Trl

Summary

Gene Symbol: Trl
Description: Trithorax-like
Alias: Adf-2, Adf-2-519, Adf2, CG33261, CG9343, Dmel\CG33261, E(var)3-trl, E(var)62, GAF, GAGA, GAGA factor, Gaf, Gaga, NC70F, Nc70F, TRL, TfGAGA/Adf-2, Trl-GAGA, anon-EST:fe2E12, gaga, l(3)s2325, trl, CG33261 gene product from transcript CG33261-RI, Adh transcription factor 2, CG33261-PA, CG33261-PB, CG33261-PC, CG33261-PD, CG33261-PE, CG33261-PF, CG33261-PH, CG33261-PI, CG33261-PJ, CG33261-PK, GAGA element, GAGA factor, GAGA transcription factor, GAGA-factor, Trithorax-related, Trithroax-like, Trl-PA, Trl-PB, Trl-PC, Trl-PD, Trl-PE, Trl-PF, Trl-PH, Trl-PI, Trl-PJ, Trl-PK, anon-fast-evolving-2E12, neural conserved at 70F, transcription-factor-Adh2, trithorax like, trithorax-like
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. ncbi DNA distortion and multimerization: novel functions of the glutamine-rich domain of GAGA factor
    R C Wilkins
    Section of Genetics and Development, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853, USA
    J Mol Biol 285:515-25. 1999
  2. pmc GAGA factor isoforms have distinct but overlapping functions in vivo
    A J Greenberg
    Dept of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 21:8565-74. 2001
  3. ncbi Chromatin. Ga-ga over GAGA factor
    H Granok
    Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Curr Biol 5:238-41. 1995
  4. ncbi The centrosomal protein CP190 is a component of the gypsy chromatin insulator
    Chi Yun Pai
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Mol Cell 16:737-48. 2004
  5. doi A functionally conserved boundary element from the mouse HoxD locus requires GAGA factor in Drosophila
    Dasari Vasanthi
    Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, India
    Development 137:4239-47. 2010
  6. ncbi The glutamine-rich domain of the Drosophila GAGA factor is necessary for amyloid fibre formation in vitro, but not for chromatin remodelling
    B Agianian
    Structural Biology Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1 D 69117, Heidelgberg, Germany
    J Mol Biol 285:527-44. 1999
  7. ncbi Functional mapping of the GAGA factor assigns its transcriptional activity to the C-terminal glutamine-rich domain
    A Vaquero
    Departament de Biologia Molecular i Cel lular, Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, Centre d Investigació i Desenvolupament Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Jordi Girona 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 275:19461-8. 2000
  8. pmc Drosophila GAGA factor directs histone H3.3 replacement that prevents the heterochromatin spreading
    Takahiro Nakayama
    Department of Developmental Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka ken 411 8540, Japan
    Genes Dev 21:552-61. 2007
  9. pmc Co-localization of Polycomb protein and GAGA factor on regulatory elements responsible for the maintenance of homeotic gene expression
    H Strutt
    ZMBH, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 16:3621-32. 1997
  10. pmc Chromatin remodeling mediated by Drosophila GAGA factor and ISWI activates fushi tarazu gene transcription in vitro
    M Okada
    Department of Genetics, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka ken, Japan
    Mol Cell Biol 18:2455-61. 1998

Research Grants

  1. MECHANISMS OF GENE SILENCING
    Lori Wallrath; Fiscal Year: 2009

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications125 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi DNA distortion and multimerization: novel functions of the glutamine-rich domain of GAGA factor
    R C Wilkins
    Section of Genetics and Development, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853, USA
    J Mol Biol 285:515-25. 1999
    b>GAGA factor (GAF) is an essential protein in Drosophila melanogaster, important for the transcriptional regulation of numerous genes...
  2. pmc GAGA factor isoforms have distinct but overlapping functions in vivo
    A J Greenberg
    Dept of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 21:8565-74. 2001
    The Drosophila melanogaster GAGA factor (encoded by the Trithorax-like [Trl] gene) is required for correct chromatin architecture at diverse chromosomal sites...
  3. ncbi Chromatin. Ga-ga over GAGA factor
    H Granok
    Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Curr Biol 5:238-41. 1995
    Recent results suggest that the Drosophila transcriptional activator known as GAGA factor functions by influencing chromatin structure.
  4. ncbi The centrosomal protein CP190 is a component of the gypsy chromatin insulator
    Chi Yun Pai
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Mol Cell 16:737-48. 2004
    ..The results suggest that endogenous gypsy insulators contain binding sites for CP190, which is essential for insulator function, and may or may not contain binding sites for Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4)2.2...
  5. doi A functionally conserved boundary element from the mouse HoxD locus requires GAGA factor in Drosophila
    Dasari Vasanthi
    Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, India
    Development 137:4239-47. 2010
    ..species including a GA repeat motif and that the Evx2-Hoxd13 boundary activity in Drosophila is dependent on GAGA factor that binds to the GA repeat motif...
  6. ncbi The glutamine-rich domain of the Drosophila GAGA factor is necessary for amyloid fibre formation in vitro, but not for chromatin remodelling
    B Agianian
    Structural Biology Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1 D 69117, Heidelgberg, Germany
    J Mol Biol 285:527-44. 1999
    The Drosophila GAGA factor binds specifically to the sequence GAGAG, and synergises with nucleosome remodelling factor to remodel chromatin in vitro...
  7. ncbi Functional mapping of the GAGA factor assigns its transcriptional activity to the C-terminal glutamine-rich domain
    A Vaquero
    Departament de Biologia Molecular i Cel lular, Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, Centre d Investigació i Desenvolupament Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Jordi Girona 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 275:19461-8. 2000
    b>GAGA is a nuclear protein encoded by the Trithorax-like gene in Drosophila that is expressed in at least two isoforms generated by alternative splicing...
  8. pmc Drosophila GAGA factor directs histone H3.3 replacement that prevents the heterochromatin spreading
    Takahiro Nakayama
    Department of Developmental Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka ken 411 8540, Japan
    Genes Dev 21:552-61. 2007
    Epigenetic maintenance of the expression state of the genome is critical for development. Drosophila GAGA factor interacts with FACT and modulates chromatin structure for the maintenance of gene expression...
  9. pmc Co-localization of Polycomb protein and GAGA factor on regulatory elements responsible for the maintenance of homeotic gene expression
    H Strutt
    ZMBH, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 16:3621-32. 1997
    ..b>GAGA factor/Trithorax-like, a member of the trithorax group, is also bound at those PREs which contain GAGA consensus-..
  10. pmc Chromatin remodeling mediated by Drosophila GAGA factor and ISWI activates fushi tarazu gene transcription in vitro
    M Okada
    Department of Genetics, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka ken, Japan
    Mol Cell Biol 18:2455-61. 1998
    b>GAGA factor is known to remodel the chromatin structure in concert with nucleosome-remodeling factor NURF in a Drosophila embryonic S150 extract...
  11. doi Transcriptional activation by GAGA factor is through its direct interaction with dmTAF3
    Vivek Sarojkumar Chopra
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, India
    Dev Biol 317:660-70. 2008
    The GAGA factor (GAF), encoded by the Trithorax like gene (Trl) is a multifunctional protein involved in gene activation, Polycomb-dependent repression, chromatin remodeling and is a component of chromatin domain boundaries...
  12. doi A vertebrate Polycomb response element governs segmentation of the posterior hindbrain
    Angela Sing
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mt Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X5, Canada
    Cell 138:885-97. 2009
    ..Thus, we provide evidence that similar to invertebrates, PREs act as entry sites for PcG/trxG chromatin remodeling in vertebrates...
  13. pmc Regulation of Polycomb group complexes by the sequence-specific DNA binding proteins Zeste and GAGA
    Niveen M Mulholland
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Genes Dev 17:2741-6. 2003
    ..b>GAGA factor and Zeste bind specifically to PREs/TREs and have been shown to act as both activators and repressors...
  14. doi Activation properties of GAGA transcription factor
    Alejandro Vaquero
    Departament de Biologia Molecular i Cellular Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, CSIC Parc Científic de Barcelona Josep Samitier, 1 5 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1779:312-7. 2008
    ..We present evidence that GAGA factor enhances transcription by stabilizing pre-initiation complex (PIC) and promoting reinitiation...
  15. ncbi The Trithorax-like gene encodes the Drosophila GAGA factor
    G Farkas
    Department of Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    Nature 371:806-8. 1994
    ..We found that Trithorax-like encodes the GAGA factor which is involved in the formation of an accessible chromatin structure at promoter sequences...
  16. pmc Cooperative binding at a distance by even-skipped protein correlates with repression and suggests a mechanism of silencing
    A TenHarmsel
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511
    Mol Cell Biol 13:2742-52. 1993
    ..Cooperative binding of further repressor molecules to distant low-affinity sites, and competition with activators bound at these sites lead to repression at a distance...
  17. ncbi Promoter-associated pausing in promoter architecture and postinitiation transcriptional regulation
    J Lis
    Section of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 63:347-56. 1998
  18. pmc A complex array of DNA-binding proteins required for pairing-sensitive silencing by a polycomb group response element from the Drosophila engrailed gene
    Jeffrey Americo
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Genetics 160:1561-71. 2002
    ..sites is for the Polycomb group protein Pleiohomeotic and another is GAGAG, a sequence bound by the proteins GAGA factor and Pipsqueak. The identity of the other proteins is unknown...
  19. pmc pipsqueak encodes a factor essential for sequence-specific targeting of a polycomb group protein complex
    Der Hwa Huang
    Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115, Republic of China
    Mol Cell Biol 22:6261-71. 2002
    ..primarily to the large protein isoform encoded by pipsqueak (psq) instead of to the well-characterized GAGA factor. The functional relevance of psq to the silencing mechanism is strongly supported by its synergistic ..
  20. ncbi Trl-GAGA directly interacts with lola like and both are part of the repressive complex of Polycomb group of genes
    Krishnaveni Mishra
    Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, 500007 Hyderabad, India
    Mech Dev 120:681-9. 2003
    ..We identified lola like, aka batman, as a strong interactor of GAGA factor in a yeast two-hybrid screen...
  21. pmc The Drosophila GAGA factor is required for dosage compensation in males and for the formation of the male-specific-lethal complex chromatin entry site at 12DE
    Anthony J Greenberg
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Genetics 166:279-89. 2004
    ..Here, we report that mutations in Trithorax-like (Trl) lead to the loss of a single chromatin entry site on the X, male lethality, and mislocalization of dosage ..
  22. ncbi Position effect variegation in Drosophila is associated with an altered chromatin structure
    L L Wallrath
    Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Genes Dev 9:1263-77. 1995
    ..Micrococcal nuclease digests showed that pericentric inserts were packaged in a more regular nucleosome array than that observed for euchromatic inserts. These data suggest that altered chromatin packaging plays a role in PEV...
  23. pmc The single Cys2-His2 zinc finger domain of the GAGA protein flanked by basic residues is sufficient for high-affinity specific DNA binding
    P V Pedone
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Naional Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0530, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:2822-6. 1996
    ..GAGAGAG has been shown with an 82-residue peptide (residues 310-391) taken from the Drosophila transcription factor GAGA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was demonstrated that the minimal domain required for specific binding (..
  24. ncbi Heterochromatin and gene expression in Drosophila
    K S Weiler
    Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1800, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 29:577-605. 1995
    ....
  25. pmc Molecular architecture of the hsp70 promoter after deletion of the TATA box or the upstream regulation region
    J A Weber
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 17:3799-808. 1997
    b>GAGA factor, TFIID, and paused polymerase are present on the hsp70 promoter in Drosophila melanogaster prior to transcriptional activation...
  26. pmc Distinct cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1: their phosphorylation levels and associations with origin recognition complex proteins
    D W Huang
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1B1, Canada
    J Cell Biol 142:307-18. 1998
    ....
  27. ncbi The N-terminal POZ domain of GAGA mediates the formation of oligomers that bind DNA with high affinity and specificity
    M L Espinás
    Departament de Biologia Molecular i Cel lular, Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, Centre d Investigació i Desenvolupament, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Jordi Girona Salgado 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 274:16461-9. 1999
    The Drosophila GAGA factor self-oligomerizes both in vivo and in vitro...
  28. pmc A cellular memory module conveys epigenetic inheritance of hedgehog expression during Drosophila wing imaginal disc development
    Cédric Maurange
    Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie Heidelberg ZMBH, University of Heidelberg, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 16:2672-83. 2002
    ....
  29. ncbi Repression by TTK69 of GAGA-mediated activation occurs in the absence of TTK69 binding to DNA and solely requires the contribution of the POZ/BTB domain of TTK69
    Sara Pagans
    Department de Biologia Molecular i Cellular, Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Jordi Girona Salgado, 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 279:9725-32. 2004
    tramtrack 69 (TTK69) is known to repress GAGA-mediated activation of the eve promoter in S2 cells...
  30. ncbi Polycomb complexes and the propagation of the methylation mark at the Drosophila ubx gene
    Tatyana G Kahn
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:29064-75. 2006
    ..Both the spread of methylation from the Polycomb response elements, and the silencing effect can be blocked by the gypsy insulator...
  31. doi Association of trxG and PcG proteins with the bxd maintenance element depends on transcriptional activity
    Svetlana Petruk
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Development 135:2383-90. 2008
    ..There is, however, no overall synergism or antagonism between and within the trxG and PcG proteins and, instead, only subsets of trxG proteins act synergistically...
  32. ncbi DNA sequence requirements for generating paused polymerase at the start of hsp70
    H Lee
    Section of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853
    Genes Dev 6:284-95. 1992
    ..Within this region are multiple copies of the GAGA element, which is known to bind a constitutively expressed factor...
  33. pmc The Drosophila even-skipped promoter is transcribed in a stage-specific manner in vitro and contains multiple, overlapping factor-binding sites
    D Read
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027
    Mol Cell Biol 10:4334-44. 1990
    ..correspond to the sequences required for stage-specific expression, appears to be the previously described GAGA factor. Although the binding activity of the GAGA factor remains constant, the level of the binding activity of the ..
  34. ncbi Transcription factors that activate the Ultrabithorax promoter in developmentally staged extracts
    M D Biggin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Berkeley 94720
    Cell 53:699-711. 1988
    ..One factor, which binds to multiple GAGA DNA sequence motifs in the Ubx promoter, has been purified and shown to activate transcription from this promoter ..
  35. pmc Isolation of cDNAs encoding the Drosophila GAGA transcription factor
    W C Soeller
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143
    Mol Cell Biol 13:7961-70. 1993
    To investigate the mechanisms involved in expression of the Drosophila melanogaster engrailed gene, we purified GAGA protein, one of several putative transcriptional activator proteins that binds to the proximal region of the engrailed ..
  36. ncbi Heterochromatin protein 1 distribution during development and during the cell cycle in Drosophila embryos
    R Kellum
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California at San Francisco 94143 0448, USA
    J Cell Sci 108:1407-18. 1995
    ..The GAGA transcription factor was recently shown to be localized at sequences within alpha-heterochromatin in pre-cycle 14 embryos, ..
  37. pmc The Drosophila GAGA transcription factor is associated with specific regions of heterochromatin throughout the cell cycle
    J W Raff
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, 94143 0448
    EMBO J 13:5977-83. 1994
    ..The Drosophila GAGA transcription factor binds to GA/CT-rich sequences in many Drosophila promoters, where it activates transcription, apparently ..
  38. ncbi The POZ domain: a conserved protein-protein interaction motif
    V J Bardwell
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, London, UK
    Genes Dev 8:1664-77. 1994
    ..present in a large family of proteins that includes both the otherwise unrelated zinc finger proteins, such as Ttk, GAGA, and ZF5, and a group of poxvirus proteins: We therefore refer to this domain as the POZ (poxvirus and zinc finger) ..
  39. ncbi ATP-dependent nucleosome disruption at a heat-shock promoter mediated by binding of GAGA transcription factor
    T Tsukiyama
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Nature 367:525-32. 1994
    ..Binding of the GAGA transcription factor on existing nucleosomes leads to nucleosome disruption, DNase I hypersensitivity at the TATA box and ..
  40. ncbi Purification and properties of an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor
    T Tsukiyama
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4255, USA
    Cell 83:1011-20. 1995
    ..NURF is composed of at least four polypeptides that act in concert with the GAGA transcription factor to alter chromatin structure at the hsp70 promoter...
  41. ncbi The torso response element binds GAGA and NTF-1/Elf-1, and regulates tailless by relief of repression
    G J Liaw
    Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA
    Genes Dev 9:3163-76. 1995
    ..an 11-bp sequence; using this sequence as the basis for protein purification, we have determined that the proteins GAGA and NTF-1 (also known as Elf-1, product of the grainyhead gene) bind to the tor-RE...
  42. ncbi The GAGA factor is required in the early Drosophila embryo not only for transcriptional regulation but also for nuclear division
    K M Bhat
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA
    Development 122:1113-24. 1996
    ..Subsequent studies have suggested that the GAGA factor promotes transcription by blocking the repressive effects of histones; moreover, it has been shown to function ..
  43. ncbi Purification of GAGA factor of Drosophila and its role in nucleosome disruption
    T Tsukiyama
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Methods Enzymol 274:291-9. 1996
  44. pmc Multiple isoforms of GAGA factor, a critical component of chromatin structure
    C Benyajati
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 25:3345-53. 1997
    The GAGA transcription factor of Drosophila melanogaster is ubiquitous and plays multiple roles...
  45. pmc A Polycomb and GAGA dependent silencer adjoins the Fab-7 boundary in the Drosophila bithorax complex
    K Hagstrom
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Genetics 146:1365-80. 1997
    ..The iab-7 PRE silencer is contained within a 0.8-kb fragment that spans a nuclease hypersensitive site, and silencing appears to depend on the chromatin remodeling protein, the GAGA factor.
  46. ncbi Cooperative and competitive protein interactions at the hsp70 promoter
    P B Mason
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:33227-33. 1997
    ..A third factor that binds heat shock promoters, GAGA factor, also interacts with HSF and further stabilizes HSF binding to heat shock elements (HSEs)...
  47. ncbi Polycomb and trithorax group proteins mediate the function of a chromatin insulator
    T I Gerasimova
    Department of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Cell 92:511-21. 1998
    ..The results suggest a model in which PcG and TrxG proteins regulate insulator function by establishing higher order domains of chromatin organization required for the assembly of functional insulators at the nuclear matrix...
  48. pmc Comparative analysis of position-effect variegation mutations in Drosophila melanogaster delineates the targets of modifiers
    G L Sass
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    Genetics 148:733-41. 1998
    ..In addition, our observations support a model in which there are different constraints on the process of heterochromatin-induced silencing in classical vs. nonclassical PEV mutations...
  49. ncbi The Drosophila Fab-7 chromosomal element conveys epigenetic inheritance during mitosis and meiosis
    G Cavalli
    ZMBH, Universitat Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 93:505-18. 1998
    ..In Drosophila embryos, Polycomb protein and the trxG protein GAGA factor colocalize at the Fab-7 DNA element of the bithorax complex...
  50. pmc Binding of trithorax and Polycomb proteins to the bithorax complex: dynamic changes during early Drosophila embryogenesis
    V Orlando
    ZMBH, University of Heidelberg, INF 282, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 17:5141-50. 1998
    ..Some of the trxG proteins characterized so far are members of chromatin opening complexes (e.g. SWI/SNF and GAGA/NURF) which facilitate binding of transcription factors and components of the basal transcriptional machinery...
  51. ncbi The pipsqueak protein of Drosophila melanogaster binds to GAGA sequences through a novel DNA-binding domain
    M Lehmann
    Institute of Genetics, Free University Berlin, Arnimallee 7, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    J Biol Chem 273:28504-9. 1998
    ..Like the GAGA factor and other members of this family, Psq is an important developmental regulator in Drosophila, having pleiotropic ..
  52. pmc GAGA mediates the enhancer blocking activity of the eve promoter in the Drosophila embryo
    S Ohtsuki
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of Genetics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 USA
    Genes Dev 12:3325-30. 1998
    ..The eve promoter contains an optimal TATA element and a GAGA sequence...
  53. pmc Co-operative DNA binding by GAGA transcription factor requires the conserved BTB/POZ domain and reorganizes promoter topology
    K R Katsani
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    EMBO J 18:698-708. 1999
    ..Here, we study the role of the POZ domain of the GAGA transcription factor in promoter recognition...
  54. ncbi Epigenetic inheritance of active chromatin after removal of the main transactivator
    G Cavalli
    Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie ZMBH, Universität of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 286:955-8. 1999
    ..This feature may allow epigenetic maintenance of active states of developmental genes after decay of their early embryonic regulators...
  55. pmc Structure of a polycomb response element and in vitro binding of polycomb group complexes containing GAGA factor
    B Horard
    Department of Zoology, University of Geneva, CH1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 20:3187-97. 2000
    ..PcG binding to some fragments is dependent on consensus sequences for the GAGA factor. Other fragments lack GAGA binding sites but can still bind PcG complexes in vitro...
  56. ncbi Recruitment of components of Polycomb Group chromatin complexes in Drosophila
    S Poux
    Department of Zoology, University of Geneva, CH1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Development 128:75-85. 2001
    ..Analysis of pho mutant embryos and of PRE constructs whose PHO-binding sites are mutated suggests that, while PHO is important for silencing in imaginal discs, it is not necessary for embryonic PcG silencing...
  57. pmc The iab-7 polycomb response element maps to a nucleosome-free region of chromatin and requires both GAGA and pleiohomeotic for silencing activity
    R K Mishra
    Département de Zoologie et Biologie Animale, Universite de Geneve, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 21:1311-8. 2001
    ..The HS3 sequence contains consensus binding sites for the GAGA factor, a protein implicated in the formation of nucleosome-free regions of chromatin, and Pleiohomeotic (Pho), a ..
  58. pmc The GAGA factor of Drosophila interacts with SAP18, a Sin3-associated polypeptide
    M L Espinás
    Departament de Biologia Molecular i Cellular, Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, CSIC, Jordi Girona Salgado, Spain
    EMBO Rep 1:253-9. 2000
    ..co-repressor complex, was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen as capable of interacting with the Drosophila GAGA factor. The interaction was confirmed in vitro by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays using recombinant ..
  59. pmc Site-specific recognition of a 70-base-pair element containing d(GA)(n) repeats mediates bithoraxoid polycomb group response element-dependent silencing
    J W Hodgson
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Mol Cell Biol 21:4528-43. 2001
    ..analyses show that distinct isoforms of Polyhomeotic and two proteins that recognize d(GA)(3) repeats, the TRL/GAGA factor and Pipsqueak (Psq), are present in the MHS-70 binding activity...
  60. ncbi The MCP silencer of the Drosophila Abd-B gene requires both Pleiohomeotic and GAGA factor for the maintenance of repression
    A Busturia
    Centro de Biologia Molecular, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, CSIC UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049, Spain
    Development 128:2163-73. 2001
    ..MCP138 fragment, there are four binding sites for the Pleiohomeotic protein (PHO) and two binding sites for the GAGA factor (GAF), encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. PHO and the GAF proteins bind to these sites in vitro...
  61. ncbi Dual functions of largest NURF subunit NURF301 in nucleosome sliding and transcription factor interactions
    H Xiao
    Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, Building 37, Room 6068, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Cell 8:531-43. 2001
    ..NURF301 also shows interactions with sequence-specific transcription factors, providing a basis for targeted recruitment of the NURF complex to specific genes...
  62. ncbi corto genetically interacts with Pc-G and trx-G genes and maintains the anterior boundary of Ultrabithorax expression in Drosophila larvae
    A Lopez
    Equipe Developpement et Evolution, Biologie du Développement, UMR 7622 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 9, quai Saint Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Mol Genet Genomics 266:572-83. 2001
    ..Our results provide evidence that corto maintains the anterior border of Ubx expression in third-instar larvae. We suggest that this regulation is accomplished through an interaction with the products of the Pc-G and trx-G genes...
  63. ncbi The Drosophila trithorax protein is a coactivator required to prevent re-establishment of polycomb silencing
    Sylvain Poux
    Department of Zoology, University of Geneva, 30 Quai Ernest Ansermet, CH 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Development 129:2483-93. 2002
    ..b>GAGA factor immunoprecipitates with both complexes...
  64. ncbi GAGA factor down-regulates its own promoter
    Ana Kosoy
    Departament de Biologia Molecular i Cel lular, Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, Consell Superior d Investigacions Cientifiques, Jordi Girona, 18 26, Spain
    J Biol Chem 277:42280-8. 2002
    b>GAGA factor is involved in many nuclear transactions, notably in transcription as an activator in Drosophila...
  65. pmc Pipsqueak and GAGA factor act in concert as partners at homeotic and many other loci
    Alexander Schwendemann
    Institut fur Biologie, Genetik, Freie Universitat Berlin, Arnimallee 7, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:12883-8. 2002
    The Drosophila GAGA factor (GAF) controls transcription and other chromosome functions by altering chromatin structure...
  66. ncbi The Drosophila pho-like gene encodes a YY1-related DNA binding protein that is redundant with pleiohomeotic in homeotic gene silencing
    J Lesley Brown
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Development 130:285-94. 2003
    ..In contrast to Pho and Pho-like, removal of Trithorax-like/GAGA factor or Zeste, two other DNA-binding proteins implicated in PRE function, does not cause misexpression of homeotic ..
  67. pmc batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor
    M Faucheux
    Laboratoire d Embryologie Moleculaire et Experimentale, Chromatine et Développement, CNRS ESA 8080, Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France
    Mol Cell Biol 23:1181-95. 2003
    ..We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene...
  68. pmc In and out of Torso RTK signalling
    Marc Furriols
    Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona CSIC, C Jordi Girona 18 26, E 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    EMBO J 22:1947-52. 2003
  69. pmc A novel boundary element may facilitate independent gene regulation in the Antennapedia complex of Drosophila
    Vladimir E Belozerov
    Department of Cellular Biology, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    EMBO J 22:3113-21. 2003
    ..The core region of the insulator, which contains a cluster of GAGA sites essential for its activity, is highly conserved among other Drosophila species...
  70. pmc GAGA facilitates binding of Pleiohomeotic to a chromatinized Polycomb response element
    Tokameh Mahmoudi
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for Biomedical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9503, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:4147-56. 2003
    ..Genetic studies have indicated a synergistic requirement for the trxG protein GAGA and the PcG protein Pleiohomeotic (PHO) in silencing at several PREs...
  71. ncbi Modulation of heat shock gene expression by the TAC1 chromatin-modifying complex
    Sheryl T Smith
    Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 6:162-7. 2004
    ..Consistently, TAC1 is required for methylation and acetylation of nucleosomal histones in the 5'-coding region of hsp70 after induction, suggesting an unexpected role for TAC1 during transcriptional elongation...
  72. ncbi Function of the Trithorax-like gene during Drosophila development
    Fernando Bejarano
    Centro de Biologia Molecular, CSIC UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Dev Biol 268:327-41. 2004
    ..One of those is the Drosophila Trithorax-like gene that codes for the GAGA factor. To investigate its dual activator/repressor role, we have studied the function of the Trithorax-like ..
  73. pmc Interaction between the GAGA factor and Mod(mdg4) proteins promotes insulator bypass in Drosophila
    Larisa Melnikova
    Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117334, Russia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14806-11. 2004
    ..In this report, we show that the insertion of binding sites for the GAGA factor (GAF) between an enhancer and the Su(Hw) insulator allows bypassing of the insulator...
  74. pmc The enhancer-blocking activity of the Fab-7 boundary from the Drosophila bithorax complex requires GAGA-factor-binding sites
    Susan Schweinsberg
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Genetics 168:1371-84. 2004
    In the work reported here we have analyzed the role of the GAGA factor [encoded by the Trithorax-like (Trl) gene] in the enhancer-blocking activity of Frontabdominal-7 (Fab-7), a domain boundary element from the Drosophila melanogaster ..
  75. pmc CTCF is conserved from Drosophila to humans and confers enhancer blocking of the Fab-8 insulator
    Hanlim Moon
    Section of Molecular Pathology, Laboratory of Immunopathology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    EMBO Rep 6:165-70. 2005
    ..Four proteins have been identified in Drosophila mediating enhancer blocking-Su(Hw), Zw5, BEAF32 and GAGA factor. In vertebrates, the single protein CTCF, with 11 highly conserved zinc fingers, confers enhancer blocking in ..
  76. ncbi The GAGA protein of Drosophila is phosphorylated by CK2
    Carles Bonet
    Departament de Biologia Molecular i Cel lular, Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, IBMB CSIC, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Josep Samitier, 1 5 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Mol Biol 351:562-72. 2005
    The GAGA factor of Drosophila is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that contributes to multiple processes from the regulation of gene expression to the structural organisation of heterochromatin and chromatin remodelling...
  77. ncbi Genome-wide profiling of PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb chromatin binding in Drosophila melanogaster
    Bas Tolhuis
    Division of Molecular Genetics, and the Centre for Biomedical Genetics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Genet 38:694-9. 2006
    ..These results highlight the extensive involvement of PcG proteins in the coordination of development through the formation of large repressive chromatin domains...
  78. ncbi GAGA protein: a multi-faceted transcription factor
    Nicholas L Adkins
    Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, 1 John Marshall Drive, Huntington, WV, 25755, USA
    Biochem Cell Biol 84:559-67. 2006
    ..The GAGA factor (GAF) is one of a few transcription factors that can regulate gene expression at multiple levels...
  79. pmc Integrity of the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain is critical to insulator function in Drosophila melanogaster
    Anton Golovnin
    Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 34 5 Vavilov St, Moscow 119334, Russia
    Mol Cell Biol 27:963-74. 2007
    ..Interestingly, replacement of the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain with the GAF BTB domain produced a nonfunctional protein. Taken together, these data suggest that the Mod(mdg4)-67...
  80. pmc General, negative feedback mechanism for regulation of Trithorax-like gene expression in vivo: new roles for GAGA factor in flies
    Jordi Bernues
    Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona CSIC, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Josep Samitier, 1 5, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:7150-9. 2007
    ..An example of the latter is Trithorax-like (Trl) a member of the Trithorax group that encodes GAGA factor in Drosophila...
  81. ncbi Drosophila retinal pigment cell death is regulated in a position-dependent manner by a cell memory gene
    Nicolas Dos-Santos
    CNRS UMR 8159, LGBC, Université de Versailles St Quentin, Versailles, France
    Int J Dev Biol 52:21-31. 2008
    ..We show that mutations in Trithorax-like (Trl) and lola-like/batman specifically block IOC death during eye morphogenesis...
  82. pmc NELF and GAGA factor are linked to promoter-proximal pausing at many genes in Drosophila
    Chanhyo Lee
    Center for Gene Regulation, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 28:3290-300. 2008
    ..ChIP-chip experiments indicate that GAGA factor associates with 39% of the genes that have NELF...
  83. pmc The DNA-binding Polycomb-group protein Pleiohomeotic maintains both active and repressed transcriptional states through a single site
    Miki Fujioka
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Development 135:4131-9. 2008
    ..Binding sites for the trithorax-group protein GAGA factor also contribute, whereas sites for the known Polycomb response element binding factors Zeste and Dsp1 are ..
  84. pmc Functional anatomy of polycomb and trithorax chromatin landscapes in Drosophila embryos
    Bernd Schuettengruber
    Institut de Genetique Humaine, CNRS, Montpellier, France
    PLoS Biol 7:e13. 2009
    ..Furthermore, several DNA sequence features discriminate between PcG- and TRX-N-bound regions, indicating that underlying DNA sequence contains critical information to drive PREs and TREs towards silencing or activation...
  85. doi The phylogenetic distribution of non-CTCF insulator proteins is limited to insects and reveals that BEAF-32 is Drosophila lineage specific
    Todd A Schoborg
    Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Tennessee, M407 Walters Life Sciences, 1414 Cumberland Ave, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
    J Mol Evol 70:74-84. 2010
    ..To date, six insulators and their associated proteins have been characterized, including Su(Hw), Zw5, CTCF, GAF, Mod(mdg4), and BEAF-32...
  86. pmc A comprehensive map of insulator elements for the Drosophila genome
    Nicolas Negre
    Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Human Genetics, and Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000814. 2010
    ..the genome-wide binding sites of 6 insulator-associated proteins-dCTCF, CP190, BEAF-32, Su(Hw), Mod(mdg4), and GAF-to obtain the first comprehensive map of insulator elements in Drosophila embryos...
  87. pmc Genome-wide kinetics of nucleosome turnover determined by metabolic labeling of histones
    Roger B Deal
    Basic Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Science 328:1161-4. 2010
    ....
  88. pmc Transcription initiation patterns indicate divergent strategies for gene regulation at the chromatin level
    Elizabeth A Rach
    Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 7:e1001274. 2011
    ....
  89. doi Drosophila BTB/POZ domains of "ttk group" can form multimers and selectively interact with each other
    Artem Bonchuk
    Department of the Control of Genetic Processes, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 34 5 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119334, Russia
    J Mol Biol 412:423-36. 2011
    ..Only the BTB domain of the Drosophila GAGA factor (GAF) has been shown to exist as higher-order multimers...
  90. ncbi HSF access to heat shock elements in vivo depends critically on promoter architecture defined by GAGA factor, TFIID, and RNA polymerase II binding sites
    L S Shopland
    Section of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Genes Dev 9:2756-69. 1995
    ..We found three promoter sequences that influence the access of HSF to its binding sites: the GAGA element, sequences surrounding the transcription start site, and a region in the leader of hsp70 where RNA polymerase ..
  91. ncbi Distribution of GAGA protein on Drosophila genes in vivo
    T O'BRIEN
    Section of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Genes Dev 9:1098-110. 1995
    b>GAGA protein binds specific CT.GA-rich DNA sequences in vitro, and many of these sequences are required for transcription in vivo...
  92. pmc Specific local histone-DNA sequence contacts facilitate high-affinity, non-cooperative nucleosome binding of both adf-1 and GAGA factor
    J Gao
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 26:5394-401. 1998
    ..a purified in vitro system to study the binding of the ubiquitous Drosophila transcription factors Adf-1 and GAGA factor to the Adh distal promoter in chromatin...
  93. pmc The Drosophila Corto protein interacts with Polycomb-group proteins and the GAGA factor
    Juliette Salvaing
    UMR 7622 Biologie du Développement, CNRS et Université Paris VI, 9 quai Saint Bernard, F 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:2873-82. 2003
    ..PcG complexes are thought to be recruited to DNA through interaction with DNA binding proteins such as the GAGA factor, but no direct interactions between the constituents of PcG complexes and the GAGA factor have been reported so ..
  94. pmc NELF and DSIF cause promoter proximal pausing on the hsp70 promoter in Drosophila
    Chwen Huey Wu
    Center for Gene Regulation, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Genes Dev 17:1402-14. 2003
    ..The transcriptional activator, HSF, might cause NELF to dissociate from the elongation complex. DSIF continues to associate with the elongation complex and could serve a positive role in elongation...
  95. pmc Drosophila FACT contributes to Hox gene expression through physical and functional interactions with GAGA factor
    Tsukasa Shimojima
    Department of Developmental Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, and Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mishima, Shizuoka ken 411 8540, Japan
    Genes Dev 17:1605-16. 2003
    Chromatin structure plays a critical role in the regulation of transcription. Drosophila GAGA factor directs chromatin remodeling to its binding sites...
  96. ncbi Suppression of heterochromatic gene variegation can be used to distinguish and characterize E(var) genes potentially important for chromosome structure in Drosophila melanogaster
    K S Weiler
    Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195, USA
    Mol Genet Genomics 266:922-32. 2002
    ..In contrast, a mutation in the Trithorax-like ( Trl) gene, which encodes GAGA factor, enhanced or had no effect on lt variegation, consistent with its known role in promoting transcription...
  97. ncbi [Immunoprecipitation mapping of the TRX-associated chromosome elements in the fork head gene promoter in the Drosophila melanogaster salivary gland cells]
    A A Riakhovskiĭ
    Genetika 43:1181-9. 2007
    ....
  98. pmc Characterization and purification of Adh distal promoter factor 2, Adf-2, a cell-specific and promoter-specific repressor in Drosophila
    C Benyajati
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627
    Nucleic Acids Res 20:4481-9. 1992
    ..We discuss the possibility that an activation process is required for Adf-2 protein to bind DNA and function in vivo...
  99. ncbi zeste, a nonessential gene, potently activates Ultrabithorax transcription in the Drosophila embryo
    J D Laney
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511
    Genes Dev 6:1531-41. 1992
    The GAGA, NTF-1, and zeste proteins have been purified previously from Drosophila embryo extracts and shown to activate the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) promoter in vitro...
  100. pmc Energy-dependent chromatin accessibility and nucleosome mobility in a cell-free system
    P D Varga-Weisz
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 14:2209-16. 1995
    ..This unprecedented demonstration of energy-dependent nucleosome mobility identifies a new principle which is likely to be fundamental to the mechanism of chromatin remodelling and the binding of regulatory proteins...
  101. ncbi Biochemical analysis of the role of chromatin structure in the regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II
    R T Kamakaka
    Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0347
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 58:205-12. 1993

Research Grants1

  1. MECHANISMS OF GENE SILENCING
    Lori Wallrath; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Protein products encoded by such genes could represent new markers for metastatic progression and targets for therapy. ..