Adam J Birkenheuer

Summary

Affiliation: North Carolina State University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The identification of a genetically unique piroplasma in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis)
    A J Birkenheuer
    Environmental Medicine Consortium, NC 27606, USA
    Parasitology 134:631-5. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Molecular evidence of prevalent dual piroplasma infections in North American raccoons (Procyon lotor)
    A J Birkenheuer
    North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Parasitology 135:33-7. 2008
  3. doi request reprint Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, United States
    Vet Parasitol 153:126-30. 2008
  4. doi request reprint Babesia microti-like infections are prevalent in North American foxes
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Vet Parasitol 172:179-82. 2010
  5. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterization of a Babesia species identified in a North American raccoon
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:375-80. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Development and evaluation of a PCR assay for the detection of Cytauxzoon felis DNA in feline blood samples
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Vet Parasitol 137:144-9. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Detection and molecular characterization of a novel large Babesia species in a dog
    A J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough St, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Vet Parasitol 124:151-60. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterization of trichomonads from feces of dogs with diarrhea
    Jody L Gookin
    Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA
    J Parasitol 91:939-43. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Cytauxzoon felis infection in cats in the mid-Atlantic states: 34 cases (1998-2004)
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 228:568-71. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Tritrichomonas foetus and not Pentatrichomonas hominis is the etiologic agent of feline trichomonal diarrhea
    Michael G Levy
    Department of Farm Animal and Health Resource Management, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 1499, USA
    J Parasitol 89:99-104. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. ncbi request reprint The identification of a genetically unique piroplasma in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis)
    A J Birkenheuer
    Environmental Medicine Consortium, NC 27606, USA
    Parasitology 134:631-5. 2007
    ..The pathogenic potential of this organism for otters or other species remains unknown...
  2. ncbi request reprint Molecular evidence of prevalent dual piroplasma infections in North American raccoons (Procyon lotor)
    A J Birkenheuer
    North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Parasitology 135:33-7. 2008
    ..Further studies are indicated to investigate the ability of these parasites to infect domestic animals as well as their zoonotic potential...
  3. doi request reprint Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, United States
    Vet Parasitol 153:126-30. 2008
    ..Veterinary practitioners in PA should be on alert for cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. Further studies about the epidemiology and transmission of C. felis infections among both domestic cats and bobcats are needed...
  4. doi request reprint Babesia microti-like infections are prevalent in North American foxes
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Vet Parasitol 172:179-82. 2010
    ..microti-like parasite to infect and induce disease in domestic dogs remains unknown. Further studies investigating the pathogenic potential of the North American B. microti-like parasite in domestic dogs are indicated...
  5. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterization of a Babesia species identified in a North American raccoon
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:375-80. 2006
    ..As piroplasmosis has been documented with increased frequency in humans in recent years, the results of this study will aid in the recognition of zoonotic babesiosis...
  6. ncbi request reprint Development and evaluation of a PCR assay for the detection of Cytauxzoon felis DNA in feline blood samples
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Vet Parasitol 137:144-9. 2006
    ..felis 18S rRNA gene. This PCR assay can be used for the rapid clinical diagnosis of cytauxzoonosis and for epidemiological studies that will better define the geographic distribution of C. felis infection in cats...
  7. ncbi request reprint Detection and molecular characterization of a novel large Babesia species in a dog
    A J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough St, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Vet Parasitol 124:151-60. 2004
    ..The organism described in this report represents a genetically unique large Babesia sp. and is the eighth genetically distinct piroplasm capable of infecting the domestic dog...
  8. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterization of trichomonads from feces of dogs with diarrhea
    Jody L Gookin
    Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA
    J Parasitol 91:939-43. 2005
    ..These studies validate the longstanding assumption that canine trichomoniasis may be attributed to P. hominis. Importantly, these studies additionally recognize that canine trichomoniasis may also be caused by infection with T. foetus...
  9. ncbi request reprint Cytauxzoon felis infection in cats in the mid-Atlantic states: 34 cases (1998-2004)
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 228:568-71. 2006
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Tritrichomonas foetus and not Pentatrichomonas hominis is the etiologic agent of feline trichomonal diarrhea
    Michael G Levy
    Department of Farm Animal and Health Resource Management, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 1499, USA
    J Parasitol 89:99-104. 2003
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of ronidazole for treatment of feline Tritrichomonas foetus infection
    Jody L Gookin
    Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606, USA
    J Vet Intern Med 20:536-43. 2006
    ..To determine the efficacy of ronidazole (RDZ), tinidazole (TDZ), and metronidazole (MDZ) against Tritrichomonas foetus in vitro and of RDZ for treatment of feline naturally occurring or experimentally induced T. foetus infection...
  12. ncbi request reprint Concurrent bartonellosis and babesiosis in a dog with persistent thrombocytopenia
    Allison D Tuttle
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27602, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:1306-10, 1280-1. 2003
    ..A PCR assay can facilitate a diagnosis of babesiosis when organisms are not evident or when serologic testing fails to detect Babesia-specific antibodies...
  13. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of four DNA extraction methods for the detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in feline stool specimens by polymerase chain reaction
    Stephen H Stauffer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 20:639-41. 2008
    ..foetus organisms per 100 mg feces in 100% of PCR reactions. Further, the identified extraction method could be completed in the shortest time of all kits tested...
  14. doi request reprint Failure to identify an association between serologic or molecular evidence of Bartonella infection and idiopathic rhinitis in dogs
    Eleanor C Hawkins
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 233:597-9. 2008
    ..To determine whether infection with or exposure to Bartonella spp was associated with idiopathic rhinitis in dogs...
  15. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of selected vector-borne organisms and identification of Bartonella species DNA in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis)
    Sathya K Chinnadurai
    Department of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough St, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    J Wildl Dis 46:947-50. 2010
    ..Blood from one live otter captured in 2008 was found positive for this Bartonella sp. by both PCR and culture. The pathogenicity of this Bartonella species in river otters or other mammals is unknown...
  16. ncbi request reprint Serosurvey of antiBabesia antibodies in stray dogs and American pit bull terriers and American staffordshire terriers from North Carolina
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA
    J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 39:551-7. 2003
    ..There was no association between antiBabesia antibodies and the presence of ticks. There are currently Babesia gibsoni epizootics affecting American pit bull terrier kennels...
  17. ncbi request reprint Transfusion-associated Babesia gibsoni infection in a dog
    Julie R Stegeman
    Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 222:959-63, 952. 2003
    ..Screening of potential blood donor dogs for Babesia spp is becoming increasingly important in the United States...
  18. doi request reprint Re-emergence of Babesia conradae and effective treatment of infected dogs with atovaquone and azithromycin
    Michael F Di Cicco
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Complex, North Carolina State University, 1052 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
    Vet Parasitol 187:23-7. 2012
    ..In contrast, dogs receiving placebo had detectable Babesia DNA by PCR throughout the study period. Combination therapy with atovaquone and azithromycin appears to be effective for acute and chronic babesiosis caused by B. conradae...
  19. pmc Pharmacogenomics of Cytauxzoon felis cytochrome b: implications for atovaquone and azithromycin therapy in domestic cats with cytauxzoonosis
    Megan E Schreeg
    North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 51:3066-9. 2013
    ..Atovaquone targets parasite cytochrome b. We characterized the C. felis cytochrome b gene (cytb) in cats with cytauxzoonosis and found a cytb genotype that was associated with survival in A&A-treated cats. ..
  20. pmc Development and evaluation of a seminested PCR for detection and differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) and B. canis DNA in canine blood samples
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 1428, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4172-7. 2003
    ..The seminested PCR test was able to detect and discriminate B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in blood samples from infected dogs...
  21. pmc Single-tube nested PCR for detection of tritrichomonas foetus in feline feces
    Jody L Gookin
    Departments of Molecular Biomedical Sciences Clinical Sciences Food Animal and Health Resource Management, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:4126-30. 2002
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of combined atovaquone and azithromycin for therapy of chronic Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) infections in dogs
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    J Vet Intern Med 18:494-8. 2004
    ..A combination of atovaquone and azithromycin is the 1st described treatment that will either eliminate B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) infections or suppress the parasitemia below the limit of detection in the majority of treated dogs...
  23. ncbi request reprint Geographic distribution of babesiosis among dogs in the United States and association with dog bites: 150 cases (2000-2003)
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:942-7. 2005
    ..To identify the geographic distribution of babesiosis among dogs in the United States and determine, for dogs other than American Pit Bull Terriers (APBTs), whether infection was associated with a recent dog bite...
  24. pmc Mitochondrial Genome Sequences and Structures Aid in the Resolution of Piroplasmida phylogeny
    Megan E Schreeg
    North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 11:e0165702. 2016
    ..Our results provide an evolutionary framework for comparative biology of these important animal and human pathogens and help focus renewed efforts toward understanding the phylogenetic relationships within the group...
  25. pmc A myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate-related peptide suppresses cytokine mRNA and protein expression in LPS-activated canine neutrophils
    Jingjing Li
    Comparative Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 48:314-21. 2013
    ....
  26. doi request reprint Prevalence of infectious diseases in cats and dogs rescued following Hurricane Katrina
    Julie K Levy
    Maddie s Shelter Medicine Program, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 238:311-7. 2011
    ..To determine the prevalence of infectious diseases of animal and zoonotic importance in cats and dogs rescued and transferred from the Gulf Coast region following Hurricane Katrina...
  27. ncbi request reprint The detection of Cytauxzoon felis in apparently healthy free-roaming cats in the USA
    Marion D Haber
    Department of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, United States
    Vet Parasitol 146:316-20. 2007
    ..felis. Further investigations should evaluate the potential vector competence of domestic cats as well as the role of chronically infected cats in areas in which cytauxzoonosis appears hyperendemic...
  28. pmc A novel candidate vaccine for cytauxzoonosis inferred from comparative apicomplexan genomics
    Jaime L Tarigo
    Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e71233. 2013
    ..Further, our bioinformatic approach emphasizes the use of comparative genomics as an accelerated path to developing vaccines against experimentally intractable pathogens. ..
  29. ncbi request reprint Differentiation of Haemobartonella canis and Mycoplasma haemofelis on the basis of comparative analysis of gene sequences
    Adam J Birkenheuer
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606 1428, USA
    Am J Vet Res 63:1385-8. 2002
    ..To determine whether Haemobartonella canis and Mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly known as H felis [large form]) can be differentiated by use of comparative analysis of gene sequences...
  30. doi request reprint PCR amplification of a multi-copy mitochondrial gene (cox3) improves detection of Cytauxzoon felis infection as compared to a ribosomal gene (18S)
    Megan E Schreeg
    North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 1060 William Moore Dr, Raleigh, NC 27607, United States
    Vet Parasitol 225:123-30. 2016
    ..felis during early infections. ..
  31. pmc Rapid High-Resolution Melt Analysis of Cytauxzoon felis Cytochrome b To Aid in the Prognosis of Cytauxzoonosis
    Megan E Schreeg
    North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 53:2517-24. 2015
    ..The PCR panel identified C. felis cytb1 with 100% sensitivity and 98.2% specificity. High-resolution melt analysis can rapidly provide prognostic information for clients considering A&A treatment in cats with cytauxzoonosis. ..
  32. doi request reprint Expression and function of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) on canine neutrophils
    Jingjing Li
    Comparative Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 27606, USA
    Dev Comp Immunol 35:872-80. 2011
    ..These results have direct application to veterinary diagnostics as well as the potential to enhance the utility of canine disease models in the assessment of potential therapeutics in the treatment of human sepsis...
  33. ncbi request reprint Use of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentrations to rule out a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs: 123 cases (2000-2005)
    Elizabeth M Lennon
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:413-6. 2007
    ..To determine whether basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration can be used as a screening test to rule out hypoadrenocorticism in dogs...
  34. ncbi request reprint Quantification of mucin gene expression in tracheobronchial epithelium of healthy dogs and dogs with chronic bronchitis
    Eleanor C Hawkins
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Am J Vet Res 68:435-40. 2007
    ....
  35. doi request reprint Evaluation of Cytauxzoon felis infection status in captive-born wild felids housed in an area endemic for the pathogen
    Kristin M Lewis
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 241:1088-92. 2012
    ..To determine whether apparently healthy captive-born wild felids that were not native to North America and were housed in an area endemic for Cytauxzoon felis harbored the pathogen...
  36. pmc Comparison of serological and molecular panels for diagnosis of vector-borne diseases in dogs
    Ricardo G Maggi
    Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and the Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Dr, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607, USA
    Parasit Vectors 7:127. 2014
    ..The aim of the present study was to compare CVBD serological and molecular testing as the two most common methodologies used for screening healthy dogs or diagnosing sick dogs in which a vector-borne disease is suspected...
  37. doi request reprint Failure of efficacy and adverse events associated with dose-intense diminazene diaceturate treatment of chronic Cytauxzoon felis infection in five cats
    Kristin M Lewis
    1University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, Columbia, MO, USA
    J Feline Med Surg 16:157-63. 2014
    ..Severity of parasitemia was not reduced. Diminazene diaceturate cannot be recommended for elimination of the carrier state of C felis infection. ..
  38. doi request reprint Coagulation abnormalities in 5 cats with naturally occurring cytauxzoonosis
    Bobbi J Conner
    Departments of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
    J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 25:538-45. 2015
    ..To characterize hemostasis and determine if disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is present in cats with cytauxzoonosis...
  39. doi request reprint Identification of Parabodo caudatus (class Kinetoplastea) in urine voided from a dog with hematuria
    Mark W Vandersea
    Center for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Beaufort, NC Vandersea, Litaker Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC Birkenheuer, Vaden, Renschler, Gookin
    J Vet Diagn Invest 27:117-20. 2015
    ..This historical conundrum is revisited in the current description of P. caudatus as recovered from the urine of a dog. ..
  40. doi request reprint Use of a nitinol gooseneck snare catheter for removal of adult Dirofilaria immitis in two cats
    Merrilee T Small
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 233:1441-5. 2008
    ..2 cats were examined because of congestive heart failure secondary to heartworm infection...
  41. doi request reprint Evaluation of brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid with broadly reactive polymerase chain reaction for Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, spotted fever group Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Borrelia species in canine neurological diseases (109 cases)
    R M Barber
    Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    J Vet Intern Med 24:372-8. 2010
    ....
  42. doi request reprint Bartonella DNA in the blood and lymph nodes of Golden Retrievers with lymphoma and in healthy controls
    A W Duncan
    Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    J Vet Intern Med 22:89-95. 2008
    ..Golden Retrievers are more likely to develop lymphoma, suggesting a breed predisposition; however, other factors, including environment, immunity, and infection, are likely contributors to oncogenesis...
  43. ncbi request reprint Canine Rocky Mountain Spotted fever: a retrospective study of 30 cases
    A M Gasser
    Department of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606, USA
    J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 37:41-8. 2001
    ..In this study, the survival rate following R. rickettsii infection was 100%...
  44. pmc Prostatitis, steatitis, and diarrhea in a dog following presumptive flea-borne transmission of Bartonella henselae
    Nandhakumar Balakrishnan
    Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory and Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 52:3447-52. 2014
    ..Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery. ..
  45. pmc A novel canine model of immune thrombocytopenia: has immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) gone to the dogs?
    Dana N LeVine
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Department of Pathology and Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Br J Haematol 167:110-20. 2014
    ..The utility of this model will allow future study of bleeding phenotypic heterogeneity including the role of neutrophils and endothelial cells in ITP. ..
  46. ncbi request reprint In vitro cultivation of a newly recognized Babesia sp. in dogs in North Carolina
    Lauren E Lehtinen
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 4467, United States
    Vet Parasitol 151:150-7. 2008
    ..The ultrastructure of the parasite was consistent with that of other large Babesia spp., except that the spherical body contained numerous round particles unlike the inclusions previously described in Babesia spp...
  47. pmc Bartonella DNA in loggerhead sea turtles
    K Hope Valentine
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:949-50. 2007