ACACB

Summary

Gene Symbol: ACACB
Description: acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta
Alias: ACC2, ACCB, HACC275, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, ACC-beta, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase beta
Species: human
Products:     ACACB

Top Publications

  1. Ha J, Lee J, Kim K, Witters L, Kim K. Cloning of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta and its unique features. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11466-70 pubmed
    ..A fragment of ACC-beta cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli and antibodies against the peptide were generated to establish that the cDNA sequence that we cloned is that for ACC-beta. ..
  2. Riancho J, Vazquez L, García Pérez M, Sainz J, Olmos J, Hernandez J, et al. Association of ACACB polymorphisms with obesity and diabetes. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;104:670-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to check the hypothesis that allelic variants of ACACB influence the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  3. Vavvas D, Apazidis A, Saha A, Gamble J, Patel A, Kemp B, et al. Contraction-induced changes in acetyl-CoA carboxylase and 5'-AMP-activated kinase in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13255-61 pubmed
    ..These alterations in ACC and AMPK activity, by diminishing the concentration of malonyl-CoA, could be responsible for the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed in skeletal muscle during exercise. ..
  4. Phillips C, Goumidi L, Bertrais S, Field M, Cupples L, Ordovas J, et al. ACC2 gene polymorphisms, metabolic syndrome, and gene-nutrient interactions with dietary fat. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:3500-7 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase β (ACC2) plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation pathways. Disturbance of these pathways is associated with impaired insulin responsiveness and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
  5. Widmer J, Fassihi K, Schlichter S, Wheeler K, Crute B, King N, et al. Identification of a second human acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene. Biochem J. 1996;316 ( Pt 3):915-22 pubmed
    ..human (RACC265; HACC265) and a higher-molecular-mass species (275,000-280,000 Da) in the same species (RACC280; HACC275). An HACC265 gene has previously been localized to chromosome 17...
  6. Maeda S, Kobayashi M, Araki S, Babazono T, Freedman B, Bostrom M, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta gene is associated with proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000842 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes identified the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) as a candidate for a susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy; the landmark SNP was found in the intron 18 of ACACB ..
  7. Tang S, Leung V, Chan L, Wong S, Chu D, Leung J, et al. The acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) gene is associated with nephropathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:3931-4 pubmed publisher
    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2268388, in the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) gene is associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) in Japanese and European-American populations...
  8. Ma L, Mondal A, Murea M, Sharma N, Tonjes A, Langberg K, et al. The effect of ACACB cis-variants on gene expression and metabolic traits. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23860 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase β (ACACB) is the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, and continuous fatty acid oxidation in Acacb knock-out mice increases insulin sensitivity...
  9. Cho Y, Lee J, Shin D, Kim H, Jung H, Lee T, et al. Molecular mechanism for the regulation of human ACC2 through phosphorylation by AMPK. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the crystal structures of the biotin carboxylase (BC) domain of human ACC2 phosphorylated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  10. Castle J, Hara Y, Raymond C, Garrett Engele P, Ohwaki K, Kan Z, et al. ACC2 is expressed at high levels in human white adipose and has an isoform with a novel N-terminus [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4369 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases ACC1 and ACC2 catalyze the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, regulating fatty-acid synthesis and oxidation, and are potential targets for treatment of metabolic syndrome...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Ha J, Lee J, Kim K, Witters L, Kim K. Cloning of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta and its unique features. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11466-70 pubmed
    ..A fragment of ACC-beta cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli and antibodies against the peptide were generated to establish that the cDNA sequence that we cloned is that for ACC-beta. ..
  2. Riancho J, Vazquez L, García Pérez M, Sainz J, Olmos J, Hernandez J, et al. Association of ACACB polymorphisms with obesity and diabetes. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;104:670-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to check the hypothesis that allelic variants of ACACB influence the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  3. Vavvas D, Apazidis A, Saha A, Gamble J, Patel A, Kemp B, et al. Contraction-induced changes in acetyl-CoA carboxylase and 5'-AMP-activated kinase in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13255-61 pubmed
    ..These alterations in ACC and AMPK activity, by diminishing the concentration of malonyl-CoA, could be responsible for the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed in skeletal muscle during exercise. ..
  4. Phillips C, Goumidi L, Bertrais S, Field M, Cupples L, Ordovas J, et al. ACC2 gene polymorphisms, metabolic syndrome, and gene-nutrient interactions with dietary fat. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:3500-7 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase β (ACC2) plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation pathways. Disturbance of these pathways is associated with impaired insulin responsiveness and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
  5. Widmer J, Fassihi K, Schlichter S, Wheeler K, Crute B, King N, et al. Identification of a second human acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene. Biochem J. 1996;316 ( Pt 3):915-22 pubmed
    ..human (RACC265; HACC265) and a higher-molecular-mass species (275,000-280,000 Da) in the same species (RACC280; HACC275). An HACC265 gene has previously been localized to chromosome 17...
  6. Maeda S, Kobayashi M, Araki S, Babazono T, Freedman B, Bostrom M, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta gene is associated with proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000842 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes identified the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) as a candidate for a susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy; the landmark SNP was found in the intron 18 of ACACB ..
  7. Tang S, Leung V, Chan L, Wong S, Chu D, Leung J, et al. The acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) gene is associated with nephropathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:3931-4 pubmed publisher
    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2268388, in the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) gene is associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) in Japanese and European-American populations...
  8. Ma L, Mondal A, Murea M, Sharma N, Tonjes A, Langberg K, et al. The effect of ACACB cis-variants on gene expression and metabolic traits. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23860 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase β (ACACB) is the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, and continuous fatty acid oxidation in Acacb knock-out mice increases insulin sensitivity...
  9. Cho Y, Lee J, Shin D, Kim H, Jung H, Lee T, et al. Molecular mechanism for the regulation of human ACC2 through phosphorylation by AMPK. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the crystal structures of the biotin carboxylase (BC) domain of human ACC2 phosphorylated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  10. Castle J, Hara Y, Raymond C, Garrett Engele P, Ohwaki K, Kan Z, et al. ACC2 is expressed at high levels in human white adipose and has an isoform with a novel N-terminus [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4369 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases ACC1 and ACC2 catalyze the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, regulating fatty-acid synthesis and oxidation, and are potential targets for treatment of metabolic syndrome...
  11. Szabo de Edelenyi F, Goumidi L, Bertrais S, Phillips C, Macmanus R, Roche H, et al. Prediction of the metabolic syndrome status based on dietary and genetic parameters, using Random Forest. Genes Nutr. 2008;3:173-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3(n-6) and C18.2. Three SNPs were selected by Random Forest (APOB rs512535, LTA rs915654 and ACACB rs4766587). These SNPs were also significantly associated to the MS by a univariate Fisher test.
  12. Abu Elheiga L, Almarza Ortega D, Baldini A, Wakil S. Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Molecular cloning, characterization, chromosomal mapping, and evidence for two isoforms. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:10669-77 pubmed
    cDNA encoding the 280-kDa acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) isoform was isolated from human liver using the polymerase chain reaction...
  13. Abu Elheiga L, Brinkley W, Zhong L, Chirala S, Woldegiorgis G, Wakil S. The subcellular localization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1444-9 pubmed
    Animals, including humans, express two isoforms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC ), ACC1 (M(r) = 265 kDa) and ACC2 (M(r) = 280 kDa)...
  14. Qi L, Heredia J, Altarejos J, Screaton R, Goebel N, Niessen S, et al. TRB3 links the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 to lipid metabolism. Science. 2006;312:1763-6 pubmed
    ....
  15. Luo J, Hong Y, Lu Y, Qiu S, Chaganty B, Zhang L, et al. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase rewires cancer metabolism to allow cancer cells to survive inhibition of the Warburg effect by cetuximab. Cancer Lett. 2017;384:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ....
  16. Adam T, Opie L, Essop M. AMPK activation represses the human gene promoter of the cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Role of nuclear respiratory factor-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;398:495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2% (p<0.001 vs. control). This study demonstrates that NRF-1 is a novel transcriptional inhibitor of the human ACCbeta gene promoter in the mammalian heart. Our data extends AMPK regulation of ACCbeta to the transcriptional level. ..
  17. Oh S, Lee M, Kim J, Yoon S, Shin S, Park Y, et al. Alternative usages of multiple promoters of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene are related to differential transcriptional regulation in human and rodent tissues. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5909-16 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to explain the mechanisms underlying the differential regulation of ACCbeta gene expression between tissues in living organisms. ..
  18. Pazhouhandeh M, Sahraian M, Siadat S, Fateh A, Vaziri F, Tabrizi F, et al. A Systems Medicine Approach Reveals Disordered Immune System and Lipid Metabolism in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, RELB, EP300, ACACB, ADIPOQ, and PCK2 had major contributions to viral infections and lipid metabolism, as significant events in RP...
  19. Schiavone S, Camerino G, Mhillaj E, Zotti M, Colaianna M, De Giorgi A, et al. Visceral Fat Dysfunctions in the Rat Social Isolation Model of Psychosis. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:787 pubmed publisher
    ..enzymes (Prdx1 and Ucp-1) and oxidative stress-induced damage markers (Cidea, Slc2a4, and Acacb)...
  20. An L, Jiang H, Tang R. The ACACB gene rs2268388 polymorphism is associated with nephropathy in Caucasian patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Ren Fail. 2015;37:925-8 pubmed publisher
    ..association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2268388, in the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) gene and diabetic nephropathy have provided controversial results...
  21. Lee A, Kyriakou T, Weston A, O Dell S. Functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACACB gene promoter. DNA Cell Biol. 2010;29:703-12 pubmed publisher
    ..is initiated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) binding to steroid response elements SRE in ACACB gene promoter P-II. We proposed that sequence variation in the promoter might affect expression...
  22. Frøsig C, Jørgensen S, Hardie D, Richter E, Wojtaszewski J. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase activity and protein expression are regulated by endurance training in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E411-7 pubmed
    ..Except for the increase in gamma1 protein, all observed adaptations to training could be ascribed to local contraction-induced mechanisms, since they did not occur in the contralateral untrained muscle. ..
  23. Ruderman N, Prentki M. AMP kinase and malonyl-CoA: targets for therapy of the metabolic syndrome. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004;3:340-51 pubmed
  24. Cheng D, Chu C, Chen L, Feder J, Mintier G, Wu Y, et al. Expression, purification, and characterization of human and rat acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) isozymes. Protein Expr Purif. 2007;51:11-21 pubmed
    Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase isozyme 1 (ACC1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase isozyme 2 (ACC2) are critical for de novo fatty acid synthesis and for the regulation of beta-oxidation...
  25. de Leon J, Correa J, RUANO G, Windemuth A, Arranz M, Diaz F. Exploring genetic variations that may be associated with the direct effects of some antipsychotics on lipid levels. Schizophr Res. 2008;98:40-6 pubmed
    ..These genes may be promising candidates for studies of the direct effects of some antipsychotics on hyperlipidemia. ..
  26. Madauss K, Burkhart W, Consler T, Cowan D, Gottschalk W, Miller A, et al. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is required for full functionality and has a novel twist. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2009;65:449-61 pubmed publisher
    ..of biophysical assays has permitted the identification of a specific C-terminal truncation of the 826-residue human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain that is both functionally competent to bind inhibitors and crystallizes in their ..
  27. Umezawa M, Nakamura M, El Ghoneimy A, Onoda A, Shaheen H, Hori H, et al. Impact of diesel exhaust exposure on the liver of mice fed on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-deficient diet. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018;111:284-294 pubmed publisher
    ..diet increased hepatic lipid droplets accumulation and expression of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis: Acaca, Acacb, and Scd1...
  28. Ding Z, Qi J, Shang A, Zhang Y, Wei J, Hu L, et al. Docking of CDK1 with antibiotic drugs revealed novel therapeutic value in breast ductal cancer in situ. Oncotarget. 2017;8:61998-62010 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus concluded that Five genes: CDK1, CCNB2, MAD2L1, PPARG, ACACB were finally identified to participate in the regulation and serve as potential diagnosis signatures in in ..
  29. Kim K, Yamane H, Zondlo J, Busby J, Wang M. Expression, purification, and characterization of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Protein Expr Purif. 2007;53:16-23 pubmed
    ..Purif., in press). However, neither group was successful in expressing the full-length ACC2 due to issues of solubility and expression levels...
  30. Ma L, Murea M, Snipes J, Marinelarena A, Krüger J, Hicks P, et al. An ACACB variant implicated in diabetic nephropathy associates with body mass index and gene expression in obese subjects. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56193 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase B gene (ACACB) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2268388 is reproducibly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-associated nephropathy (DN). ACACB knock-out mice are also protected from obesity...
  31. Ullrich C, Widmer J, Park J, Mohandas T, Witters L. Assignment of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta (ACACB) to human chromosome band 12q24.1 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1997;77:176-7 pubmed
  32. Campa D, Husing A, Chang Claude J, Dostal L, Boeing H, Kröger J, et al. Genetic variability of the fatty acid synthase pathway is not associated with prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC). Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:420-7 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the SNPs reached statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Common SNPs in the fatty acid synthase pathway are not major contributors to prostate cancer risk. ..
  33. Ramsay R, Gandour R, van der Leij F. Molecular enzymology of carnitine transfer and transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1546:21-43 pubmed
    ..The kinetic and chemical mechanisms are also discussed in relation to the different inhibitors under study for their potential to control diseases of lipid metabolism. ..
  34. Schrauwen P, van Aggel Leijssen D, Hul G, Wagenmakers A, Vidal H, Saris W, et al. The effect of a 3-month low-intensity endurance training program on fat oxidation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2 expression. Diabetes. 2002;51:2220-6 pubmed
    ..07). In conclusion, a minimal amount of physical activity tends to increase fat oxidation and leads to marked changes in the expression of genes encoding for key enzymes in fat metabolism. ..
  35. Diaz F, Meary A, Arranz M, RUANO G, Windemuth A, de Leon J. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha gene variations may be associated with the direct effects of some antipsychotics on triglyceride levels. Schizophr Res. 2009;115:136-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene (rs1468271) and ACACB gene (rs2241220) SNPs were significantly associated with severe hypercholesterolemia...
  36. Zhou H, Xu M, Huang Q, Gates A, Zhang X, Castle J, et al. Genome-scale RNAi screen for host factors required for HIV replication. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:495-504 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights both the power and shortcomings of large scale loss-of-function screens in discovering host-pathogen interactions. ..
  37. Colbert C, Kim C, Moon Y, Henry L, Palnitkar M, McKean W, et al. Crystal structure of Spot 14, a modulator of fatty acid synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of S14 suggests a mechanism whereby heterodimer formation with MIG12 attenuates the ability of MIG12 to activate ACC. ..
  38. Zhang H, Ruan Z, Sang W. HDAC1/NFκB pathway is involved in curcumin inhibiting of Tat-mediated long terminal repeat transactivation. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:3385-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data provide new insights into understanding of the molecular mechanisms of curcumin inhibited Tat-regulated transcription, suggesting that targeting AMPK/HDAC1/NFκB pathway could serve as new anti-HIV-1 agents. ..
  39. Conde E, Suarez Gauthier A, Garcia Garcia E, Lopez Rios F, Lopez Encuentra A, Garcia Lujan R, et al. Specific pattern of LKB1 and phospho-acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein immunostaining in human normal tissues and lung carcinomas. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:1351-60 pubmed
    ....
  40. Rajamohan F, Marr E, Reyes A, Landro J, Anderson M, Corbett J, et al. Structure-guided inhibitor design for human acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase by interspecies active site conversion. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41510-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have cloned, expressed, and purified the CT domain of human ACC2 using baculovirus-mediated insect cell expression system...
  41. Zhang H, Wu M. SIRT1 regulates Tat-induced HIV-1 transactivation through activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Virus Res. 2009;146:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ....
  42. Meng F, Li M, Song M, Yuan L, Gong Y, Qian Y, et al. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) exposure disturbs lipid metabolism in juvenile yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco. J Fish Biol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The highest mRNA level of ACCb was in the 0·1 mg l-1 DEHP group...
  43. Sone H, Kamiyama S, Higuchi M, Fujino K, Kubo S, Miyazawa M, et al. Biotin augments acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 gene expression in the hypothalamus, leading to the suppression of food intake in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;476:134-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), a biotin-dependent enzyme, has two isoforms (ACC1 and ACC2) and serves to catalyze the reaction of acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA...
  44. Kreuz S, Schoelch C, Thomas L, Rist W, Rippmann J, Neubauer H. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 show distinct expression patterns in rats and humans and alterations in obesity and diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2009;25:577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..ACC1 and ACC2 transcript levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in metabolically relevant ..
  45. Rosa G, Manco M, Vega N, Greco A, Castagneto M, Vidal H, et al. Decreased muscle acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 2 mRNA and insulin resistance in formerly obese subjects. Obes Res. 2003;11:1306-12 pubmed
    ..We assessed ACC2 mRNA expression variations in skeletal muscle of subjects who have undergone biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) ..
  46. Kahn B, Alquier T, Carling D, Hardie D. AMP-activated protein kinase: ancient energy gauge provides clues to modern understanding of metabolism. Cell Metab. 2005;1:15-25 pubmed
    ..Through signaling, metabolic, and gene expression effects, AMPK enhances insulin sensitivity and fosters a metabolic milieu that may reduce the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
  47. Wang X, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Wang D, Jin G, Li B, et al. The comprehensive liver transcriptome of two cattle breeds with different intramuscular fat content. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1018-1025 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene ontology analysis revealed these DEGs (including CYP21A2, PC, ACACB, APOA1, and FADS2) were significantly enriched in lipid biosynthetic process, regulation of cholesterol ..
  48. German N, Yoon H, Yusuf R, Murphy J, Finley L, Laurent G, et al. PHD3 Loss in Cancer Enables Metabolic Reliance on Fatty Acid Oxidation via Deactivation of ACC2. Mol Cell. 2016;63:1006-20 pubmed publisher
    ..rapidly triggers repression of FAO in response to nutrient abundance via hydroxylation of acetyl-coA carboxylase 2 (ACC2)...
  49. Lee C, Cheong C, Jeon Y. The N-terminal domain of human holocarboxylase synthetase facilitates biotinylation via direct interaction with the substrate protein. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:675-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the N-terminal domain of hHCS recognizes the charged region of biotin acceptor protein, distinctly from the recognition by the catalytic domain. ..
  50. Li T, Shi Y, Yin J, Qin Q, Wei S, Nie S, et al. The association between lipid metabolism gene polymorphisms and nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2015;47:117-30 pubmed publisher
    ..as apolipoprotein E (ApoE), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), acetyl-CoA carboxylase β (ACACB), and type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN)...
  51. Shah V, Cheema B, Sharma R, Khullar M, Kohli H, Ahluwalia T, et al. ACACβ gene (rs2268388) and AGTR1 gene (rs5186) polymorphism and the risk of nephropathy in Asian Indian patients with type 2 diabetes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;372:191-8 pubmed publisher
    ..TT genotypes of ACACβ gene and CC genotype of AGTR1 gene confers the risk of DN and both genes had significant epistatic interaction in Asian Indian patients with T2DM. ..
  52. Højlund K, Mustard K, Staehr P, Hardie D, Beck Nielsen H, Richter E, et al. AMPK activity and isoform protein expression are similar in muscle of obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E239-44 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that impaired insulin action on glycogen synthesis and lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle of obese type 2 diabetic subjects is unlikely to involve changes in AMPK expression and activity. ..
  53. Jones J, Esler W, Patel R, Lanba A, Vera N, Pfefferkorn J, et al. Inhibition of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and 2 (ACC2) Reduces Proliferation and De Novo Lipogenesis of EGFRvIII Human Glioblastoma Cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0169566 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibition was investigated using a dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibitor as well as dual siRNA knock down on the cellular ..
  54. Yu Q, Lutz K, Maliga P. Efficient Plastid Transformation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2017;175:186-193 pubmed publisher
    ..A recent study revealed that null mutations in ACC2, encoding a plastid-targeted acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, cause hypersensitivity to spectinomycin...
  55. Kim C, Addy C, Kusunoki J, Anderson N, Deja S, Fu X, et al. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase Inhibition Reduces Hepatic Steatosis but Elevates Plasma Triglycerides in Mice and Humans: A Bedside to Bench Investigation. Cell Metab. 2017;26:394-406.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..similarly in humans, we developed MK-4074, a liver-specific inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1) and (ACC2), enzymes that produce malonyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis...
  56. Arguin G, Bourzac J, Placet M, Molle C, Paquette M, Beaudoin J, et al. The loss of P2X7 receptor expression leads to increase intestinal glucose transit and hepatic steatosis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12917 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, P2rx7 -/- mice developed a hepatic steatosis characterized by a reduction of Acaca, Acacb, Fasn and Acox1 mRNA expression, as well as for ACC and FAS protein expression...
  57. Ho X, Phung P, Q Le V, H Nguyen V, Reimann E, Prans E, et al. Whole transcriptome analysis identifies differentially regulated networks between osteosarcoma and normal bone samples. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017;:1535370217736512 pubmed publisher
    ..05, of which 3399 genes were upregulated and 1966 were downregulated. Among those genes, BTNL9, MMP14, ABCA10, ACACB, COL11A1, and PKM2 were expressed differentially with the highest significance between tumor and normal bone...
  58. Shu J, Liu Z, Jin L, Wang H. An RNA‑sequencing study identifies candidate genes for angiotensin II‑induced cardiac remodeling. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..According to the enrichment analysis, acetyl coA carboxylase β (ACACB), interleukin 1β (IL1B), interleukin 1α (IL1A), nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and matrix metallopeptidase 3 (..
  59. Zhao L, Iwasaki Y, Zhe W, Nishiyama M, Taguchi T, Tsugita M, et al. Hormonal regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase isoenzyme gene transcription. Endocr J. 2010;57:317-24 pubmed
    ..Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), consisting of two isoenzymes ACC1 and ACC2, mediates the conversion from acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, and thus plays a key role for the regulation of ..
  60. Maeda S. [Genetic study for diabetic microvascular complications--recent advances and future perspectives]. Nihon Rinsho. 2012;70 Suppl 5:219-25 pubmed
  61. Tanaka Y, Kume S, Maeda S, Osawa N, Takeda N, Chin Kanasaki M, et al. Overexpression of acetyl CoA carboxylase β exacerbates podocyte injury in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:1115-1121 pubmed publisher
    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) β gene (ACACB), rs2268388, has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to development of proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  62. Kobayashi M, Watada H, Kawamori R, Maeda S. Overexpression of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta increases proinflammatory cytokines in cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:315-24 pubmed publisher
    We have identified the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta gene (ACACB) as a strong susceptibility gene to diabetic nephropathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes...