APOBEC3G

Summary

Gene Symbol: APOBEC3G
Description: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3G
Alias: A3G, ARCD, ARP-9, ARP9, CEM-15, CEM15, MDS019, bK150C2.7, dJ494G10.1, DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3G, APOBEC-related cytidine deaminase, APOBEC-related protein 9, DNA dC->dU editing enzyme, apolipoprotein B editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme cytidine deaminase, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3G, deoxycytidine deaminase, phorbolin-like protein MDS019
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. pmc APOBEC proteins and intrinsic resistance to HIV-1 infection
    Michael H Malim
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, Borough Wing, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:675-87. 2009
  2. pmc APOBEC3G inhibits elongation of HIV-1 reverse transcripts
    Kate N Bishop
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000231. 2008
  3. ncbi APOBEC3 inhibits mouse mammary tumour virus replication in vivo
    Chioma M Okeoma
    Department of Microbiology and Abramson Family Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6142, USA
    Nature 445:927-30. 2007
  4. pmc Small molecular compounds inhibit HIV-1 replication through specifically stabilizing APOBEC3G
    Shan Cen
    Department of Virology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing 100050, China
    J Biol Chem 285:16546-52. 2010
  5. pmc Population level analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 hypermutation and its relationship with APOBEC3G and vif genetic variation
    Craig Pace
    Centre for Clinical Immunology and Biomedical Statistics, 2nd Floor, North Block, Royal Perth Hospital, Wellington Street, Perth 6000, Western Australia
    J Virol 80:9259-69. 2006
  6. pmc Cellular microRNA and P bodies modulate host-HIV-1 interactions
    Robin Nathans
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Mol Cell 34:696-709. 2009
  7. pmc Cytidine deamination induced HIV-1 drug resistance
    Lubbertus C F Mulder
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1090, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5501-6. 2008
  8. doi HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment
    Michael H Malim
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, Borough Wing, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London, SE1 9RT, UK
    Cell Host Microbe 3:388-98. 2008
  9. pmc Apobec 3G efficiently reduces infectivity of the human exogenous gammaretrovirus XMRV
    Kristin Stieler
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e11738. 2010
  10. pmc Small-molecule inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by targeting the interaction between Vif and ElonginC
    Tao Zuo
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People s Republic of China
    J Virol 86:5497-507. 2012

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications247 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc APOBEC proteins and intrinsic resistance to HIV-1 infection
    Michael H Malim
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, Borough Wing, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:675-87. 2009
    Members of the APOBEC family of cellular polynucleotide cytidine deaminases, most notably APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F, are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 infection...
  2. pmc APOBEC3G inhibits elongation of HIV-1 reverse transcripts
    Kate N Bishop
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000231. 2008
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that, in the absence of Vif, restricts HIV-1 replication and reduces the amount of viral DNA that accumulates in cells...
  3. ncbi APOBEC3 inhibits mouse mammary tumour virus replication in vivo
    Chioma M Okeoma
    Department of Microbiology and Abramson Family Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6142, USA
    Nature 445:927-30. 2007
    ..Both mouse A3 and human A3G proteins interacted with the MMTV nucleocapsid in an RNA-dependent fashion and were packaged into virions...
  4. pmc Small molecular compounds inhibit HIV-1 replication through specifically stabilizing APOBEC3G
    Shan Cen
    Department of Virology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing 100050, China
    J Biol Chem 285:16546-52. 2010
    b>APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a host inhibitor for human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1). However, HIV-1 Vif binds hA3G and induces its degradation...
  5. pmc Population level analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 hypermutation and its relationship with APOBEC3G and vif genetic variation
    Craig Pace
    Centre for Clinical Immunology and Biomedical Statistics, 2nd Floor, North Block, Royal Perth Hospital, Wellington Street, Perth 6000, Western Australia
    J Virol 80:9259-69. 2006
    b>APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro through the induction of G-->A hypermutation; however, the relevance of this host antiviral strategy to clinical HIV-1 is currently not ..
  6. pmc Cellular microRNA and P bodies modulate host-HIV-1 interactions
    Robin Nathans
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Mol Cell 34:696-709. 2009
    ..Thus we provide an example of a single host miRNA regulating HIV-1 production and infectivity. These studies highlight the significance of miRNAs and P bodies in modulating host cell interactions with HIV-1 and possibly other viruses...
  7. pmc Cytidine deamination induced HIV-1 drug resistance
    Lubbertus C F Mulder
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1090, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5501-6. 2008
    ..We show that naturally occurring HIV-1 Vif point mutants with suboptimal anti-APOBEC3G activity induce the appearance of proviruses with lamivudine (3TC) drug resistance-associated mutations before ..
  8. doi HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment
    Michael H Malim
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, Borough Wing, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London, SE1 9RT, UK
    Cell Host Microbe 3:388-98. 2008
    ..Broadly speaking, the HIV-1 accessory proteins modify the local environment within infected cells to ensure viral persistence, replication, dissemination, and transmission...
  9. pmc Apobec 3G efficiently reduces infectivity of the human exogenous gammaretrovirus XMRV
    Kristin Stieler
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e11738. 2010
    ..The Apobec3 (A3) proteins, a family of cytidine deaminases, are one important group of host proteins that control primary infection and efficient viral spread...
  10. pmc Small-molecule inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by targeting the interaction between Vif and ElonginC
    Tao Zuo
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People s Republic of China
    J Virol 86:5497-507. 2012
    ..Vif recruits cellular ElonginB/C-Cullin5 E3 ubiquitin ligase to target the host antiviral protein APOBEC3G (A3G) for proteasomal degradation...
  11. pmc Restriction of HIV-1 by APOBEC3G is cytidine deaminase-dependent
    Edward P Browne
    Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, 10016, USA
    Virology 387:313-21. 2009
    Cytidine deamination is the primary mechanism by which APOBEC3G restricts HIV-1; however, several studies have reported that APOBEC3G also inhibits virus replication via a mechanism that is independent of deamination...
  12. pmc Atomic force microscopy studies provide direct evidence for dimerization of the HIV restriction factor APOBEC3G
    Luda S Shlyakhtenko
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:3387-95. 2011
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) is an antiviral protein that binds RNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The oligomerization state of A3G is likely to be influenced by these nucleic acid interactions...
  13. pmc APOBEC3G generates nonsense mutations in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 proviral genomes in vivo
    Jun Fan
    Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawahara cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Virol 84:7278-87. 2010
    ..The sequence context of G-to-A mutations was in accordance with the preferred target sequence of human APOBEC3G (hA3G)...
  14. pmc The HIV-1 central polypurine tract functions as a second line of defense against APOBEC3G/F
    Chunling Hu
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Virol 84:11981-93. 2010
    ..in non-vif-permissive cells (HuT78, H9, and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]), suggesting APOBEC3G (A3G) restriction...
  15. pmc Restriction of foamy viruses by APOBEC cytidine deaminases
    Frédéric Delebecque
    Virus and Immunity Group, URA CNRS 1930, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Virol 80:605-14. 2006
    ..We show that human APOBEC3G is a potent inhibitor of FV infectivity in cell culture experiments...
  16. ncbi APOBEC3G DNA deaminase acts processively 3' --> 5' on single-stranded DNA
    Linda Chelico
    Department of Biological Sciences Molecular and Computational Section, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 2910, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 13:392-9. 2006
    Akin to a 'Trojan horse,' APOBEC3G DNA deaminase is encapsulated by the HIV virion. APOBEC3G facilitates restriction of HIV-1 infection in T cells by deaminating cytosines in nascent minus-strand complementary DNA...
  17. pmc Role of APOBEC3G/F-mediated hypermutation in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in elite suppressors
    Shiv K Gandhi
    Broadway Research Bldg, Rm 880, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 82:3125-30. 2008
    ..To determine the role of APOBEC3G/F proteins in the control of viremia in these patients, we used a novel assay to measure the frequency of ..
  18. pmc The level of APOBEC3G (hA3G)-related G-to-A mutations does not correlate with viral load in HIV type 1-infected individuals
    Nzovu K Ulenga
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:1285-90. 2008
    The APOBEC family of mammalian cytidine deaminases, such as APOBEC3G (hA3G), has been demonstrated to function as a host viral restriction factor against HIV-1...
  19. pmc Genetic editing of HBV DNA by monodomain human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases and the recombinant nature of APOBEC3G
    Michel Henry
    Molecular Retrovirology Unit, CNRS URA 3015, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 4:e4277. 2009
    ..The amino terminal domain of A3G alone was completely devoid of deaminase activity to within the sensitivity of 3DPCR ( approximately 10(-4) to 10(-..
  20. pmc Functional analysis and structural modeling of human APOBEC3G reveal the role of evolutionarily conserved elements in the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and Alu transposition
    Yannick Bulliard
    School of Life Sciences and Frontiers in Genetics National Center of Competence in Research, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Virol 83:12611-21. 2009
    ..These enzymes are structurally organized in one or two domains comprising a zinc-coordinating motif. APOBEC3G contains two such domains, only the C terminal of which is endowed with editing activity, while its N-terminal ..
  21. pmc Remarkable lethal G-to-A mutations in vif-proficient HIV-1 provirus by individual APOBEC3 proteins in humanized mice
    Kei Sato
    Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoinkawara cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Virol 84:9546-56. 2010
    ..Human APOBEC3G was identified as an HIV-1 restriction factor, which edits nascent HIV-1 DNA by inducing G-to-A hypermutations ..
  22. pmc Structure, interaction and real-time monitoring of the enzymatic reaction of wild-type APOBEC3G
    Ayako Furukawa
    Supramolecular Biology, International Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan
    EMBO J 28:440-51. 2009
    Human APOBEC3G exhibits anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) activity by deaminating cytidines of the minus strand of HIV-1. Here, we report a solution structure of the C-terminal deaminase domain of wild-type APOBEC3G...
  23. pmc Sole copy of Z2-type human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3H has inhibitory activity against retrotransposons and HIV-1
    Lindi Tan
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    FASEB J 23:279-87. 2009
    ..Interestingly, it was also as efficient as A3G in inhibiting Alu retrotransposition, despite its poor association with Alu RNA...
  24. doi Host restriction of HIV-1 by APOBEC3 and viral evasion through Vif
    Anna Maria Niewiadomska
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 339:1-25. 2009
    ..Here we review the research that led up to the identification of A3G, the mechanisms by which APOBEC3 proteins can inhibit retroelements, and the counter-mechanisms that HIV-1 Vif has ..
  25. pmc N-terminal hemagglutinin tag renders lysine-deficient APOBEC3G resistant to HIV-1 Vif-induced degradation by reduced polyubiquitination
    Yudi Wang
    Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research, School of Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee 37208, USA
    J Virol 85:4510-9. 2011
    b>APOBEC3G, a potent HIV-1 host restriction factor, is overcome by HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif), which induces its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation...
  26. ncbi High expression of APOBEC3G in patients infected with hepatitis C virus
    Yoshihiro Komohara
    Department of Immunology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Asahi machi 67, Kurume, Fukuoka 839 0011, Japan
    J Mol Histol 37:327-32. 2006
    b>APOBEC3G (an apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G; also known as CEM15), a member of the APOBEC family, which possesses cytidine deaminase activity that causes C/G to T/A transition mutations in virus ..
  27. doi Hypermutation of hepatitis B virus genomes by APOBEC3G, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3H
    Josef Kock
    Department of Medicine II, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Gen Virol 89:1184-91. 2008
    ..This study assessed APOBEC3G, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3H, three members of this protein family present in human liver, for their ability to edit ..
  28. ncbi Vif overcomes the innate antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by promoting its degradation in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway
    Andrew Mehle
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:7792-8. 2004
    ..factor) protein of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) acts by overcoming the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G (CEM15), a cytidine deaminase that induces G to A hypermutation in newly synthesized viral DNA...
  29. doi Novel targets for HIV therapy
    Warner C Greene
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Antiviral Res 80:251-65. 2008
    ..This review contains concise summaries of discussed topics that included Vif-APOBEC3G, LEDGF/p75, TRIM 5alpha, virus assembly and maturation, and Vpu...
  30. pmc Identification of a novel WxSLVK motif in the N terminus of human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus Vif that is critical for APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F neutralization
    Ying Dang
    Department of Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 4320, USA
    J Virol 83:8544-52. 2009
    The function of lentiviral Vif proteins is to neutralize the host antiviral cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F)...
  31. pmc HIV-1 Vif binds to APOBEC3G mRNA and inhibits its translation
    Gaëlle Mercenne
    Architecture et Reactivite de l ARN, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, IBMC, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084, Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:633-46. 2010
    ..Results using a Vif protein mutated in the multimerization domain suggested that the molecular mechanism of translational control is more complicated than a simple physical blockage of scanning ribosomes...
  32. pmc Structural model for deoxycytidine deamination mechanisms of the HIV-1 inactivation enzyme APOBEC3G
    Linda Chelico
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 2910, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:16195-205. 2010
    APOBEC3G (Apo3G) is a single-stranded DNA-dependent deoxycytidine deaminase, which, in the absence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral infectivity factor, is encapsulated into HIV virions...
  33. ncbi An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22
    Adam Jarmuz
    RNA Editing Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 ONN, UK
    Genomics 79:285-96. 2002
    ..Tissue-specific expression of these genes in a variety of cell lines, along with other evidence, suggests a role for these enzymes in growth or cell cycle control...
  34. pmc Ancient adaptive evolution of the primate antiviral DNA-editing enzyme APOBEC3G
    Sara L Sawyer
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E275. 2004
    ..discovered novel primate defense against retroviral infection involves a single-stranded DNA-editing enzyme, APOBEC3G, that causes hypermutation of HIV...
  35. pmc Antiviral protein APOBEC3G localizes to ribonucleoprotein complexes found in P bodies and stress granules
    Sarah Gallois-Montbrun
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, New Guy s House, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 81:2165-78. 2007
    ..edit DNA or RNA and potentially mutate cellular targets, their activities are presumably regulated; for instance, APOBEC3G (A3G) recruitment into high-molecular-weight ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes has been shown to suppress its ..
  36. pmc Deaminase-independent inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcription by APOBEC3G
    Yasumasa Iwatani
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:7096-108. 2007
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G), a host protein that inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription and replication in the absence of Vif, displays cytidine deaminase and single-stranded (ss) nucleic acid binding activities...
  37. pmc Definition of the interacting interfaces of Apobec3G and HIV-1 Vif using MAPPIT mutagenesis analysis
    Delphine Lavens
    Department of Medical Protein Research, VIB, Department of Biochemistry, Ghent University, A Baertsoenkaai 3, 9000 Ghent
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:1902-12. 2010
    The host restriction factor Apobec3G is a cytidine deaminase that incorporates into HIV-1 virions and interferes with viral replication. The HIV-1 accessory protein Vif subverts Apobec3G by targeting it for proteasomal degradation...
  38. pmc Interactions of host APOBEC3 restriction factors with HIV-1 in vivo: implications for therapeutics
    John S Albin
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 12:e4. 2010
    ..protein virion infectivity factor (Vif), which uses multiple mechanisms to prevent APOBEC3 proteins such as APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F from entering viral particles...
  39. ncbi HIV-1 Vif can directly inhibit apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G-mediated cytidine deamination by using a single amino acid interaction and without protein degradation
    Mariana Santa-Marta
    Unidade de Retrovirus e Infecçôes Associadas, Centro de Patogenese Molecular, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Lisboa, Av das Forcas Armadas, 1649 019 Lisboa, Portugal
    J Biol Chem 280:8765-75. 2005
    The human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), also known as CEM-15, is a host-cell factor involved in innate resistance to retroviral infection...
  40. ncbi Multifaceted antiviral actions of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases
    Ya Lin Chiu
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94141 9100, USA
    Trends Immunol 27:291-7. 2006
    ..the innate immune system have revealed that cells have a potent intrinsic antiretroviral defense in the form of APOBEC3G, which is a member of a larger family of cytidine deaminases that are active against HIV-1 and other retroviruses...
  41. pmc T cells contain an RNase-insensitive inhibitor of APOBEC3G deaminase activity
    Beth K Thielen
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS Pathog 3:1320-34. 2007
    The deoxycytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) is expressed in human T cells and inhibits HIV-1 replication. When transfected into A3G-deficient epithelial cell lines, A3G induces catastrophic hypermutation by deaminating the HIV-1 genome...
  42. pmc Regulation of APOBEC3 proteins by a novel YXXL motif in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVagm Vif
    Erez Pery
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Virol 83:2374-81. 2009
    ..In HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells, the viral accessory protein Vif binds to APOBEC3G (A3G), APOBEC3F (A3F), and APOBEC3C (A3C) and targets these proteins for polyubiquitination by forming an E3 ..
  43. pmc A patch of positively charged amino acids surrounding the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif SLVx4Yx9Y motif influences its interaction with APOBEC3G
    Gongying Chen
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 83:8674-82. 2009
    ..K22, K26, Y30, and Y40 were found to be important for the Vif-induced degradation and suppression of cellular APOBEC3G (A3G)...
  44. pmc The activity spectrum of Vif from multiple HIV-1 subtypes against APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and APOBEC3H
    Mawuena Binka
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    J Virol 86:49-59. 2012
    ..Seventeen Vif alleles from seven HIV-1 subtypes were tested for their abilities to degrade and counteract A3G, A3F, and A3H haplotype II (hapII)...
  45. pmc Structural Features of Antiviral APOBEC3 Proteins are Linked to Their Functional Activities
    Shingo Kitamura
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center Nagoya, Japan
    Front Microbiol 2:258. 2011
    ..A3F and A3G are the most potent inhibitors of HIV-1, but only in the absence of the virus-encoded protein, Vif...
  46. pmc APOBEC3G restricts HIV-1 to a greater extent than APOBEC3F and APOBEC3DE in human primary CD4+ T cells and macrophages
    Chawaree Chaipan
    Viral Mutation Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 87:444-53. 2013
    ..significant inhibition of HIV-1Δvif produced in 293T cells in the presence of APOBEC3DE (A3DE), APOBEC3F (A3F), APOBEC3G (A3G), and APOBEC3H haplotype II (A3H HapII) but not APOBEC3B (A3B), APOBEC3C (A3C), or APOBEC3H haplotype I (A3H ..
  47. pmc Identification of dominant negative human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif mutants that interfere with the functional inactivation of APOBEC3G by virus-encoded Vif
    ROBERT C WALKER
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Viral Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    J Virol 84:5201-11. 2010
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that serves as a potent intrinsic inhibitor of retroviral replication...
  48. pmc Induction of APOBEC3 family proteins, a defensive maneuver underlying interferon-induced anti-HIV-1 activity
    Gang Peng
    Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 203:41-6. 2006
    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), a cytidine deaminase, is a recently recognized innate intracellular protein with lethal activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  49. pmc Likely role of APOBEC3G-mediated G-to-A mutations in HIV-1 evolution and drug resistance
    Patric Jern
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000367. 2009
    ..genomes than in their putative ancestral genomes, compared to random controls, implying that moderate levels of A3G-mediated G-to-A mutation have been a factor in HIV-1 evolution...
  50. pmc HIV-1 Vif-mediated ubiquitination/degradation of APOBEC3G involves four critical lysine residues in its C-terminal domain
    Yasumasa Iwatani
    Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Aichi 460 0001, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19539-44. 2009
    ..ability to hijack the cellular ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway to counteract the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G (A3G), a host cytidine deaminase that can block HIV-1 replication...
  51. pmc Massive APOBEC3 editing of hepatitis B viral DNA in cirrhosis
    Jean Pierre Vartanian
    Molecular Retrovirology Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000928. 2010
    ..A3C and A3D were up regulated for all groups while the interferon inducible A3G was over expressed in virus associated cirrhosis, as was AICDA in approximately 50% of these HBV/HCV samples...
  52. pmc HIV-1 viral infectivity factor interacts with TP53 to induce G2 cell cycle arrest and positively regulate viral replication
    Taisuke Izumi
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:20798-803. 2010
    ..This report demonstrates the molecular mechanisms and the biological significance of Vif-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest for HIV-1 infection...
  53. pmc NFAT and IRF proteins regulate transcription of the anti-HIV gene, APOBEC3G
    Melissa A Farrow
    Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:2567-77. 2011
    The human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) is an innate restriction factor that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Regulation of A3G gene expression plays an important role in this suppression...
  54. pmc APOBEC3G mRNA expression in exposed seronegative and early stage HIV infected individuals decreases with removal of exposure and with disease progression
    Joel A Vazquez-Perez
    Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Mexico City, Mexico
    Retrovirology 6:23. 2009
    b>APOBEC3G is an antiretroviral factor that acts by inducing G to A mutations. In this study, we examined the expression of APOBEC3G in uninfected HIV-1 exposed individuals at the time of their partner's diagnosis and one year later...
  55. ncbi Natural resistance to HIV infection: The Vif-APOBEC interaction
    Michael H Malim
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London, School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, New Guy s House, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK
    C R Biol 329:871-5. 2006
    Members of the APOBEC family of cellular polynucleotide cytidine deaminases (e.g., APOBEC3G) are potent inhibitors of HIV infection...
  56. ncbi Stoichiometry of the antiviral protein APOBEC3G in HIV-1 virions
    Hongzhan Xu
    Viral Mutation Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute Frederick, P O Box B, Bldg 535, Rm 334, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Virology 360:247-56. 2007
    A host cytidine deaminase, APOBEC3G (A3G), inhibits replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by incorporating into virions in the absence of the virally encoded Vif protein (Deltavif virions), at least in part by causing ..
  57. pmc Evolution of HIV-1 isolates that use a novel Vif-independent mechanism to resist restriction by human APOBEC3G
    Guylaine Haché
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Beckman Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Curr Biol 18:819-24. 2008
    The human APOBEC3G protein restricts the replication of Vif-deficient HIV-1 by deaminating nascent viral cDNA cytosines to uracils, leading to viral genomic strand G-to-A hypermutations...
  58. pmc APOBEC3G: an intracellular centurion
    Ya Lin Chiu
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:689-703. 2009
    The intrinsic antiretroviral factor APOBEC3G (A3G) is highly active against HIV-1 and other retroviruses...
  59. doi APOBEC3G upregulation by alpha interferon restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in human peripheral plasmacytoid dendritic cells
    Feng Xiang Wang
    Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    J Gen Virol 89:722-30. 2008
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G), a member of cytidine deaminase family, has potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity...
  60. pmc A single amino acid difference in the host APOBEC3G protein controls the primate species specificity of HIV type 1 virion infectivity factor
    Hal P Bogerd
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3770-4. 2004
    The HIV type 1 (HIV-1) virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein blocks the action of the host defense factor APOBEC3G in human cells, thereby allowing release of infectious virions, but fails to inhibit similar APOBEC3G proteins present in ..
  61. pmc APOBEC3G genetic variants and their influence on the progression to AIDS
    Ping An
    Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Virol 78:11070-6. 2004
    The cytosine deaminase APOBEC3G, in the absence of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory gene HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (vif), inhibits viral replication by introducing G-->A hypermutation in the newly ..
  62. ncbi The anti-HIV-1 editing enzyme APOBEC3G binds HIV-1 RNA and messenger RNAs that shuttle between polysomes and stress granules
    Susan L Kozak
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Proteomics Shared Resource, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:29105-19. 2006
    Deoxycytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) (members of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 family) have RNA-binding motifs, invade assembling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), and hypermutate ..
  63. pmc Leveraging APOBEC3 proteins to alter the HIV mutation rate and combat AIDS
    Judd F Hultquist
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA Tel 1 414 702 7232
    Future Virol 4:605. 2009
    At least two human APOBEC3 proteins - APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G - are capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication by mutation of the viral cDNA...
  64. pmc APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G inhibit HIV-1 DNA integration by different mechanisms
    Jean L Mbisa
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, P O Box B, Building 535, Room 334, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 84:5250-9. 2010
    APOBEC3F (A3F) and APBOBEC3G (A3G) both are host restriction factors that can potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication...
  65. pmc APOBEC3G-independent reduction in virion infectivity during long-term HIV-1 replication in terminally differentiated macrophages
    Eri Miyagi
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Viral Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    Virology 379:266-74. 2008
    b>APOBEC3G (APO3G) is a cellular cytidine deaminase with potent antiviral activity. In the case of HIV, the antiviral activity of APO3G is counteracted by the viral Vif protein...
  66. doi Antiviral roles of APOBEC proteins against HIV-1 and suppression by Vif
    Bizhan Romani
    Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Campus, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Arch Virol 154:1579-88. 2009
    ..The antiviral activity of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F has been studied more extensively than that of the other members of this family...
  67. pmc P body-associated protein Mov10 inhibits HIV-1 replication at multiple stages
    Ryan Burdick
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute Frederick, Viral Mutation Section, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Virol 84:10241-53. 2010
    Recent studies have shown that APOBEC3G (A3G), a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, is localized to cytoplasmic mRNA-processing bodies (P bodies)...
  68. pmc The role of HIV-1 Vpr in promoting the infection of nondividing cells and in cell cycle arrest
    Hamayun J Sharifi
    Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 7:187-94. 2012
    ..The identity of the ubiquitin ligase substrates is only now beginning to be revealed. This review focuses on recent work that has identified one such substrate and exposed new cellular restrictions to infection...
  69. pmc APOBEC3G/3F mediates intrinsic resistance of monocyte-derived dendritic cells to HIV-1 infection
    Marjorie Pion
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital and Medical School of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 203:2887-93. 2006
    ..Small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of APOBEC3G/3F (A3G/3F), but not TRIM5alpha, enhanced HIV-1 infection of iDCs, indicating that A3G/3F controls the ..
  70. pmc APOBEC3G expression is dysregulated in primary HIV-1 infection and polymorphic variants influence CD4+ T-cell counts and plasma viral load
    Kavidha Reddy
    Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
    AIDS 24:195-204. 2010
    ..Vif), cellular cytosine deaminases such as apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) inhibit the virus by inducing hypermutations on viral DNA, among other mechanisms of action...
  71. pmc Heat shock protein 70 inhibits HIV-1 Vif-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of APOBEC3G
    Ryuichi Sugiyama
    Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2 17 1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275 0016, Japan
    J Biol Chem 286:10051-7. 2011
    The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G, which is incorporated into nascent virus particles, possesses potent antiviral activity and restricts Vif-deficient HIV-1 replication at the reverse transcription step through deamination-dependent and -..
  72. pmc Vif hijacks CBF-β to degrade APOBEC3G and promote HIV-1 infection
    Stefanie Jäger
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 481:371-5. 2011
    Restriction factors, such as the retroviral complementary DNA deaminase APOBEC3G, are cellular proteins that dominantly block virus replication...
  73. ncbi Role of viral regulatory and accessory proteins in HIV-1 replication
    Anila Seelamgari
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA
    Front Biosci 9:2388-413. 2004
    ..In this review, we attempt to integrate information on the role of these regulatory and accessory proteins, emphasizing their interactions with other viral and cellular components, and the subsequent effect on viral replication...
  74. pmc Vpr14-88-Apobec3G fusion protein is efficiently incorporated into Vif-positive HIV-1 particles and inhibits viral infection
    Zhujun Ao
    Laboratory of Molecular Human Retrovirology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    PLoS ONE 3:e1995. 2008
    APOBEC3G (A3G), a deoxycytidine deaminase, is a potent host antiviral factor that can restrict HIV-1 infection...
  75. pmc Optimal translation initiation enables Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to escape restriction by APOBEC3G
    Guylaine Haché
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Center for Genome Engineering, Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Virol 83:5956-60. 2009
    b>APOBEC3G restricts Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by deaminating viral cDNA cytosines to uracils. This promutagenic activity is counteracted by HIV-1 Vif, which is a natural APOBEC3G antagonist...
  76. pmc Identification of 81LGxGxxIxW89 and 171EDRW174 domains from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif that regulate APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F neutralizing activity
    Ying Dang
    Department of Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 4320, USA
    J Virol 84:5741-50. 2010
    The human cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) potently restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, but they are neutralized by the viral protein Vif...
  77. doi Effect of HIV-1 Vif variability on progression to pediatric AIDS and its association with APOBEC3G and CUL5 polymorphisms
    Federico A De Maio
    Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Retrovirus CONICET, Hospital de Pediatria Juan P Garrahan, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Infect Genet Evol 11:1256-62. 2011
    The APOBEC3G protein is a restriction factor that can inhibit the replication of HIV-1...
  78. pmc Selective assembly of HIV-1 Vif-Cul5-ElonginB-ElonginC E3 ubiquitin ligase complex through a novel SOCS box and upstream cysteines
    Yunkai Yu
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Genes Dev 18:2867-72. 2004
    b>APOBEC3G, which induces hypermutations in newly synthesized viral DNA, is suppressed by HIV-1 Vif, acting through Cul5-ElonginB-ElonginC E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  79. pmc Differential requirement for conserved tryptophans in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif for the selective suppression of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F
    Chunjuan Tian
    Second Affiliated Hospital, Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
    J Virol 80:3112-5. 2006
    b>APOBEC3G (A3G) and related cytidine deaminases, such as APOBEC3F (A3F), are potent inhibitors of retroviruses. Formation of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires suppression of multiple cytidine deaminases by Vif...
  80. ncbi RNA and DNA binding properties of HIV-1 Vif protein: a fluorescence study
    Serena Bernacchi
    Architecture et Reactivite de l ARN, Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, CNRS, IBMC, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, France
    J Biol Chem 282:26361-8. 2007
    ..In these cells, Vif counteracts the natural antiretroviral activity of the DNA-editing enzymes APOBEC3G/3F...
  81. pmc The HIV-1 Vif PPLP motif is necessary for human APOBEC3G binding and degradation
    John P Donahue
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, A 2200, Medical Center North, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Virology 377:49-53. 2008
    ..infectivity factor (Vif) is required during viral replication to inactivate the host cell anti-viral factor, APOBEC3G (A3G)...
  82. pmc Differences in APOBEC3G expression in CD4+ T helper lymphocyte subtypes modulate HIV-1 infectivity
    Michael L Vetter
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000292. 2009
    The cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F exert anti-HIV-1 activity that is countered by the HIV-1 vif protein...
  83. ncbi Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family seeking roles in the family business
    Joseph E Wedekind
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14623, USA
    Trends Genet 19:207-16. 2003
    ..In light of the hypothesis that these proteins might represent novel mRNA editing systems that could affect proteome diversity, we consider their structure, expression and relevance to biomedically significant processes or pathologies...
  84. ncbi Single-strand specificity of APOBEC3G accounts for minus-strand deamination of the HIV genome
    Qin Yu
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 11:435-42. 2004
    HIV-1 deleted for the vif accessory gene encapsidates the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G. Upon infection, the encapsidated APOBEC3G induces G-->A mutations in the viral reverse transcripts...
  85. ncbi Human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) is incorporated into HIV-1 virions through interactions with viral and nonviral RNAs
    Evguenia S Svarovskaia
    HIV Drug Resistance Program and AIDS Vaccine Program, Science Applications International Corporation Frederick, Inc, NCI Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:35822-8. 2004
    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that is packaged into virions and confers resistance to retroviral infection...
  86. ncbi HIV-1 and MLV Gag proteins are sufficient to recruit APOBEC3G into virus-like particles
    Marc Douaisi
    Inserm Unité 372, Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, BP178, 13276 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 321:566-73. 2004
    ..We conclude that the Gag polypeptides from distant retroviruses have conserved domains allowing the packaging of the host antiviral factor APOBEC3G.
  87. pmc HIV-1 Vif and APOBEC3G: multiple roads to one goal
    Joao Goncalves
    URIA Centro de Patogénese Molecular, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649 019 Lisboa, Portugal
    Retrovirology 1:28. 2004
    ..Vif functions to counteract an anti-retroviral cellular factor in non-permissive cells named APOBEC3G. The current mechanism proposed for protection of the virus by HIV-1 Vif is to induce APOBEC3G degradation ..
  88. ncbi Ubiquitination of APOBEC3G by an HIV-1 Vif-Cullin5-Elongin B-Elongin C complex is essential for Vif function
    Masayuki Kobayashi
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin Kawaracho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:18573-8. 2005
    ..The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion infectivity factor (Vif) overcomes the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G to protect HIV-1 DNA from G-to-A hypermutation...
  89. pmc APOBEC3G hypermutates genomic DNA and inhibits Ty1 retrotransposition in yeast
    April J Schumacher
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics and Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:9854-9. 2005
    Human cells harbor a variety of factors that function to block the proliferation of foreign nucleic acid. The APOBEC3G enzyme inhibits the replication of retroviruses by deaminating nascent retroviral cDNA cytosines to uracils, lesions ..
  90. ncbi APOBEC3A is a potent inhibitor of adeno-associated virus and retrotransposons
    Hui Chen
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Curr Biol 16:480-5. 2006
    ..They also highlight the functional differences between APOBEC3 proteins. The APOBEC3 family members have distinct functions and may have evolved to resist various classes of genetic elements...
  91. pmc The cell biology of HIV-1 and other retroviruses
    Eric O Freed
    Virus Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    Retrovirology 3:77. 2006
    ..MEETING REPORT: The conference began with a keynote address from W. Sundquist on the biochemistry of HIV-1 budding. This presentation will be described in the section on Assembly and Release of Retroviruses...
  92. pmc Identification of amino acid residues in APOBEC3G required for regulation by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif and Virion encapsidation
    Hendrik Huthoff
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, New Guy s House, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 81:3807-15. 2007
    ..to neutralize the human antiviral proteins apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G [A3G]) and A3F...
  93. pmc Identification of two distinct human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif determinants critical for interactions with human APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F
    Rebecca A Russell
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute Frederick, P O Box B, Bldg 535, Rm 334, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 81:8201-10. 2007
    Human cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) inhibit replication of Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  94. pmc Enzymatically active APOBEC3G is required for efficient inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Eri Miyagi
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Viral Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    J Virol 81:13346-53. 2007
    b>APOBEC3G (APO3G) is a cellular cytidine deaminase with potent antiviral activity...
  95. doi Nuclear Exclusion of the HIV-1 host defense factor APOBEC3G requires a novel cytoplasmic retention signal and is not dependent on RNA binding
    Ryan P Bennett
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:7320-7. 2008
    Human APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a host factor that defends against HIV-1 as well as other exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements...
  96. pmc The DNA deaminase activity of human APOBEC3G is required for Ty1, MusD, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 restriction
    April J Schumacher
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Beckman Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Virol 82:2652-60. 2008
    Human APOBEC3G and several other APOBEC3 proteins have been shown to inhibit the replication of a variety of retrotransposons and retroviruses...
  97. doi Structure of the DNA deaminase domain of the HIV-1 restriction factor APOBEC3G
    Kuan Ming Chen
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Nature 452:116-9. 2008
    The human APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B messenger-RNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) protein is a single-strand DNA deaminase that inhibits the replication of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), other retroviruses and ..
  98. pmc APOBEC3G restricts early HIV-1 replication in the cytoplasm of target cells
    Jenny L Anderson
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Virology 375:1-12. 2008
    Cellular APOBEC3G (A3G) protein is packaged into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions in producer cells yet restricts viral replication in target cells...
  99. pmc Comparison of cellular ribonucleoprotein complexes associated with the APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G antiviral proteins
    Sarah Gallois-Montbrun
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 82:5636-42. 2008
    The human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3F (APOBEC3F [A3F]) and A3G proteins are effective inhibitors of infection by various retroelements and share approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity...
  100. pmc Single-stranded RNA facilitates nucleocapsid: APOBEC3G complex formation
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA 14:1228-36. 2008
    Binding of APOBEC3G to the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag polyprotein may represent a critical early step in the selective packaging of this antiretroviral factor into HIV virions...
  101. pmc Crystal structure of the anti-viral APOBEC3G catalytic domain and functional implications
    Lauren G Holden
    Molecular and Computational Biology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA
    Nature 456:121-4. 2008
    The APOBEC family members are involved in diverse biological functions. APOBEC3G restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus and retroelements by cytidine deamination on single-stranded DNA or by RNA ..

Research Grants63

  1. Rescuing the anti-HIV activity of APOBEC3G with small-molecule chaperons
    Sergey N Savinov; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..based on the intrinsic defense mechanism of human cells: mutagenesis of single-stranded DNA by cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G)...
  2. Regulation and Action of APOBEC3G
    Warner Greene; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-1 like 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G) corresponds to a host-derived cytidine deaminase that displays potent anti-retroviral activity...
  3. Optimized Adaptation of Simian-tropic R5 HIV Clade C to Pig-tailed Macaques
    RUTH MARGRIT RUPRECHT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..namely 1) TRIM5?, which targets HIV-1 capsid proteins and blocks early post-entry replication steps, and 2) APOBEC3G (A3G), a cytidine deaminase that is not recognized by HIV-1 Vif and therefore escapes inhibition by this virion-..
  4. Biochemical Basis of Somatic Hypermutation
    MYRON GOODMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>APOBEC3G (A3G), which converts C?U on retroviral cDNA, plays an instrumental role in restricting infection of the AIDS ..
  5. Mechanisms of APOBEC3A Inhibition
    Matthew D Weitzman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases, a family of nine genes in the human, at least two of which (APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G) play a key role in defense against HIV-1...
  6. Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of HIV
    Xiao Fang Yu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..viral counter defense that specifically neutralizes an innate antiviral defense mechanism, mediated by human APOBEC3G (A3G) and related cytidine deaminases...
  7. Investigation of APOBEC3G/Vif Interactions by SAXS and X-ray Crystallography
    Joseph E Wedekind; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Human APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a potent antiviral host defense protein that functions in post-entry HIV restriction via cytidine deaminase-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
  8. Exploring and Exploiting APOBEC3G Biology
    Warner Greene; Fiscal Year: 2009
    PROJECT ABSTRACT The discovery of the potent antiviral restricting properties of the APOBEC3G (A3G) cytidine deaminase plus the delineation of HIV Vif's powerful counterstrike against A3G have opened a new and exciting chapter in HIV ..
  9. SIV Deltavif Reservoirs in Vivo
    Ellen Sparger; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Vif inhibits virion incorporation of a cellular cytidine deaminase, APOBEC3G, by targeting this cellular protein for proteosomal degradation...
  10. Role of Cul5 E3 Ubiquitin ligasae in HIV Vif function: A novel regulator
    Xiao Fang Yu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Human cells encode proteins that naturally suppress HIV-1 infection. One of these proteins, APOBEC3G (A3G), has anti-HIV-1 activity that can be neutralized by a virally encoded protein, Vif...
  11. APOBEC3G DNA Deaminase Inhibitor High Throughput Screen
    Reuben S Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The human APOBEC3G (A3G) protein is a DNA deaminase that has potent activity against HIV-1 and a variety of other retroelements...
  12. Based deamination by CEM15 suppresses HIV-1 Infectivity
    Harold Smith; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The proposed research is based on the observation that the cellular protein CEM15 suppresses infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) that lacks the virion infectivity factor, Vif...
  13. Role of Targeted Mutations in ViF on SHIV Pathogenesis
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..primate lentiviruses encode for a viral infectivity factor or Vif, which interacts with the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G to prevent its incorporation into virions...
  14. Investigation of APOBEC3G/Vif Interactions by SAXS and X-ray Crystallography
    Joseph Wedekind; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a potent antiviral host defense protein that functions in post-entry HIV restriction via cytidine deaminase-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
  15. HIV Vif-mediated Degradation of APOBEC3G
    Dana Gabuzda; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Recent studies show that HIV-1 Vif acts by overcoming the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G, a cytidine deaminase that induces G to A hypermutation in newly synthesized viral DNA...
  16. Transcriptional Regulation and Expression of Human APOBEC3G
    SUSANNE BOBADILLA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) restriction factor Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G)...
  17. Role of nucleic acid structure in HIV-1 replication
    Chandravanu Dash; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..with specific aims: 1) How does the nucleic acid structure/geometry influence HlV-1 integration and 2) How APOBEC3G recognizes the single stranded viral DNA...
  18. Toward an HIV-1 macaque model
    Jason T Kimata; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for HIV-1 because of blocks to viral replication, which are mediated by at least two known proteins, TRIM51 and APOBEC3G. Interestingly, the pig-tailed macaque is uniquely susceptible to HIV-1, and this species of macaque supports a ..
  19. Cytidine deaminase and HIV-1 replication
    Hui Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Recently, we have demonstrated that CEM15/APOBEC3G, an endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, is a cytidine deaminase and ..
  20. HIV-1 Resistance to Type I Interferon in Macaques
    Jason T Kimata; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..clone that is chimeric for the SIV vif (HSIV-vif) and capable of counteracting the pig-tail restriction factors APOBEC3G and 3F...
  21. Xiaojiang S Chen; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..We propose to study the structure/function of this important APOBEC deaminase family, with focuses on APOBEC3G and 3F (Apo3G and 3F) proteins and their interactions with cellular and viral ligands, using mainly structural ..
  22. RAHUL MANU KOHLI; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..On one hand, deamination by the family member APOBEC3G interferes with the integrity of the pathogen genome...
  23. REGULATION OF HIV-1 RNA SPLICING
    CONRAD STOLTZFUS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..level of expression of the viral Vif protein, a protein which acts to inactivate the antiviral cellular protein APOBEC3G, and in virus replication...
  24. Susan R Ross; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Human APOBEC3G was first identified as an anti-viral factor in HIV infection...
  25. Characterizing a small molecule of Streptococcus cristatus for HIV drug design
    Bindong Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cristatus CC5A) is able to up-regulate APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F expression and inhibit HIV replication...
  26. Molecular Mechanisms of HIV Disease Pathogenesis
    Kathleen L Collins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data indicate that APOBEC3G (A3G) expression is variable amongst uninfected donors and furthermore that A3G expression and NK-cell activation ..
  27. Ashok S Bhagwat; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..To accomplish this an AID- APOBEC3G hybrid with a strong preference for deaminating the last cytosine in a run of C's will be introduced in AID-/..
  28. Nathaniel R Landau; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Cellular genes will be identified that are co-regulated with APOBEC3G. Transcription factor binding sites in the APOBEC3G promoter will be identified to define how the gene is ..
  29. A Novel Anti-HIV Activity of CCR6 via APOBEC3G: Relevance to CNS Infection
    Alfredo Garzino-Demo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A novel anti-HIV activity of CCR6 via APOBEC3G: relevance to CNS infection Abstract We have shown that when defensin hBD2 and chemokine MIP-31 (CCL20) bind to their cellular receptor, CCR6, they ..
  30. Identification and characterization of novel anti-HIV inhibitors
    Xiao Fang Yu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..1 replication in natural target cells such as CD4+ T-cells and macrophages which express innate antiviral human APOBEC3G (A3G) and related cytidine deaminases. We have identified a small molecule inhibitor of Vif...
  31. Structural Determination of Full-length APOBEC3G and the APOBEC3G/Vif Complex
    TROY CHRISTOPHER KRZYSIAK; Fiscal Year: 2011
    b>APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) has been identified as a key component in restricting the zoonotic transmission of retroviruses to humans...
  32. Development of a High Throughput Screen for Antagonists of Vif Dimerization
    Harold C Smith; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the HIV protein known as Vif is essential for HIV infection because it binds to and induces the destruction of APOBEC3G;a broad antiviral hostdefense factor...
  33. Drug Abuse, Sustance P and HIV
    Wenzhe Ho; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will focus on the impact of opioids and/or SP on type 1 IFN- and APOBEC3G/3F (newly identified ant-HIV factors)-mediated innate immunity against HIV-1, as these cellular factors are the ..
  34. WALDEMAR POPIK, PHD, LAB STARTUP PACKAGE: HIV
    Waldemar Popik; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We and others have demonstrated that antiretroviral activity of APOBEC3G requires its packaging into assembling HIV virions through interaction with the Gag nucleocapsid protein NC...
  35. Host Genetics of HIV-1 Subtype C Infection, Progression, and Treatment in Africa
    Myron E Essex; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the role of host genetic variation in known AIDS restriction genes (ARGs), innate immunity factors (Cul5, KIR, APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and TRIMS and related gene family members), complement factors, mitochondria! genes, selected immune ..
  36. Tariq M Rana; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..b>APOBEC3G protein exhibits the most potent block to HIV-1 replication...
  37. Mark C Williams; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..4) To mechanically measure reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerization in the presence of NC and APOBEC3G and determine how they alter RT's essential processes.
  38. A MULTIPRONGED, PROTEIN DEGRADATION-BASED APPROACH TO INHIBIT HIV TRANSMISSION
    Craig M Crews; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..viral genome into the host cell's DNA, and Vif, which links the cellular antiviral protein APOBEC3G to an E3 ubiquitin ligase, causing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation...
  39. Mario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..In 2002, it was found that the cellular target of the HIV-1 protein Vif is APOBEC3G (A3G)...
  40. Structural Studies of HIV Vif and Its Cellular Binding Partners
    Yong Xiong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human antiviral protein APOBEC3G induces extensive mutations and prevents the accumulation of HIV DNA rendering the virus non-infectious...
  41. Jeremy Luban; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Unfortunately, many human genes lack simple mouse orthologues, including APOBEC3G and TRIMS, two genes that restrict HIV-1 infection among intravenous drug users...
  42. Mucosal Chemokines and Inflammation in SIV Transmission and Pathogenesis
    Todd A Reinhart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CCL20 also has direct anti-HIV properties and stimulates the viral restriction factor APOBEC3G. Further it is a critical homing signal for mucosal Th17 cells, which are lost during SIV infection...
  43. Development of a Novel HIV/AIDS Therapeutic Activating the APOBEC3G Host Defense
    Harold C Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): APOBEC3G (A3G) is a protein expressed in human cells that serves as an antiviral host-defense factor...
  44. A novel APOBEC-based vaccine approach for HIV
    Douglas F Nixon; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Human APOBEC3G and 3F proteins are potent inhibitors of Vif-deficient HIV-1...
  45. Regulation of APOBEC3G enzymatic activity in HIV-infected primary human T cells
    Jaisri R Lingappa; Fiscal Year: 2012
    The human cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and 3F (A3G/F) are antiviral proteins that are expressed in human tissues and inhibit HIV replication by enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms...
  46. Sumit K Chanda; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..TLR7 pattern recognition receptor, restriction of HIV replication by interferon inducible HIV restriction factors Apobec3G and BST2, and inactivation of the latter two molecules by the HIV-encoded proteins Vif and Vpu, respectively...
  47. Interaction between HIV-1 Vif and a Host Key Immune Regulator Component
    SEAN LAMONTE EVANS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..between these two proteins which is required for Vif to mediate degradation of host anti-retroviral factor, APOBEC3G. The proposed research seeks to test the hypothesis that there is a direct interaction between HIV-1 Vif and CBF2 ..
  48. Toward a new world monkey model of HIV-1 infection
    Michael Farzan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..to subsequently infect receptor-expressing OMK cells, and these PBMC express substantially higher levels of APOBEC3G than OMK cells...
  49. APOBEC3G and RNA granules: restricting HIV infection and Alu retrotransposition
    Ya Lin Chiu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The discovery of human APOBEC3G (A3G) and related deoxycytidine deaminases as potent intrinsic anti-HIV factors represented an exciting advance in the field of HIV/AIDS research...
  50. Novel Assays to Identify HIV Vif Inhibitors
    Dana Gabuzda; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..by applicant): The HIV Vif protein is required during virus replication to overcome the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (ASF), cytidine deaminases that induce G to A hypermutation in newly synthesized viral DNA...
  51. Structural Studies of HIV Vif and Its Cellular Binding Partners
    Yong Xiong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human antiviral protein APOBEC3G induces extensive mutations and prevents the accumulation of HIV DNA rendering the virus non-infectious...
  52. HIV Evasion of the Innate Immune Response to Retroviruses
    Youssef Elias; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, in 2003, an endogenous human enzyme apolipoprotein B editing complex 3G (APOBEC3G) was shown to attenuate HIV progression when HIV was lacking a functional viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein...
  53. HIV-1 Vif: Another Potential Target
    Celia Schiffer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..and crystallization screens) and 3) In vitro functional studies of possible interactions between HIV-1 Vif and CEM 15 and between HIV-1 Vif and HIV-1 protease...
  54. HIV-1 Vif: Targeting its molecular interactions
    Celia Schiffer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..inhibiting its function directly, its oligomerization state or through disrupting its cellular partners such as APOBEC3G. To perform this study we have assembled an interdisciplinary team of structural biologists and molecular ..
  55. Regulation of APOBEC3G enzymatic activity in HIV-infected primary human T cells
    JAISRI LINGAPPA; Fiscal Year: 2008
    The human cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) are antiviral proteins that cause DNA hypermutation in HIV-1 DNA by deaminating cytidines...
  56. Regulation of human microRNA biosynthesis and activity
    BRYAN CULLEN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Finally, in specific aim 5, we seek to extend our exciting initial data demonstrating inhibition of miRNA function by the adenovirus VA1 non-coding RNA by trying to define the underlying mechanism. ..
  57. Structural Studies of Human APOBEC3G and HIV Vif
    Hiroshi Matsuo; Fiscal Year: 2008
    Human APOBEC3G is capable of altering the HIV genome by deaminating cDNA cytosines to uracils. This activity can genetically inactivate HIV. As a counter-defense mechanism, HIV promotes protein degradation of APOBEC3G...
  58. Discovering New Human DNA Repair Genes by Bioinformatics
    ASHOK BHAGWAT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This integrated prediction-validation approach should be superior to a purely bioinformatics or a purely biochemical approach and may serve as a paradigm for searching biochemical functions in genomes of all organisms. ..
  59. Molecular Mechanism of HIV-1 Vif Function
    BRYAN CULLEN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..from the Malim laboratory suggest that Vif functions by blocking the ability of a host factor called CEM15 or APOBEC3G to compromise the infectivity of progeny virions...
  60. Drug development for Vif-APOBEC3G in HIV-1/AIDS
    David Kabat; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This antiviral system principally involves the cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and/or ASF, which are incorporated into HIV-1 cores where they lethally hypermutate newly synthesized viral ..
  61. Improving Phenylbutyrate-based Anticancer Therapy
    ASHOK BHAGWAT; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This work will create the tools necessary for the monitoring of tumor cells in live animals when they are treated with PB as part of combination chemotherapy. ..
  62. 7th Annual Midwest DNA Repair Symposium
    ASHOK BHAGWAT; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This Symposium will provide excellent opportunity to those scientists who are unable to attend conferences on either U.S. coast because of the distance or the cost, to participate in a major conference. ..
  63. HIV-1 TROPISM AND CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS
    BRYAN CULLEN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The final specific aim focusses on the promoter regions of CCR5, the identification of transcription factors that may interact with the promoter, and the use of antisense strategies to block CCR5 expression. ..