Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: shakB
Description: shaking B
Alias: CG12678, CG1321, CG15451, CG32508, CG34358, Dmel\CG34358, Dmel_CG12678, Dmel_CG32508, E81, FBpp0111481, Pas, R-9-29, R9-29, Shak B, Shak-B, ShakB, inx8, l(1)19Eb, l(1)LB21, l(1)R-10-14, l(1)R-10-3, l(1)R-10-7, l(1)R-9-29, l(1)TH73, l(1)W3, l(1)W3b, lincRNA.1031, nj-156, nj156, pas, pass, shB, shak-B, shkB, CG34358 gene product from transcript CG34358-RH, CG34358-PA, CG34358-PC, CG34358-PD, CG34358-PE, CG34358-PF, CG34358-PG, CG34358-PH, CG34358-PI, Shaking-B, non-jumper-156, passover, passover-vital protein, section 2, section 3, section 6, shakB-PA, shakB-PC, shakB-PD, shakB-PE, shakB-PF, shakB-PG, shakB-PH, shakB-PI
Species: fruit fly
- The shaking B gene in Drosophila regulates the number of gap junctions between photoreceptor terminals in the laminaM Shimohigashi
Neuroscience Institute, Life Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
J Neurobiol 35:105-17. 1998..structure of insect gap junctions differs from that in vertebrates, and in Drosophila is possibly encoded by the shaking B (= Passover) locus. shaking B2 is a null allele that acts in the nervous system...
- Genes, gene knockouts, and mutations in the analysis of gap junctionsC W Lo
Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104 6017, USA
Dev Genet 24:1-4. 1999..It may be timely to form a Nomenclature Committee to establish a uniform classification scheme for naming gap junction proteins...
- Passover: a gene required for synaptic connectivity in the giant fiber system of DrosophilaS N Krishnan
Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511
Cell 73:967-77. 1993b>Passover (Pas) flies fail to jump in response to a light-off stimulus. The mutation disrupts specific synapses of the giant fibers (GFs), command neurons for this response. Pas was cloned from a P element-induced allele...
- Essential and neural transcripts from the Drosophila shaking-B locus are differentially expressed in the embryonic mesoderm and pupal nervous systemD Crompton
School of Biological Sciences, Sussex University, Falmer, Brighton, United Kingdom
Dev Biol 170:142-58. 1995....
- Passover eliminates gap junctional communication between neurons of the giant fiber system in Drosophila. offY A Sun
Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
J Neurobiol 30:340-8. 1996The Passover-related gene family plays significant roles in cellular connectivity. Mutations in three family members from Drosophila and from Caenorhabditis elegans alter a few specific electrical synapses...
- Innexins get into the gapP Phelan
Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ, UK
Bioessays 23:388-96. 2001..The completed genomic sequences for the fly and worm allow identification of the full complement of innexin genes in these two organisms and provide valuable resources for genetic analyses of gap junction function...
- Drosophila Shaking-B protein forms gap junctions in paired Xenopus oocytesP Phelan
Sussex Centre for Neuroscience, Brighton, UK
Nature 391:181-4. 1998..To our knowledge, this is the first structural component of an invertebrate gap junction to be characterized...
- Synaptogenesis in the giant-fibre system of Drosophila: interaction of the giant fibre and its major motorneuronal targetK Jacobs
Sussex Centre for Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
Development 127:5203-12. 2000..This results in the Giant Fibre remaining stranded at the midline, unable to make its characteristic bend. We conclude that Giant Fibre morphogenesis normally relies on fasciculation with its major motorneuronal target...
- Nested transcripts of gap junction gene have distinct expression patternsZ Zhang
Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, 610 KBT, Yale University, P O Box 208103, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
J Neurobiol 40:288-301. 1999The shaking B locus (shakB, or Passover) codes for structural molecules of gap junctions in Drosophila. This report describes the complex set of transcripts from the shakB locus. A nested set of five transcripts is described...
- Targeted expression of truncated glued disrupts giant fiber synapse formation in DrosophilaM J Allen
Department of Biology, Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
J Neurosci 19:9374-84. 1999..We speculate that disrupting transport of a retrograde signal disrupts synapse formation and maturation...
- Mutations in shaking-B prevent electrical synapse formation in the Drosophila giant fiber systemP Phelan
Sussex Centre for Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom
J Neurosci 16:1101-13. 1996..The mutation shak-B2, which eliminates protein expression, prevents the establishment of dye coupling shaking-B, therefore, is essential for the assembly and/or maintenance of functional gap junctions at electrical synapses in the GFS...
- Mutations altering synaptic connectivity between identified neurons in DrosophilaJ B Thomas
J Neurosci 4:530-8. 1984..One mutation, bendless, disrupts synaptic transmission between the GF and the TTM motor neuron. Another, gfA, disrupts the synaptic connections of the PSI, and a third mutation, passover, disrupts transmission in both pathways.
- The shaking-B2 mutation disrupts electrical synapses in a flight circuit in adult DrosophilaJ R Trimarchi
Department of Biology, Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
J Neurosci 17:4700-10. 1997..Together, these results show that the haltere-to-flight motoneuron synapses comprise an electrical component that requires shaking-B and a chemical component that is likely to be cholinergic...
- Null mutation in shaking-B eliminates electrical, but not chemical, synapses in the Drosophila giant fiber system: a structural studyJ M Blagburn
Institute of Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan 00901, USA
J Comp Neurol 404:449-58. 1999..Gap junctions with more vertebratelike separation of membranes (1.41 nm +/- 0.08) were abundant between peripheral perineurial glial processes; these were unaffected in the mutants...
- The Passover locus in Drosophila melanogaster: complex complementation and different effects on the giant fiber neural pathwayD H Baird
Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511
Genetics 126:1045-59. 1990Drosophila melanogaster bearing the Passover mutation fail to jump in response to a light-off stimulus. Pas also disrupts some of the synapses between the neurons of the giant fiber system which mediate this escape behavior...
- Gap junction proteins expressed during development are required for adult neural function in the Drosophila optic laminaKathryn D Curtin
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
J Neurosci 22:7088-96. 2002..Here we show that developmental gap junction genes can be required for normally functioning neural connections to form...
- Shaking B Mediates Synaptic Coupling between Auditory Sensory Neurons and the Giant Fiber of Drosophila melanogasterAdeline P Pézier
Institute of Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States of America
PLoS ONE 11:e0152211. 2016..The GF is known to express Shaking B (ShakB), specifically the ShakB(N+16) isoform only, at its output synapses in the thorax...
- Role of amino terminus in voltage gating and junctional rectification of Shaking B innexinsWilliam D Marks
Biology Department, State University of New York, Buffalo State, Buffalo, New York and
J Neurophysiol 111:1383-95. 2014..giant fiber system, adjacent cells express and contribute different transcript variants of the innexin Shaking B, resulting in heterotypic gap junctions with rectifying properties...
- Epilepsy research methods update: Understanding the causes of epileptic seizures and identifying new treatments using non-mammalian model organismsVincent T Cunliffe
Bateson Centre, Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom Electronic address
Seizure 24:44-51. 2015..The short generation times of most of these model organisms also mean that they lend themselves particularly conveniently to the investigation of drug effects or epileptogenic processes across the lifecourse. ..
- Bi-directional gap junction-mediated soma-germline communication is essential for spermatogenesisChristopher M Smendziuk
Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3
Development 142:2598-609. 2015..Moreover, we show that stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the testis are directed by gap junction-derived cues. ..
- The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness InteractionsJohn E Pool
Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin Madison
Mol Biol Evol 32:3236-51. 2015..These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. ..
- Plasticity of recurrent inhibition in the Drosophila antennal lobeIndulekha P Sudhakaran
National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore 560065, India
J Neurosci 32:7225-31. 2012..Thus, PN output is monitored by an LN subtype whose resultant plasticity underlies behavioral habituation. We propose that recurrent inhibitory motifs common in neural circuits may similarly underlie habituation to other complex stimuli...
- Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis of the first transmembrane domain of the innexin Shaking-B(Lethal)Adam Depriest
Biology Department, Buffalo State College, Buffalo, New York, USA
Biophys J 101:2408-16. 2011..In addition, several mutations induced hemichannel activity. These changes are similar to those observed after substitutions within the transmembrane domains of connexins...
- In vivo measurement of muscle output in intact DrosophilaChristopher J H Elliott
Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
Methods 56:78-86. 2012..We have now extended the use of the apparatus to record the muscle forces during larval and other aspects of adult locomotion. The robustness, simplicity and versatility of the apparatus are key to these measurements...
- Heterotypic gap junctions between two neurons in the drosophila brain are critical for memoryChia Lin Wu
Brain Research Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan
Curr Biol 21:848-54. 2011..in the regulation of neuronal metabolism and homeostasis by serving as connections that enable small molecules to pass between cells and synchronize activity between cells...
- Electrical coupling between olfactory glomeruliEmre Yaksi
Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Neuron 67:1034-47. 2010..We propose that when stimuli are weak, lateral excitation promotes sensitivity, whereas when stimuli are strong, lateral excitation helps recruit inhibitory gain control...
- Changes in gene expression linked with adult reproductive diapause in a northern malt fly species: a candidate gene microarray studyMaaria Kankare
Centre of Excellence in Evolutionary Research, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P O Box 35, 40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland
BMC Ecol 10:3. 2010..This array gave us a chance to filter out genes showing expression changes during photoperiodic reproductive diapause in a species adapted to live in northern latitudes with high seasonal changes in environmental conditions...
- The chemical component of the mixed GF-TTMn synapse in Drosophila melanogaster uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitterMarcus J Allen
Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK
Eur J Neurosci 26:439-45. 2007..Our findings show that the two components of this synapse can be separated to allow further studies into the mechanisms by which mixed synapses are built and function...
- Molecular mechanism of rectification at identified electrical synapses in the Drosophila giant fiber systemPauline Phelan
Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK
Curr Biol 18:1955-60. 2008..These data provide the most definitive evidence to date that rectification is achieved by differential regulation of the pre- and postsynaptic elements of structurally asymmetric junctions...
- Population genetics: the signature of selectionJ F Brookfield
Institute of Genetics, University of Nottingham, Queens Medical Centre, NG7 2UH, Nottingham, UK
Curr Biol 11:R388-90. 2001..New work on Drosophila genes that seem to have been subject to adaptive changes illustrates the difficulties in calculating the statistical significance of data trends that seem to show this...
- Genetic suppression of seizure susceptibility in DrosophilaD Kuebler
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
J Neurophysiol 86:1211-25. 2001..These results demonstrate the utility of Drosophila as a model system for studying seizure susceptibility and identify physiological processes that modify seizure susceptibility...
- Targeted expression of tetanus neurotoxin interferes with behavioral responses to sensory input in DrosophilaAndreas Keller
Institut für Genetik und Neurobiologie, Biozentrum, Universitat Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
J Neurobiol 50:221-33. 2002..To increase the utility of the GAL4 system for such purposes, we have designed an inducible system that allows us to circumvent lethality caused by TNT expression during early development...
- Gap junctions in Drosophila: developmental expression of the entire innexin gene familyLucy A Stebbings
Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK
Mech Dev 113:197-205. 2002..This work forms an essential basis for future studies of innexin interactions in Drosophila and outlines the potential extent of gap-junction involvement in development...
- A germline-specific gap junction protein required for survival of differentiating early germ cellsSalli I Tazuke
Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5329, USA
Development 129:2529-39. 2002....
- Gap junction proteins are not interchangeable in development of neural function in the Drosophila visual systemKathryn D Curtin
Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
J Cell Sci 115:3379-88. 2002..Mutations in either of two Drosophila GJ genes (innexins), shakB and ogre, lead to a loss of transients in the electroretinogram (ERG), which is indicative of a failure of the ..
- The mutations previously designated as flightless-I3, flightless-O2 and standby are members of the W-2 lethal complementation group at the base of the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogasterG L Miklos
Molecular Neurobiology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT
J Neurogenet 6:133-51. 1990..These viable flightless mutations are all hypomorphs since the homozygous deficiency of the W-2 X-chromosomal region is lethal to the organism...
- A possible flip-flop genetic mechanism for reciprocal gene expressionMaria Luisa Chiusano
Department of Genetics, General and Molecular Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Mezzocannone, 8, 80134 Naples, Italy
FEBS Lett 579:4919-22. 2005..melanogaster cellular compartments. We propose here a new and robust mechanism, based on our analysis of the genomic organization of inx-2 and inx-7, that structurally justifies the reciprocal expression of genes...
- Seizure suppression by shakB2, a gap junction mutation in DrosophilaJuan Song
Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, Division of Insect Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
J Neurophysiol 95:627-35. 2006Gap junction proteins mediate electrical synaptic transmission. In Drosophila, flies carrying null mutations in the shakB locus, such as shakB2, have behavioral and electrophysiological defects in the giant fiber (GF) system neurocircuit ..
- Chromosome structure at interfaces between major chromatin types: alpha- and beta-heterochromatinG L Miklos
Molecular Neurobiology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra
Bioessays 12:1-6. 1990..The recent microcloning of part of this region, the isolation of a monoclonal antibody to a beta-heterochromatin binding protein, and new in situ studies now shed a little more light on this chromosomal region...
- Ontogeny of flight initiation in the fly Drosophila melanogaster: implications for the giant fibre systemSarah Hammond
Sussex Centre for Neuroscience, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 193:1125-37. 2007..Thus, the escape mechanism is subject to developmental modulation following eclosion and the GF system does not underlie voluntary flight...
- A deficiency chromosome in Drosophila alters neuritic projections in an identified motoneuronG P Swain
Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway 08854 5635
Brain Res 535:147-50. 1990....
- The shaker and shaking-B genes specify elements in the processing of gustatory information in Drosophila melanogasterR Balakrishnan
Molecular Biology Unit, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay, India
J Exp Biol 157:161-81. 1991..Mutants at this locus show increased thresholds for detection of sucrose and fructose and lack the attraction response to 0.1 mol l-1 sodium chloride that is exhibited by the wild-type fly...
- Molecular analysis of the lethal(1)B214 region at the base of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogasterR J Russell
CSIRO Division of Entomology, Canberra, A C T, Australia
Chromosoma 101:456-66. 1992....
- The segmentation gene runt is needed to activate Sex-lethal, a gene that controls sex determination and dosage compensation in DrosophilaM Torres
Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Madrid, Spain
Genet Res 59:189-98. 1992..We conclude that runt is needed for the initial step of Sex-lethal activation, but does not have a major role as an X-counting element...
- Analysis of a cDNA from the neurologically active locus shaking-B (Passover) of Drosophila melanogasterD E Crompton
Institute of Genetics, University of Glasgow, UK
Gene 122:385-6. 1992..melanogaster gene, l(1)ogre. This suggests the existence of a new family of proteins required for the development and maintenance of the D. melanogaster nervous system...
- The role of X-linked lethal and viable male-sterile mutations in male gametogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster: genetic analysisE Lifschytz
Mol Gen Genet 161:275-84. 1978..It is further shown that about the same proportion of vital genes is operating in female gonads and that the two groups overlap by about 70%. The role of viable and lethal male gametogenesis is discussed in detail...
- Genetic lesions in Drosophila behavioural mutantsG O Pflugfelder
Theodor Boveri Institut Biozentrum, Lehrstuhl fur Genetik, Universität Würzburg Am Hubland, Germany
Behav Brain Res 95:3-15. 1998..Various mutagens are reviewed as to their suitability in inducing selective regulatory mutations...
- Genetic and molecular dissection of axon pathfinding in the Drosophila nervous systemM A Seeger
Program in Molecular and Cell Biology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City 73104 5073
Curr Opin Neurobiol 4:56-62. 1994....
- Dendritic reduction in Passover, a Drosophila mutant with a defective giant fiber neuronal pathwayD H Baird
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19129
J Neurobiol 24:971-84. 1993..Flies bearing the X-chromosome mutation Passover (Pas) fail to jump in response to a light-off stimulus, and electrical stimulation of the GF in the brain no ..
- Isolation of mutations affecting neural circuitry required for grooming behavior in Drosophila melanogasterR W Phillis
Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003
Genetics 133:581-92. 1993..We have also used our assay to test the grooming ability of stocks containing mutations that produce known neural defects...
- Molecular basis of intracistronic complementation in the Passover locus of DrosophilaS N Krishnan
Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:2021-5. 1995..The Drosophila neural mutant Passover (Pas) disrupts specific synaptic connections...
- Behavioral mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. III. Isolation and mapping of mutations by direct visual observations of behavioral phenotypesT Homyk
Mol Gen Genet 177:553-65. 1980....
- Effect of storage and dose on MMS-induced deletions. Complementation analysis of X-chromosomal recessive lethals in the zeste-white and maroon-like regions of Drosophila melanogasterE Paradi
Mutat Res 111:145-59. 1983..An interesting aspect for further analysis is the apparent infrequency in the zeste-white region of alkylation-induced chromosomal breakage, as observed by various investigators for MMS, EMS and MNNG...
- Modulation of Drosophila heartbeat by neurotransmittersE Johnson
Department of Zoology, University of Maine, Orono 04469, USA
J Comp Physiol B 167:89-97. 1997..Dopamine-N-acetyltransferase, which is on the catabolic route to dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine, has no effect. hypoactiveC reduces the rate of the heart, but its mechanism of action is unknown...
- Fine structure analysis of a chromosome segment in Drosophila melanogaster: analysis of ethyl methanesulphonate-induced lethalsE Lifschytz
Mutat Res 8:147-55. 1969
- Patterns of connectivity in a Drosophila nerveM D Egger
Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 5635, USA
J Comp Neurol 387:63-72. 1997..The distribution of synaptic profiles was also examined in a mutant strain, Passover (Pas), known to affect connectivity in a pathway that includes the PAPSI...
- Fine structure analysis of a chromosome segment in Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of x-ray-induced lethalsE Lifschytz
Mutat Res 6:235-44. 1968
- The grasshopper, Drosophila and neuronal homology (advantages of the insect nervous system for the neuroscientist)G S Boyan
Zoologisches Institut, Universitat Basel, Switzerland
Prog Neurobiol 41:657-82. 1993
- Innexins: a family of invertebrate gap-junction proteinsP Phelan
Trends Genet 14:348-9. 1998
- The localization of "ordinary" sex-linked genes in section 20 of the polytene X chromosome of Drosophila melanogasterA Schalet
Chromosoma 44:183-202. 1973
- In vitro evolution of preferred topoisomerase II DNA cleavage sitesD A Burden
Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0146, USA
J Biol Chem 274:5227-35. 1999..melanogaster, implying that it may be a site for the physiological action of this enzyme...
- Gap-Junctional communication between developing Drosophila muscles is essential for their normal developmentM G Todman
Sussex Centre for Neuroscience, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
Dev Genet 24:57-68. 1999..Our observations show that Shak-B(neural) is one of a set of embryonic gap-junction proteins, and that it is required for the normal temporal development of potassium currents in some larval muscles...
- Drosophila has several genes for gap junction proteinsK D Curtin
Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, 266 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
Gene 232:191-201. 1999..We have used PCR techniques to identify three new members of this family from Drosophila. These are designated pas-related proteins (prp) 6, 7, and 33...
- Localization of the genes shaking-B, small optic lobes, sluggish-A, stoned and stress-sensitive-C to a well-defined region on the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogasterG L Miklos
J Neurogenet 4:1-19. 1987....
- Some mutations affecting neural or muscular tissues alter the physiological components of the electroretinogram in DrosophilaT Homyk
Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, W Lafayette, Indiana 47906
J Neurogenet 5:37-48. 1989..Mutations bas, rex and sesD delay recovery from the prolonged depolarization afterpotential. The visual defects of mutations elavjl and nbAEE171 are not complemented by lethal mutations, which, presumably, affect other tissues...
- Two Drosophila innexins are expressed in overlapping domains and cooperate to form gap-junction channelsL A Stebbings
Sussex Centre for Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QG, United Kingdom
Mol Biol Cell 11:2459-70. 2000..We conclude that Dm-Inx2 and Dm-Inx3, which are expressed in overlapping domains during embryogenesis, can form oligomeric gap-junction channels...
- Developmental genetics of loci at the base of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogasterN Perrimon
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
Genetics 121:313-31. 1989..Additionally, all lethal complementation groups, as well as a specific subset of deficiencies, have been studied histologically for defects in the development of the central and peripheral embryonic nervous systems...
- Chromosomal effects of rapid gene evolution in Drosophila melanogasterD Nurminsky
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Science 291:128-30. 2001..These findings imply that the pattern of genetic variation along a chromosome may be useful for inferring its evolutionary history and for revealing regions in which recent adaptive fixations have taken place...
- Gene Duplication and Genome EvolutionAustin Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2004..5) Examining the role of transposable elements in duplication of genomic segments by testing for nonrandom association between these elements and putatively duplicated blocks in the yeast genome. ..
- EVOLUTION OF IMMUNE RECOGNITION AND EVASIONAustin L Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2010..In addition, by increasing our understanding of the population diversity and evolutionary history of human immune system genes, this research will enhance our knowledge of human immune function in health and disease. ..