidence of associations between occupational exposure to solvents and several types of CHDs. These results should be interpreted in light of the potential for misclassification of exposure. ..