Sxl

Summary

Gene Symbol: Sxl
Description: Sex lethal
Alias: CG14425, CG14425/CG18350, CG18350, CG33070, CG43770, DmSxl, Dmel\CG43770, Dmel_CG14425, Dmel_CG18350, Mex156, ORF2, SXL, Su(da), Sx1, SxL, Sxl-1 Sxl-2, SxlPe, SxlPm, dSXL, fs(1)K1274, fs(1)M106, l(1)6Fa, melSxl, sxl, CG43770 gene product from transcript CG43770-RO, CG43770-PA, CG43770-PAA, CG43770-PAB, CG43770-PAC, CG43770-PB, CG43770-PC, CG43770-PD, CG43770-PE, CG43770-PF, CG43770-PG, CG43770-PH, CG43770-PJ, CG43770-PK, CG43770-PL, CG43770-PM, CG43770-PN, CG43770-PO, CG43770-PP, CG43770-PQ, CG43770-PR, CG43770-PT, CG43770-PW, CG43770-PX, CG43770-PY, CG43770-PZ, Sex-kethal, Sxl-PA, Sxl-PAA, Sxl-PAB, Sxl-PAC, Sxl-PB, Sxl-PC, Sxl-PD, Sxl-PE, Sxl-PF, Sxl-PG, Sxl-PH, Sxl-PJ, Sxl-PK, Sxl-PL, Sxl-PM, Sxl-PN, Sxl-PO, Sxl-PP, Sxl-PQ, Sxl-PR, Sxl-PT, Sxl-PW, Sxl-PX, Sxl-PY, Sxl-PZ, female lethal, sex-lethal, sexlethal
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. pmc Functional changes associated with structural alterations induced by mobilization of a P element inserted in the Sex-lethal gene of Drosophila
    H K Salz
    Department of Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Genetics 117:221-31. 1987
  2. doi Functional characterization of the three genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase in maize
    Elizabeth Cordoba
    Departamento de Biologia Molecular de Plantas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av Universidad 2001 Chamilpa Apdo Postal 510 3 Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, Mexico
    J Exp Bot 62:2023-38. 2011
  3. ncbi Key aspects of the primary sex determination mechanism are conserved across the genus Drosophila
    J W Erickson
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Genetics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3204, USA
    Development 125:3259-68. 1998
  4. ncbi The protein Sex-lethal antagonizes the splicing factor U2AF to regulate alternative splicing of transformer pre-mRNA
    J Valcarcel
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester 01605
    Nature 362:171-5. 1993
  5. ncbi The regulation of the Drosophila msl-2 gene reveals a function for Sex-lethal in translational control
    G J Bashaw
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Cell 89:789-98. 1997
  6. ncbi The Ceratitis capitata homologue of the Drosophila sex-determining gene sex-lethal is structurally conserved, but not sex-specifically regulated
    G Saccone
    Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia generale e Moleculare, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy
    Development 125:1495-500. 1998
  7. pmc The Drosophila melanogaster fl(2)d gene is needed for the female-specific splicing of Sex-lethal RNA
    B Granadino
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Madrid, Spain
    EMBO J 9:2597-602. 1990
  8. pmc Translational control of dosage compensation in Drosophila by Sex-lethal: cooperative silencing via the 5' and 3' UTRs of msl-2 mRNA is independent of the poly(A) tail
    F Gebauer
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Gene Expression Programme, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 18:6146-54. 1999
  9. pmc Normal female germ cell differentiation requires the female X chromosome to autosome ratio and expression of sex-lethal in Drosophila melanogaster
    T Schupbach
    Genetics 109:529-48. 1985
  10. ncbi Evidence for sex transformation of germline cells in ovarian tumor mutants of Drosophila
    G Wei
    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4901
    Dev Biol 161:318-20. 1994

Research Grants

Patents

  1. PLASMIDES FOR THE EXPRESSION OF FILAMENTOUS HAEMAGGLUTININ (FHA) AND HOSTS THEREFOR

Detail Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Functional changes associated with structural alterations induced by mobilization of a P element inserted in the Sex-lethal gene of Drosophila
    H K Salz
    Department of Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Genetics 117:221-31. 1987
    ..Previous work has shown that rearrangements associated with alterations in Sxl gene function are found within an 11-kb region between coordinates-11 and 0...
  2. doi Functional characterization of the three genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase in maize
    Elizabeth Cordoba
    Departamento de Biologia Molecular de Plantas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av Universidad 2001 Chamilpa Apdo Postal 510 3 Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, Mexico
    J Exp Bot 62:2023-38. 2011
    ..mays, DXS protein is feedback regulated in response to the inhibition of the pathway flow. The results support that the multilevel regulation of DXS activity is conserved in evolution...
  3. ncbi Key aspects of the primary sex determination mechanism are conserved across the genus Drosophila
    J W Erickson
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Genetics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3204, USA
    Development 125:3259-68. 1998
    ..is a potential 'numerator box,' since it is shared with the other strong X:A numerator gene, sisB, and its target, SxlPe. Temporal and spatial features of sisA and SxlPe expression are strikingly conserved, including rapid onset and ..
  4. ncbi The protein Sex-lethal antagonizes the splicing factor U2AF to regulate alternative splicing of transformer pre-mRNA
    J Valcarcel
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester 01605
    Nature 362:171-5. 1993
    ..The protein Sex-lethal (Sxl) activates a female-specific 3' splice site in the first intron of transformer (tra) pre-mRNA while repressing an ..
  5. ncbi The regulation of the Drosophila msl-2 gene reveals a function for Sex-lethal in translational control
    G J Bashaw
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Cell 89:789-98. 1997
    ..We also provide evidence that the repression of MSL-2 is directly regulated by Sex-lethal at the level of translation...
  6. ncbi The Ceratitis capitata homologue of the Drosophila sex-determining gene sex-lethal is structurally conserved, but not sex-specifically regulated
    G Saccone
    Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia generale e Moleculare, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy
    Development 125:1495-500. 1998
    In Drosophila, Sxl functions as a binary switch in sex determination. Under the control of the primary sex-determining signal, it produces functional protein only in XX animals to implement female development...
  7. pmc The Drosophila melanogaster fl(2)d gene is needed for the female-specific splicing of Sex-lethal RNA
    B Granadino
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Madrid, Spain
    EMBO J 9:2597-602. 1990
    In Drosophila melanogaster, sex determination and dosage compensation are under the control of the Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene. We have identified a gene, female-lethal-2-d (fl(2)d), located in the second chromosome, that interacts with Sxl...
  8. pmc Translational control of dosage compensation in Drosophila by Sex-lethal: cooperative silencing via the 5' and 3' UTRs of msl-2 mRNA is independent of the poly(A) tail
    F Gebauer
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Gene Expression Programme, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 18:6146-54. 1999
    Translational repression of male-specific-lethal 2 (msl-2) mRNA by Sex-lethal (SXL) controls dosage compensation in Drosophila...
  9. pmc Normal female germ cell differentiation requires the female X chromosome to autosome ratio and expression of sex-lethal in Drosophila melanogaster
    T Schupbach
    Genetics 109:529-48. 1985
    ..Instead, they formed multicellular cysts, very similar to those formed by 2X;3A cells. Zygotic Sxl+ activity is, therefore, also necessary for the development of normal female germ cells...
  10. ncbi Evidence for sex transformation of germline cells in ovarian tumor mutants of Drosophila
    G Wei
    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4901
    Dev Biol 161:318-20. 1994
    ..Thus these genes are likely to be required for proper establishment of germline sexual identity...
  11. ncbi Somatic sex-determining signals act on XX germ cells in Drosophila embryos
    S Staab
    Zoological Institute, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Development 122:4065-71. 1996
    ..However, XX germ cells that develop in masculinized animals also express mgm1. Therefore, somatic sex-determining signals have already acted on XX germ cells in 10-hour-old embryos...
  12. pmc Drosophila male-specific lethal-2 protein: structure/function analysis and dependence on MSL-1 for chromosome association
    L M Lyman
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Genetics 147:1743-53. 1997
    ..The mutations, including those in conserved zinc coordinating cysteines, confirm that the RING finger is essential for MSL-2 function, while suggesting a less stringent requirement for an intact second motif...
  13. pmc A theoretical model for the regulation of Sex-lethal, a gene that controls sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster
    Matthieu Louis
    The European Bioinformatics Institute, EMBL Outstation, Cambridge CB10 1SD, United Kingdom
    Genetics 165:1355-84. 2003
    ..In the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster, Sex-lethal (Sxl) is the master regulatory gene that specifies sexual identity...
  14. pmc Drosophila ataxin 2-binding protein 1 marks an intermediate step in the molecular differentiation of female germline cysts
    Omür Y Tastan
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390 9148, USA
    Development 137:3167-76. 2010
    ..Biochemical analysis reveals that A2BP1 isoforms bind to each other and associate with Bruno, a known translational repressor protein. These data show that A2BP1 promotes the molecular differentiation of ovarian germline cysts...
  15. ncbi Binding of the Drosophila sex-lethal gene product to the alternative splice site of transformer primary transcript
    K Inoue
    Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Japan
    Nature 344:461-3. 1990
    ..sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster is accomplished by a hierarchy of genes of which one, Sex-lethal (Sxl), is required for the functional female-specific splicing of the transcripts of the immediately downstream ..
  16. pmc Genetic and molecular analysis of new female-specific lethal mutations at the gene Sxl of Drosophila melanogaster
    B Granadino
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Madrid, Spain
    Genetics 129:371-83. 1991
    We have isolated three female-specific lethal mutations at the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl): Sxlfb, Sxlfc and Sxlfd. We have carried out the complementation analysis between these mutations and other previously reported Sxlf mutations...
  17. ncbi Positive autoregulation of sex-lethal by alternative splicing maintains the female determined state in Drosophila
    L R Bell
    Department of Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Cell 65:229-39. 1991
    ..Here we investigate the role of Sxl in maintaining sexual pathway commitments...
  18. ncbi The Sex-lethal gene of Drosophila: DNA alterations associated with sex-specific lethal mutations
    E M Maine
    Cell 43:521-9. 1985
    ..In contrast, all five gain-of-function alleles are associated with DNA insertions that are clustered within a 1 kb portion of the Sxl gene region.
  19. pmc A female-specific lethal lesion in an X-linked positive regulator of the Drosophila sex determination gene, Sex-lethal
    T W Cline
    Genetics 113:641-63. 1986
    ..3; 10B4) that functions as a positive regulator of Sxl, a central gene controlling sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster...
  20. pmc Sex determination in Drosophila: the X-chromosomal gene liz is required for Sxl activity
    M Steinmann-Zwicky
    Zoological Institute, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    EMBO J 7:3889-98. 1988
    In Drosophila, females require products of the gene Sxl for sex determination, dosage compensation and fertility...
  21. pmc Male-specific lethal 2, a dosage compensation gene of Drosophila, undergoes sex-specific regulation and encodes a protein with a RING finger and a metallothionein-like cysteine cluster
    S Zhou
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    EMBO J 14:2884-95. 1995
    ..Although binding to the X chromosome is negatively correlated with the function of the master regulatory gene Sex lethal (Sxl), the mechanisms that restrict this binding to males and to the X chromosome are not yet understood...
  22. ncbi Dosage compensation in Drosophila
    B S Baker
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305
    Annu Rev Genet 28:491-521. 1994
  23. ncbi Sex-specific regulation of the male-specific lethal-1 dosage compensation gene in Drosophila
    M J Palmer
    Department of Entomology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 74078
    Genes Dev 8:698-706. 1994
    ..MSL-1 protein levels are negatively regulated by Sxl in females, resulting in male-specific expression of MSL-1...
  24. pmc Sex-lethal autoregulation requires multiple cis-acting elements upstream and downstream of the male exon and appears to depend largely on controlling the use of the male exon 5' splice site
    J I Horabin
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Mol Cell Biol 13:7734-46. 1993
    The on/off state of the binary switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl), which controls somatic sexual development in Drosophila melanogaster, is regulated at the level of alternative splicing...
  25. pmc Splicing of the drosophila Sex-lethal early transcripts involves exon skipping that is independent of Sex-lethal protein
    J I Horabin
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294, USA
    RNA 2:1-10. 1996
    mRNAs from the early Sex-lethal promoter, Sxl-Pe, encode embryonic Sxl proteins that function to activate the Sxl autoregulatory loop...
  26. pmc The Drosophila splicing regulator sex-lethal directly inhibits translation of male-specific-lethal 2 mRNA
    F Gebauer
    Gene Expression Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    RNA 4:142-50. 1998
    ..msl-2 gene expression is inhibited in females by Sex-lethal (SXL), an RNA binding protein known to regulate pre-mRNA splicing...
  27. ncbi Guilt by association: non-coding RNAs, chromosome-specific proteins and dosage compensation in Drosophila
    C Stuckenholz
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Department of Cell Biology, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Trends Genet 15:454-8. 1999
    ..The discovery of non-coding RNAs that 'paint' dosage-compensated X chromosomes in mammals and in Drosophila suggests that RNAs play an intriguing, unexpected role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression...
  28. ncbi Inhibition of msl-2 splicing by Sex-lethal reveals interaction between U2AF35 and the 3' splice site AG
    L Merendino
    Gene Expression Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 402:838-41. 1999
    The protein Sex-lethal (SXL) controls dosage compensation in Drosophila by inhibiting the splicing and translation of male-specific-lethal-2 (msl-2) transcripts...
  29. ncbi Sex determination genes control the development of the Drosophila genital disc, modulating the response to Hedgehog, Wingless and Decapentaplegic signals
    L Sanchez
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, C S I C, Velazquez 144, Madrid, Spain
    Development 128:1033-43. 2001
    ..A model is presented for the dimorphic sexual development of the genital primordium in which both Doublesex(M) and Doublesex(F) products play positive and negative roles...
  30. ncbi Signaling from germ cells mediated by the rhomboid homolog stet organizes encapsulation by somatic support cells
    Cordula Schulz
    Departments of Developmental Biology and Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5329, USA
    Development 129:4523-34. 2002
    ..The micro-environment provided by the surrounding somatic cells may, in turn, regulate differentiation of the germ cells they enclose...
  31. ncbi Sex-lethal splicing autoregulation in vivo: interactions between SEX-LETHAL, the U1 snRNP and U2AF underlie male exon skipping
    Alexis A Nagengast
    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 4955, USA
    Development 130:463-71. 2003
    ....
  32. ncbi Genetic variation for expression of the sex determination pathway genes in Drosophila melanogaster
    Aaron M Tarone
    Evolution and Ecology, University of California at Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Genet Res 86:31-40. 2005
    ..Expression of Sex lethal, transformer, transformer2, doublesex, intersex and hermaphrodite was assayed with quantitative RT-PCR in 0- to ..
  33. pmc Indirect effects of ploidy suggest X chromosome dose, not the X:A ratio, signals sex in Drosophila
    James W Erickson
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 5:e332. 2007
    ..of ploidy in primary sex determination, we compared the responses of the signal target, the female-specific SxlPe promoter of the switch gene Sex-lethal, in haploid, diploid, and triploid embryos...
  34. pmc Maternal Groucho and bHLH repressors amplify the dose-sensitive X chromosome signal in Drosophila sex determination
    Hong Lu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
    Dev Biol 323:248-60. 2008
    ..the diplo-X dose of four X-linked signal element genes, XSEs, activates the Sex-lethal establishment promoter, SxlPe, whereas the haplo-X XSE dose leaves SxlPe off...
  35. ncbi The Drosophila cellularization gene nullo produces a blastoderm-specific transcript whose levels respond to the nucleocytoplasmic ratio
    L S Rose
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Genes Dev 6:1255-68. 1992
    ..The regulation of nullo RNA levels during cycle 14, however, is coupled to the nucleocytoplasmic ratio, which also controls the cessation of rapid, synchronous mitosis just before cellularization...
  36. ncbi Developmental distribution of female-specific Sex-lethal proteins in Drosophila melanogaster
    D Bopp
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 1014
    Genes Dev 5:403-15. 1991
    The binary switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) must be on in females and off in males to allow the proper elaboration of the appropriate sexual developmental pathway in Drosophila melanogaster...
  37. ncbi Dosage compensation rox!
    A Franke
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:351-4. 2000
    ....
  38. ncbi Sex comes in from the cold: the integration of sex and pattern
    Audrey E Christiansen
    Department Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Trends Genet 18:510-6. 2002
    ....
  39. ncbi Masters change, slaves remain
    Patricia Graham
    Dept Molecular Biology, Princeton University, NJ 08544 1041, USA
    Bioessays 25:1-4. 2003
    ..Sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster is controlled by the master regulatory gene, Sex lethal (Sxl)...
  40. ncbi A dual inhibitory mechanism restricts msl-2 mRNA translation for dosage compensation in Drosophila
    Karsten Beckmann
    Gene Expression Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 122:529-40. 2005
    ..Female flies must inhibit msl-2 mRNA translation for survival, and this inhibition is mediated by Sex-lethal (SXL) binding to sites in both the 5' and the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs)...
  41. ncbi deadpan, an essential pan-neural gene encoding an HLH protein, acts as a denominator in Drosophila sex determination
    S Younger-Shepherd
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143
    Cell 70:911-22. 1992
    ..dominant interactions, males die with too high a ratio of sc+ to dpn+, caused by misexpression of Sex lethal (Sxl) in embryos, and females die with too low a ratio of sc+ to dpn+, because of altered embryonic Sxl ..
  42. ncbi Production of X0 clones in XX females of Drosophila
    D Bachiller
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Madrid, Spain
    Genet Res 57:23-8. 1991
    The experiments reported here are aimed at determining whether mutations deleting the function of the Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene are able to suppress the lethality of X0 clones, induced in females after the time when the state of activity of ..
  43. ncbi X:A ratio, the primary sex-determining signal in Drosophila, is transduced by helix-loop-helix proteins
    S M Parkhurst
    Zoology Department, University of Oxford, England
    Cell 63:1179-91. 1990
    ..process, resulting in female-specific lethality by inhibiting initiation of the master control gene Sex-lethal (Sxl)...
  44. ncbi Genetics of sex determination: what can we learn from Drosophila?
    R Nothiger
    Zoological Institute, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Development 101:17-24. 1987
    ..chromosomal signal, provided by the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A), regulates a key gene (Sxl)...
  45. ncbi Sex-lethal, a Drosophila sex determination switch gene, exhibits sex-specific RNA splicing and sequence similarity to RNA binding proteins
    L R Bell
    Department of Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Cell 55:1037-46. 1988
    The switch gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl), controls sexual development and dosage compensation. It must be active in females and inactive in males throughout development...
  46. pmc Genetic evidence that the sans fille locus is involved in Drosophila sex determination
    B Oliver
    Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
    Genetics 120:159-71. 1988
    ....
  47. ncbi The interaction between daughterless and sex-lethal in triploids: a lethal sex-transforming maternal effect linking sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster
    T W Cline
    Dev Biol 95:260-74. 1983
    ..X/A) balance of the zygote is shown to require proper functioning of both the da+ gene in the mother and the Sxl+ gene in the zygote...
  48. pmc Autoregulatory functioning of a Drosophila gene product that establish es and maintains the sexually determined state
    T W Cline
    Genetics 107:231-77. 1984
    b>Sxl appears to head a regulatory gene hierarchy that controls Drosophila sexual dimorphism in response to the X chromosome/autosome balance. Only XXAA cells normally have Sxl(+) activity...
  49. pmc Studies on the sex-specific lethals of Drosophila melanogaster. V. Sex transformation caused by interactions between a female-specific lethal, Sxlf 1, and the male-specific lethals mle(3)132, msl-2(27), and mle
    T Uenoyama
    Genetics 102:233-43. 1982
    ..When mothers were homozygous for male-specific lethals, higher proportions of female progeny were affected than when mothers were heterozygous, suggesting a maternal effect...
  50. ncbi Equality for X chromosomes
    R L Kelley
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Science 270:1607-10. 1995
    ..A common theme in the Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans systems is that a subtle alteration of chromatin structure may impose this modest, but vital adjustment of the X chromosome transcription level...
  51. pmc RNA binding by Sxl proteins in vitro and in vivo
    M E Samuels
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Mol Cell Biol 14:4975-90. 1994
    b>Sxl has been proposed to regulate splicing of specific target genes by directly interacting with their pre-mRNAs. We have therefore examined the RNA-binding properties of Sxl protein in vitro and in vivo...
  52. ncbi Resonance assignments and solution structure of the second RNA-binding domain of sex-lethal determined by multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance
    A L Lee
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley 94720 1460
    Biochemistry 33:13775-86. 1994
    The RNA-binding protein Sex-lethal (Sxl) is a critical regulator of sexual differentiation and dosage compensation in Drosophila...
  53. ncbi The msl-2 dosage compensation gene of Drosophila encodes a putative DNA-binding protein whose expression is sex specifically regulated by Sex-lethal
    G J Bashaw
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    Development 121:3245-58. 1995
    ..MSL-2 protein is not produced in females and sequences in both the 5' and 3' UTRs are important for this sex-specific regulation. Furthermore, msl-2 pre-mRNA is alternatively spliced in a Sex-lethal-dependent fashion in its 5' UTR...
  54. pmc scute (sis-b) function in Drosophila sex determination
    G Deshpande
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 15:4430-40. 1995
    ..in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo by regulating the activity of the early promoter of the Sex-lethal gene, Sxl-Pe. This promoter is activated in females (2X/2A), while it remains off in males (1X/2A)...
  55. pmc Transposon insertions causing constitutive Sex-lethal activity in Drosophila melanogaster affect Sxl sex-specific transcript splicing
    M Bernstein
    Department of Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Genetics 139:631-48. 1995
    Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation...
  56. ncbi Molecular characterization of the male-specific lethal-3 gene and investigations of the regulation of dosage compensation in Drosophila
    M Gorman
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    Development 121:463-75. 1995
    ..This hypertranscription requires four autosomal male-specific lethal (msl) genes and is negatively regulated by the Sxl gene in females...
  57. ncbi Expression of msl-2 causes assembly of dosage compensation regulators on the X chromosomes and female lethality in Drosophila
    R L Kelley
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cell 81:867-77. 1995
    ..We suggest that msl-2 RNA is the primary target of SxI regulation in the dosage compensation pathway and present a speculative model for the regulation of two distinct modes of dosage compensation by SxI...
  58. pmc The Drosophila sex determination gene snf is utilized for the establishment of the female-specific splicing pattern of Sex-lethal
    E B Albrecht
    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4955
    Genetics 134:801-7. 1993
    ..Whether snf influences the female-specific splice site choice directly or indirectly remains to be determined...
  59. ncbi A bZIP protein, sisterless-a, collaborates with bHLH transcription factors early in Drosophila development to determine sex
    J W Erickson
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720
    Genes Dev 7:1688-702. 1993
    ..shown that a diplo-X dose of these genes activates their regulatory target, the feminizing switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl), whereas a haplo-X dose leaves Sxl inactive...
  60. pmc Regulated splicing of the Drosophila sex-lethal male exon involves a blockage mechanism
    J I Horabin
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Mol Cell Biol 13:1408-14. 1993
    ..This and the observation that the splice signals at the exon are suboptimal are discussed with regard to alternate splicing...
  61. pmc Genetic and molecular analysis of the autosomal component of the primary sex determination signal of Drosophila melanogaster
    D A Barbash
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3204, USA
    Genetics 141:1451-71. 1995
    ..Moreover, loss of dpn activity in males caused only a modest derepression of the Sxl "establishment" promoter (Sxlpe), the X:A target...
  62. ncbi Sex-specific control of Sex-lethal is a conserved mechanism for sex determination in the genus Drosophila
    D Bopp
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA
    Development 122:971-82. 1996
    In D. melanogaster the binary switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) plays a pivotal role in somatic sex determination -- when the Sxl gene is on the female pathway is followed, while the male pathway is followed when the gene is off...
  63. ncbi Dosage compensation in Drosophila: the X chromosome binding of MSL-1 and MSL-2 in female embryos is prevented by the early expression of the Sxl gene
    K A McDowell
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mech Dev 57:113-9. 1996
    ..of MSL-1 is never seen in wildtype female embryos, and we have determined that this inhibition is mediated by the SXL product made by the activation of the early Sxl promoter...
  64. pmc Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations in snf define a role for snRNP proteins in regulating Sex-lethal pre-mRNA splicing in Drosophila development
    H K Salz
    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4955, USA
    Genetics 144:95-108. 1996
    ..Based on these studies we suggest a model in which the snRNP protein, Snf, functions with Sex-lethal to block recognition of the regulated male-specific exon...
  65. ncbi roX1 RNA paints the X chromosome of male Drosophila and is regulated by the dosage compensation system
    V H Meller
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cell 88:445-57. 1997
    ..The novel regulation and subnuclear localization of roX1 RNAs makes them candidates for an RNA component of the dosage compensation machinery...
  66. ncbi Genes expressed in neurons of adult male Drosophila
    H Amrein
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 88:459-69. 1997
    ..Our data suggest that the multimeric complex of dosage compensation proteins may operate in different ways on different sets of X-linked genes...
  67. ncbi Sex lethal controls dosage compensation in Drosophila by a non-splicing mechanism
    R L Kelley
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Nature 387:195-9. 1997
    ..Expression of ms12 is repressed post-transcriptionally by Sex lethal (SXL), a female-specific RNA-binding protein that regulates alternative splicing in the sex-determination ..
  68. pmc Distinct mechanisms of splicing regulation in vivo by the Drosophila protein Sex-lethal
    B Granadino
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Velazquez 144, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:7343-8. 1997
    The protein Sex-lethal (SXL) controls pre-mRNA splicing of two genes involved in Drosophila sex determination: transformer (tra) and the Sxl gene itself...
  69. ncbi Sex-lethal interactions with protein and RNA. Roles of glycine-rich and RNA binding domains
    J Wang
    Molecular Biology Program, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 1340, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:22227-35. 1997
    Sex-lethal (Sxl) is an RNA-binding protein, containing two conserved RNA binding domains (RBDs) and a glycine-rich region, which functions as a regulator of alternative splicing in Drosophila sex determination...
  70. pmc Groucho acts as a corepressor for a subset of negative regulators, including Hairy and Engrailed
    G Jimenez
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund ICRF, London WC2A 3PX, England
    Genes Dev 11:3072-82. 1997
    ..These results show that Gro is not generally required for repression, but acts as a specific corepressor for a fraction of negative regulators, including Hairy and En...
  71. pmc Activities of the Sex-lethal protein in RNA binding and protein:protein interactions
    M Samuels
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 26:2625-37. 1998
    The Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls its own expression, and the expression of downstream target genes such as transformer , by regulating pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA translation...
  72. ncbi The evolutionary dynamics of sex determination
    I Marin
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 281:1990-4. 1998
    ....
  73. ncbi Direct activation of Sex-lethal transcription by the Drosophila runt protein
    S G Kramer
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology and the Institute for Cell and Developmental Biology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 5215, USA
    Development 126:191-200. 1999
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that a small segment of the Sex-lethal early promoter that contains Runt-binding sites mediates Runt-dependent transcriptional activation in vivo...
  74. ncbi Suppression of distinct ovo phenotypes in the Drosophila female germline by maleless- and Sex-lethal
    B Oliver
    Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Dev Genet 23:335-46. 1998
    ..Gain-of-function Sex-lethal (Sxl) alleles and male specific lethal-2 alleles did not suppress the ovo germline death phenotype...
  75. ncbi The N-terminal domain of Sxl protein disrupts Sxl autoregulation in females and promotes female-specific splicing of tra in males
    G Deshpande
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Development 126:2841-53. 1999
    Sex determination in Drosophila depends upon the post-transcriptional regulatory activities of the Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene...
  76. pmc Relief of gene repression by torso RTK signaling: role of capicua in Drosophila terminal and dorsoventral patterning
    G Jimenez
    Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    Genes Dev 14:224-31. 2000
    ..cic has been evolutionarily conserved, suggesting that Cic-like proteins may act as repressors regulated by RTK signaling in other organisms...
  77. ncbi An extracellular activator of the Drosophila JAK/STAT pathway is a sex-determination signal element
    L Sefton
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3204, USA
    Nature 405:970-3. 2000
    ..set of X-linked signal elements (XSEs), which activate transcription of Sxl through its 'establishment' promoter, SxlPe. Here we describe a new XSE called sisterlessC (sisC) whose mode of action differs from that of previously ..
  78. ncbi The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms
    I Marin
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Bioessays 22:1106-14. 2000
    ..Some tantalizing similarities in the fly and mammalian mechanisms, however, remain to be explained...
  79. pmc Interpretation of X chromosome dose at Sex-lethal requires non-E-box sites for the basic helix-loop-helix proteins SISB and daughterless
    D Yang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027
    Mol Cell Biol 21:1581-92. 2001
    ..sisB or scute) gene is a key indicator of the X dose and functions to activate the switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) in female (XX), but not in male (XY), embryos...
  80. ncbi The sex determination master switch, Sex-lethal, responds to Hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila germline
    C Vied
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1918 University Boulevard, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Development 128:2649-60. 2001
    ..This is the first demonstration that downstream components of the Hedgehog signaling pathway regulate a target other than Cubitus interruptus...
  81. pmc Modulation of msl-2 5' splice site recognition by Sex-lethal
    P Förch
    Gene Expression Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    RNA 7:1185-91. 2001
    The protein Sex-lethal (SXL) controls dosage compensation in Drosophila by inhibiting splicing and subsequently translation of male-specific-lethal-2 (msl-2) transcripts...
  82. ncbi Male sterility associated with overexpression of the noncoding hsromega gene in cyst cells of testis of Drosophila melanogaster
    T K Rajendra
    Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Genet 80:97-110. 2001
    ..The in situ distribution patterns of these two hnRNPs and several other RNA-binding proteins (Hrp40, Hrb57A, S5, Sxl, SRp55 and Rb97D) were not affected by hsromega mutation in any of the meiotic stages in adult testes...
  83. ncbi Splicing regulation at the second catalytic step by Sex-lethal involves 3' splice site recognition by SPF45
    María José Lallena
    Gene Expression Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117, Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 109:285-96. 2002
    The Drosophila protein Sex-lethal (SXL) promotes skipping of exon 3 from its own pre-mRNA...
  84. ncbi Sex-determination gene and pathway evolution in nematodes
    Paul Stothard
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9, Canada
    Bioessays 25:221-31. 2003
    ..Experimental strategies that hold promise for illuminating pathway differences between nematodes are also discussed...
  85. ncbi Sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica converges at the level of the terminal regulator doublesex
    Monika Hediger
    Zoological Institute, University Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Dev Genes Evol 214:29-42. 2004
    ..cascades in these flies differ at the level of the primary sex-determining signal and their targets, Sxl in Drosophila and F in Musca...
  86. pmc Recruitment of the proneural gene scute to the Drosophila sex-determination pathway
    Lisa A Wrischnik
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3204, USA
    Genetics 165:2007-27. 2003
    ..The screen that yielded new sc alleles also generated autosomal duplications that argue against the textbook view that fruit fly sex signal evolution recruited a set of autosomal signal elements comparable to the XSEs...
  87. ncbi Nanos downregulates transcription and modulates CTD phosphorylation in the soma of early Drosophila embryos
    Girish Deshpande
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Mech Dev 122:645-57. 2005
    ..We have previously reported that nos is required to keep the Sex-lethal establishment promoter, Sxl-Pe, off in the germline of both sexes...
  88. pmc Somatic control of germline sexual development is mediated by the JAK/STAT pathway
    Matthew Wawersik
    Biology Department, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Nature 436:563-7. 2005
    ..Our findings provide direct evidence that the JAK/STAT pathway mediates a key signal from the somatic gonad that regulates male germline sexual development...
  89. ncbi The Drosophila ovarian and testis stem cell niches: similar somatic stem cells and signals
    Eva Decotto
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Laboratories, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Dev Cell 9:501-10. 2005
    ..These observations reveal striking similarities in the stem cell niches of male and female gonads, and suggest that they are largely governed by common mechanisms...
  90. ncbi Splitting the Hedgehog signal: sex and patterning in Drosophila
    Jamila I Horabin
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Development 132:4801-10. 2005
    Sex-lethal (Sxl), the Drosophila sex-determination master switch, is on in females and controls sexual development as a splicing and translational regulator. Hedgehog (Hh) is a secreted protein that specifies cell fate during development...
  91. pmc Sex-lethal imparts a sex-specific function to UNR by recruiting it to the msl-2 mRNA 3' UTR: translational repression for dosage compensation
    Kent Duncan
    Gene Expression Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 20:368-79. 2006
    ..Inhibition of MSL-2 synthesis requires the female-specific protein sex-lethal (SXL), which binds to the msl-2 mRNA 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and blocks translation through distinct UTR-..
  92. pmc Drosophila UNR is required for translational repression of male-specific lethal 2 mRNA during regulation of X-chromosome dosage compensation
    Irina Abaza
    Centre de Regulació Genòmica CRG UPF, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    Genes Dev 20:380-9. 2006
    The inhibition of male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2) mRNA translation by the RNA-binding protein sex-lethal (SXL) is an essential regulatory step for X-chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster...
  93. pmc High-resolution ChIP-chip analysis reveals that the Drosophila MSL complex selectively identifies active genes on the male X chromosome
    Artyom A Alekseyenko
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 20:848-57. 2006
    ..Distinguishing expressed genes from the bulk of the genome is likely to be an important function common to many chromatin organizing and modifying activities...
  94. ncbi The TAGteam DNA motif controls the timing of Drosophila pre-blastoderm transcription
    John R ten Bosch
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3204, USA
    Development 133:1967-77. 2006
    The Drosophila sex-determination switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) and the X-chromosome signal element genes (XSEs) that induce the female-specific expression of Sxl are transcribed extremely early in development when most of the genome of ..
  95. pmc Drosophila SPF45: a bifunctional protein with roles in both splicing and DNA repair
    Ahmad Sami Chaouki
    Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 2:e178. 2006
    ....
  96. ncbi Drosophila JAK/STAT pathway reveals distinct initiation and reinforcement steps in early transcription of Sxl
    Frank W Avila
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, 3258 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Curr Biol 17:643-8. 2007
    ..Once XSE protein concentrations have been assessed, SxlPe is inactivated and the maintenance promoter, SxlPm, is turned on in both sexes; however, only in females is SXL present to direct the SxlPm-derived transcripts to be ..
  97. pmc Functioning of the Drosophila Wilms'-tumor-1-associated protein homolog, Fl(2)d, in Sex-lethal-dependent alternative splicing
    Jill K M Penn
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Genetics 178:737-48. 2008
    ..Drosophila homolog of Wilms'-tumor-1-associated protein (WTAP), regulates the alternative splicing of Sex-lethal (Sxl), transformer (tra), and Ultrabithorax (Ubx)...
  98. pmc Hrp48 attenuates Sxl expression to allow for proper notch expression and signaling in wing development
    Yaron Suissa
    Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, Institute for Medical Research Israel Canada, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:6930-5. 2010
    ..Recently, Sex-lethal (Sxl), the female determinant in Drosophila melanogaster, was shown to down-regulate Notch (N) signaling to accomplish ..
  99. pmc Evolution of the Drosophila feminizing switch gene Sex-lethal
    Thomas W Cline
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3204, USA
    Genetics 186:1321-36. 2010
    In Drosophila melanogaster, the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls all aspects of female development. Since melanogaster males lacking Sxl appear wild type, Sxl would seem to be functionally female specific...
  100. doi Translational control via protein-regulated upstream open reading frames
    Jan Medenbach
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 145:902-13. 2011
    Analysis of the regulation of msl-2 mRNA by Sex lethal (SXL), which is critical for dosage compensation in Drosophila, has uncovered a mode of translational control based on common 5' untranslated region elements, upstream open reading ..

Research Grants14

  1. THERMODYNAMICS AND STRUCTURE OF POLYMERIZING ACTIN
    SANDRA GREER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL MEDIATED BY MRNA STRUCTURE
    Marilyn Kozak; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The reason why 40S ribosome/factor complexes protect "extra" sequences, which are accessible to RNase in 80S initiation complexes, will be studied. ..
  3. Signaling Mechanisms of the Drosophila JAK/STAT Pathway
    Hong Luo; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. 2003 Gordon Research Conference - Biology of Aging
    John Tower; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Significant funding is also provided by the Gordon Research Conference Organization, and additional funds are being solicited from private foundations and industry. ..
  5. DROSOPHILA LONGEVITY ASSURANCE GENES
    John Tower; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..PdL creates dominant conditional mutations, which should greatly facilitate the identification, characterization and cloning of novel Drosophila LAGs. ..
  6. AGE-RELATED NON-DISJUNCTION IN OOCYTES
    HELEN SALZ; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Drosophila DNA Replication Origins
    John Tower; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The experiments will test a number of specific hypotheses as to the organization and regulation of the chorion locus DNA replication origins. ..
  8. Quantitative genomics of sexual dimorphism
    Sergey Nuzhdin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We expect our results to have a profound impact on our understanding of the evolution of sexual dimorphism, and the role that sexual differentiation plays in the generation of phenotypic diversity. ..
  9. CHROMOSOME COUNTING MECHANISMS IN SEX DETERMINIATION
    James Erickson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The emphasis is on the switch-like response of the establishment promoter, SxlPe, to X chromosome dose. SxlPe is turned on in XX embryos (females) and left off in XY males...
  10. Molecular genetics of egg activation and pronuclear function in Drosophila
    MARIANA FEDERICA WOLFNER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, we exploit the powerful genetics of Drosophila to elucidate efficiently the molecules and gene pathways needed to start development in humans. ..
  11. The Mechanisms and Regulatory Networks of Alternative Splicing in Drosophila
    BRENTON GRAVELEY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  12. Hedgehog Signaling and Sex-lethal Protein Localization
    JAMILA HORABIN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Sex-lethal (Sxl) is the Drosophila sex determination master switch and controls all aspects of sexual development...
  13. REGULATION OF SEX SPECIFIC GENES IN DROSOPHILA
    Thomas Cline; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..proposal is based on the understanding and genetic tools developed over years of study of the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl), the master regulator of Drosophila sex determination and X-chromosome dosage compensation...
  14. Regulation of Sex-lethal pre-mRNA splicing during Drosophila development
    HELEN KAREN SALZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specifically, we study the splicing regulation of the Drosophila developmental switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl)...

Patents1

  1. PLASMIDES FOR THE EXPRESSION OF FILAMENTOUS HAEMAGGLUTININ (FHA) AND HOSTS THEREFOR
    Patent Number: WO9218624-A1; Date:1992-10-29