ATIC

Summary

Gene Symbol: ATIC
Description: 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase
Alias: AICAR, AICARFT, HEL-S-70p, IMPCHASE, PURH, bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribonucleotide transformylase/inosinicase, AICAR formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase bifunctional enzyme, AICARFT/IMPCHASE, epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 70p, phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase
Species: human
Products:     ATIC

Top Publications

  1. Lee Y, Cui J, Costenbader K, Shadick N, Weinblatt M, Karlson E. Investigation of candidate polymorphisms and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients on methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:613-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2. Low disease activity was defined as DAS28-CRP < or =3.2. We studied three candidate alleles in the ATIC, ITPA and MTHFR genes for association with DAS28-CRP...
  2. Dervieux T, Furst D, Lein D, Capps R, Smith K, Walsh M, et al. Polyglutamation of methotrexate with common polymorphisms in reduced folate carrier, aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase, and thymidylate synthase are associated with methotrexate effects in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:2766-74 pubmed
    ..to MTX polyglutamates (MTXPGs) and inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) and thymidylate synthase (TS)...
  3. Dervieux T, Furst D, Lein D, Capps R, Smith K, Caldwell J, et al. Pharmacogenetic and metabolite measurements are associated with clinical status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate: results of a multicentred cross sectional observational study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:1180-5 pubmed
    ..pharmacogenetic index comprising low penetrance genetic polymorphisms in reduced folate carrier (RFC-1 G80A), AICAR transformylase (ATIC C347G), and thymidylate synthase (TSER*2/*3) was calculated...
  4. Wessels J, van der Kooij S, le Cessie S, Kievit W, Barerra P, Allaart C, et al. A clinical pharmacogenetic model to predict the efficacy of methotrexate monotherapy in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:1765-75 pubmed
    ..for MTX efficacy consisted of sex, rheumatoid factor and smoking status, the DAS, and 4 polymorphisms in the AMPD1, ATIC, ITPA, and MTHFD1 genes. This prediction model was transformed into a scoring system ranging from 0 to 11.5...
  5. Campalani E, Arenas M, Marinaki A, Lewis C, Barker J, Smith C. Polymorphisms in folate, pyrimidine, and purine metabolism are associated with efficacy and toxicity of methotrexate in psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1860-7 pubmed
    ..025 and P=0.025, respectively). RFC 80A and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) 347G were associated with methotrexate discontinuation (P=0.048 and P=0.038)...
  6. Weisman M, Furst D, Park G, Kremer J, Smith K, Wallace D, et al. Risk genotypes in folate-dependent enzymes and their association with methotrexate-related side effects in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:607-12 pubmed
    ..synthase (TSER) *2/*2 (variable number of tandem repeats), amino imidazole ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) 347GG, and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1) 1420CC were measured and summed to constitute the toxicogenetic ..
  7. Wessels J, Kooloos W, de Jonge R, de Vries Bouwstra J, Allaart C, Linssen A, et al. Relationship between genetic variants in the adenosine pathway and outcome of methotrexate treatment in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:2830-9 pubmed
    ..The following polymorphisms were determined: AMPD1 34C>T, ATIC 347C>G, ITPA 94C>A, MTR 2756A>G, and MTRR 66A>G...
  8. Dervieux T, Greenstein N, Kremer J. Pharmacogenomic and metabolic biomarkers in the folate pathway and their association with methotrexate effects during dosage escalation in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:3095-103 pubmed
    ..RBC MTXPG levels are a useful means by which to monitor therapy. The genetic associations presented generate hypotheses, and confirmation in independent cohorts is warranted. ..
  9. Zibrova D, Vandermoere F, Göransson O, Peggie M, Mariño K, Knierim A, et al. GFAT1 phosphorylation by AMPK promotes VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Biochem J. 2017;474:983-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of AMPK in primary human endothelial cells by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) or by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) led to GFAT1 phosphorylation at serine 243...
  10. Eccardt A, Bell T, Mattathil L, Prasad R, Kelly S, Fisher J. Trans-Plasma Membrane Electron Transport and Ascorbate Efflux by Skeletal Muscle. Antioxidants (Basel). 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase activator 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) suppressed both tPMET and ascorbate efflux by myotubes, while insulin had no effect...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Lee Y, Cui J, Costenbader K, Shadick N, Weinblatt M, Karlson E. Investigation of candidate polymorphisms and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients on methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:613-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2. Low disease activity was defined as DAS28-CRP < or =3.2. We studied three candidate alleles in the ATIC, ITPA and MTHFR genes for association with DAS28-CRP...
  2. Dervieux T, Furst D, Lein D, Capps R, Smith K, Walsh M, et al. Polyglutamation of methotrexate with common polymorphisms in reduced folate carrier, aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase, and thymidylate synthase are associated with methotrexate effects in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:2766-74 pubmed
    ..to MTX polyglutamates (MTXPGs) and inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) and thymidylate synthase (TS)...
  3. Dervieux T, Furst D, Lein D, Capps R, Smith K, Caldwell J, et al. Pharmacogenetic and metabolite measurements are associated with clinical status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate: results of a multicentred cross sectional observational study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:1180-5 pubmed
    ..pharmacogenetic index comprising low penetrance genetic polymorphisms in reduced folate carrier (RFC-1 G80A), AICAR transformylase (ATIC C347G), and thymidylate synthase (TSER*2/*3) was calculated...
  4. Wessels J, van der Kooij S, le Cessie S, Kievit W, Barerra P, Allaart C, et al. A clinical pharmacogenetic model to predict the efficacy of methotrexate monotherapy in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:1765-75 pubmed
    ..for MTX efficacy consisted of sex, rheumatoid factor and smoking status, the DAS, and 4 polymorphisms in the AMPD1, ATIC, ITPA, and MTHFD1 genes. This prediction model was transformed into a scoring system ranging from 0 to 11.5...
  5. Campalani E, Arenas M, Marinaki A, Lewis C, Barker J, Smith C. Polymorphisms in folate, pyrimidine, and purine metabolism are associated with efficacy and toxicity of methotrexate in psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1860-7 pubmed
    ..025 and P=0.025, respectively). RFC 80A and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) 347G were associated with methotrexate discontinuation (P=0.048 and P=0.038)...
  6. Weisman M, Furst D, Park G, Kremer J, Smith K, Wallace D, et al. Risk genotypes in folate-dependent enzymes and their association with methotrexate-related side effects in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:607-12 pubmed
    ..synthase (TSER) *2/*2 (variable number of tandem repeats), amino imidazole ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) 347GG, and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1) 1420CC were measured and summed to constitute the toxicogenetic ..
  7. Wessels J, Kooloos W, de Jonge R, de Vries Bouwstra J, Allaart C, Linssen A, et al. Relationship between genetic variants in the adenosine pathway and outcome of methotrexate treatment in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:2830-9 pubmed
    ..The following polymorphisms were determined: AMPD1 34C>T, ATIC 347C>G, ITPA 94C>A, MTR 2756A>G, and MTRR 66A>G...
  8. Dervieux T, Greenstein N, Kremer J. Pharmacogenomic and metabolic biomarkers in the folate pathway and their association with methotrexate effects during dosage escalation in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:3095-103 pubmed
    ..RBC MTXPG levels are a useful means by which to monitor therapy. The genetic associations presented generate hypotheses, and confirmation in independent cohorts is warranted. ..
  9. Zibrova D, Vandermoere F, Göransson O, Peggie M, Mariño K, Knierim A, et al. GFAT1 phosphorylation by AMPK promotes VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Biochem J. 2017;474:983-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of AMPK in primary human endothelial cells by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) or by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) led to GFAT1 phosphorylation at serine 243...
  10. Eccardt A, Bell T, Mattathil L, Prasad R, Kelly S, Fisher J. Trans-Plasma Membrane Electron Transport and Ascorbate Efflux by Skeletal Muscle. Antioxidants (Basel). 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase activator 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) suppressed both tPMET and ascorbate efflux by myotubes, while insulin had no effect...
  11. Kou B, Liu W, Xu X, Yang Y, Yi Q, Guo F, et al. Autophagy induction enhances tetrandrine-induced apoptosis via the AMPK/mTOR pathway in human bladder cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2017;38:3137-3143 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, AICAR, a common AMPK activator, further increased the expression the LC3-II, while AMPK inhibitor compound C partially ..
  12. Muralidharan N, Mariaselvam C, Jain V, Gulati R, Negi V. ATIC 347C>G gene polymorphism may be associated with methotrexate-induced adverse events in south Indian Tamil rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacogenomics. 2016;17:241-8 pubmed publisher
    To find the association of ATIC 347C>G gene polymorphism with methotrexate (MTX) treatment response and MTX-induced adverse events in south Indian Tamil patients with rheumatoid arthritis...
  13. Boutchueng Djidjou M, Collard Simard G, Fortier S, Hébert S, Kelly I, Landry C, et al. The last enzyme of the de novo purine synthesis pathway 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC) plays a central role in insulin signaling and the Golgi/endosomes protein network. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015;14:1079-92 pubmed publisher
    ..that IR internalization was markedly decreased after AMPKα2 knockdown, and treatment with the ATIC substrate AICAR, which is an allosteric activator of AMPK, increased IR endocytosis in cultured cells and in the liver...
  14. Kumar A, Giri S, Kumar A. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside-mediated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation induces protective innate responses in bacterial endophthalmitis. Cell Microbiol. 2016;18:1815-1830 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravitreal administration of an AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), restored AMPKα and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation...
  15. Nie J, Liu A, Tan Q, Zhao K, Hu K, Li Y, et al. AICAR activates ER stress-dependent apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;482:246-252 pubmed publisher
    b>AICAR (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or acadesine) is an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist, its activity in human gallbladder cancer cells was evaluated here...
  16. Geraghty K, Chen S, Harthill J, Ibrahim A, Toth R, Morrice N, et al. Regulation of multisite phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding of AS160 in response to IGF-1, EGF, PMA and AICAR. Biochem J. 2007;407:231-41 pubmed
    ..was induced by IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), EGF (epidermal growth factor), PMA and, to a lesser extent, AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-b-D-ribofuranoside)...
  17. Chen Y, Chen C, Dong B, Xing F, Huang H, Yao F, et al. AMPK attenuates ventricular remodeling and dysfunction following aortic banding in mice via the Sirt3/Oxidative stress pathway. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017;814:335-342 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice with descending aortic banding (AB) or subjected to sham operation received subcutaneous injection of either AICAR (0.5mgg-1day-1) or vehicle over 4 week periods...
  18. Marie S, Heron B, Bitoun P, Timmerman T, Van den Berghe G, Vincent M. AICA-ribosiduria: a novel, neurologically devastating inborn error of purine biosynthesis caused by mutation of ATIC. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74:1276-81 pubmed
    ..of a massive excretion of 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide (AICA)-riboside, the dephosphorylated counterpart of AICAR (also termed "ZMP"), an intermediate of de novo purine biosynthesis...
  19. Bulock K, Beardsley G, Anderson K. The kinetic mechanism of the human bifunctional enzyme ATIC (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase/inosine 5'-monophosphate cyclohydrolase). A surprising lack of substrate channeling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22168-74 pubmed
    5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC) is a bifunctional protein possessing two enzymatic activities that sequentially catalyze the last two steps in the pathway for de novo synthesis of ..
  20. Sugita T, Aya H, Ueno M, Ishizuka T, Kawashima K. Characterization of molecularly cloned human 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase. J Biochem. 1997;122:309-13 pubmed
    The cDNA encoding human 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) transformylase has been cloned from a placenta cDNA library, utilizing a PCR-derived probe. It encodes a peptide of 592 amino acids...
  21. Yamauchi M, Seki N, Mita K, Saito T, Tsuji S, Hongo E, et al. Isolation of human purH gene expressed in the rodent transformant cells by subtractive enrichment of 3'-untranslated region of human transcript. DNA Res. 1995;2:269-75 pubmed
    ..To assess the ability and usefulness of the procedure, we attempted to recover the human purH gene from a mouse transformant cell line, which was originally established by functional complementation using the ..
  22. Tao X, Chen L, Cai L, Ge S, Deng X. Regulatory effects of the AMPKα-SIRT1 molecular pathway on insulin resistance in PCOS mice: An in vitro and in vivo study. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:615-620 pubmed publisher
    ..study of human granulosa KGN cells and in vivo study of PCOS mouse model which was constructed with DHEA, and AICAR and Compound C were applied...
  23. Xiao Y, Chang W, Wu Q, Jiang X, Duan M, Jin Y, et al. Aucubin Protects against TGFβ1-Induced Cardiac Fibroblasts Activation by Mediating the AMPKα/mTOR Signaling Pathway. Planta Med. 2018;84:91-99 pubmed publisher
    ..target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation, which was confirmed by an mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin), an AMPK agonist (AICAR) and an AMPKα inhibitor compound C...
  24. Castilla Madrigal R, Barrenetxe J, Moreno Aliaga M, Lostao M. EPA blocks TNF-α-induced inhibition of sugar uptake in Caco-2 cells via GPR120 and AMPK. J Cell Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 and the AMPK activator AICAR also prevented the inhibitory effect of TNF-α on both αMG uptake and SGLT1 expression...
  25. Wang R, Cheng Y, Su D, Gong B, He X, Zhou X, et al. Cpt1c regulated by AMPK promotes papillary thyroid carcinomas cells survival under metabolic stress conditions. J Cancer. 2017;8:3675-3681 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, KTC-1 cells were treated with AICAR (as an agonist of AMPK) and Compound C (as an inhibitor of AMPK) to investigate the correlation of AMPK activity ..
  26. Daglioglu C, Okutucu B. Therapeutic Effects of AICAR and DOX Conjugated Multifunctional Nanoparticles in Sensitization and Elimination of Cancer Cells via Survivin Targeting. Pharm Res. 2017;34:175-184 pubmed publisher
    ..and reported on producing multifunctional nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)-FA/AICAR/DOX) aiming to overcome chemoresistance with synergetic effect of AICAR and DOX...
  27. Flanagan W, Holmes E, Sabina R, Swain J. Importance of purine nucleotide cycle to energy production in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol. 1986;251:C795-802 pubmed
    ..or 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAriboside), a precursor to an inhibitor of adenylosuccinate lyase (AICAR)...
  28. Zaitseva I, Zaitsev S, Berggren P. The imidazoline compound RX871024 promotes insulinoma cell death independent of AMP-activated protein kinase inhibition. Invest New Drugs. 2016;34:522-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) elevated basal and cytokine-induced death in primary β-cells and in insulinoma MIN6 cells...
  29. Li H, Wu J, Zhu L, Sha L, Yang S, Wei J, et al. Insulin degrading enzyme contributes to the pathology in a mixed model of Type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease: possible mechanisms of IDE in T2D and AD. Biosci Rep. 2018;38: pubmed publisher
    ..PPARγ activator rosiglitazone (RSZ) or AMPK activator AICAR increased the expression level of IDE and decreased Aβ levels in mice with AD and T2D...
  30. Wu Y, Liu G, Chen W, Yang M, Zhu C. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside reduces intimal hyperplasia of tissue engineering blood vessel by inhibiting phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cell. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2017;105:744-752 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) was used in experiments after drug screening...
  31. Winder W, Holmes B, Rubink D, Jensen E, Chen M, Holloszy J. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase increases mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;88:2219-26 pubmed
    ..studies, rats were subcutaneously injected with either 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR; 1 mg/g body wt) in 0.9% NaCl or with 0...
  32. Boccalatte F, Voena C, Riganti C, Bosia A, D Amico L, Riera L, et al. The enzymatic activity of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase is enhanced by NPM-ALK: new insights in ALK-mediated pathogenesis and the treatment of ALCL. Blood. 2009;113:2776-90 pubmed publisher
    ..and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (ATIC) associated with nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK, and their phosphorylation required ALK activity...
  33. Cheng F, He M, Jung J, Lu C, Gao S. Suppression of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection and Replication by 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase. J Virol. 2016;90:6515-25 pubmed publisher
    ..lytic gene expressions and virion productions but an AMPK agonist, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), suppressed both...
  34. Tanaka Y, Kume S, Maeda S, Osawa N, Takeda N, Chin Kanasaki M, et al. Overexpression of acetyl CoA carboxylase β exacerbates podocyte injury in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:1115-1121 pubmed publisher
    ..high glucose conditions was reversed by a treatment of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  35. Hazra A, Fuchs C, Kawasaki T, Kirkner G, Hunter D, Ogino S. Germline polymorphisms in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and DNA methylation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21:331-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these exploratory data provide suggestive evidence for the association of MTHFR 429 Ala/ Ala and TCN2 259 Arg/Arg and CIMP status in colorectal cancer. ..
  36. Buisson C, Frelat C, Mongongu C, Martinat N, Audran M. Implementation of AICAR analysis by GC-C-IRMS for anti-doping purposes. Drug Test Anal. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    b>AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside), is a naturally occurring substance which is part to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List...
  37. Chueca B, Pérez Sáez E, Pagán R, García Gonzalo D. Global transcriptional response of Escherichia coli MG1655 cells exposed to the oxygenated monoterpenes citral and carvacrol. Int J Food Microbiol. 2017;257:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In citral-treated cells, transcription of purH and pyrB and pyrI was 2 times higher...
  38. Wang C, Wang Y, Di A, Magnuson M, Ye H, Roe M, et al. 5-amino-imidazole carboxamide riboside acutely potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse pancreatic islets by KATP channel-dependent and -independent pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;330:1073-9 pubmed
    ..We used 5-amino-imidazole carboxamide riboside (AICAR), an activator of AMPK, to define the signaling mechanisms linking the activation of AMPK with insulin secretion...
  39. Matoba R, Morizane Y, Shiode Y, Hirano M, Doi S, Toshima S, et al. Suppressive effect of AMP-activated protein kinase on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in retinal pigment epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181481 pubmed publisher
    ..5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), a potent activator of AMPK, significantly suppressed TNF-α and TGF-β2-induced cellular aggregate formation (p &..
  40. Inata Y, Kikuchi S, Samraj R, Hake P, O Connor M, Ledford J, et al. Autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis impairment contributes to age-dependent liver injury in experimental sepsis: dysregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. FASEB J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with the AMPK activator 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) improved liver mitochondrial structure in both age groups compared with vehicle...
  41. Warren R, Smith R, Campalani E, Eyre S, Smith C, Barker J, et al. Outcomes of methotrexate therapy for psoriasis and relationship to genetic polymorphisms. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:438-41 pubmed publisher
    ..methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC)] are related to treatment outcomes in patients with psoriasis...
  42. Yin S, Li X, Meng Y, Finley R, Sakr W, Yang H, et al. Tumor-suppressive maspin regulates cell response to oxidative stress by direct interaction with glutathione S-transferase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34985-96 pubmed
    ....
  43. Rayl E, Moroson B, Beardsley G. The human purH gene product, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase. Cloning, sequencing, expression, purification, kinetic analysis, and domain mapping. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2225-33 pubmed
    ..studies of the human 5-aminoimidazole- 4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (AICARFT/IMPCHase). These steps of de novo purine biosynthesis, respectively...
  44. Li Z, Yue Y, Hu F, Zhang C, Ma X, Li N, et al. Electrical pulse stimulation induces GLUT4 glucose transporter translocation in C2C12 myotubes that depends on Rab8A, Rab13 and Rab14. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;:ajpendo.00103.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..GLUT4HA (GLUT4 translocation) comparably to insulin or 5-amino imidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR). A myosin II inhibitor prevented EPS-stimulated myotube contraction and reduced surface GLUT4 by 56%...
  45. Jing Y, Wu F, Li D, Yang L, Li Q, Li R. Metformin improves obesity-associated inflammation by altering macrophages polarization. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018;461:256-264 pubmed publisher
    ..Metformin, compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) and AICAR (an AMPK activator) were used for the in vitro intervention...
  46. Cieslik K, Trial J, Entman M. Aicar treatment reduces interstitial fibrosis in aging mice: Suppression of the inflammatory fibroblast. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2017;111:81-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Aging C57BL/6J mice were treated with AICAR (an AMPK activator) for a 30-day period...
  47. Kopsiaftis S, Sullivan K, Garg I, Taylor J, Claffey K. AMPKα2 Regulates Bladder Cancer Growth through SKP2-Mediated Degradation of p27. Mol Cancer Res. 2016;14:1182-1194 pubmed
    ..HTB2 and HT1376 bladder cells were treated with an AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR)...
  48. Liu Y, Lv J, Zeng Q, Shen S, Xing J, Zhang Y, et al. AMPK activation ameliorates D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver failure by upregulating Foxo3A to induce autophagy. Exp Cell Res. 2017;358:335-342 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPK activation and inhibition of autophagy were induced by AICAR and 3-MA, respectively...
  49. Sharma S, Das M, Kumar A, Marwaha V, Shankar S, Singh P, et al. Purine biosynthetic pathway genes and methotrexate response in rheumatoid arthritis patients among north Indians. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:823-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we analyzed the association of polymorphisms in ATIC, AMPD1, ADA, and ADORA2A from the purine biosynthetic pathway with MTX response in RA patients from north India...
  50. Park J, Shin H. ATIC Gene Polymorphism and Histologic Response to Chemotherapy in Pediatric Osteosarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2017;39:e270-e274 pubmed publisher
    ..the following polymorphisms were analyzed; SLC19A1 80G>A, DHFR 829C>T, MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, and ATIC 347C>G...
  51. Williamson J, Petralia R, Wang Y, Mattson M, Yao P. Purine Biosynthesis Enzymes in Hippocampal Neurons. Neuromolecular Med. 2017;19:518-524 pubmed publisher
    ..gap, we examined the expression and subcellular distribution of three purine biosynthesis enzymes (PFAS, PAICS and ATIC) in rat hippocampal neurons...
  52. Konagaya Y, Terai K, Hirao Y, Takakura K, Imajo M, Kamioka Y, et al. A Highly Sensitive FRET Biosensor for AMPK Exhibits Heterogeneous AMPK Responses among Cells and Organs. Cell Rep. 2017;21:2628-2638 pubmed publisher
    ..In transgenic mice expressing AMPKAR-EV, the AMP analog AICAR activated AMPK in muscle...
  53. Beardsley G, Rayl E, Gunn K, Moroson B, Seow H, Anderson K, et al. Structure and functional relationships in human pur H. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;431:221-6 pubmed
    ..hPurH, which carries the penultimate and final enzymatic activities of the purine nucleotide synthesis pathway, AICARFT & IMPCH, has been cloned and sequenced. The gene product, hPurH has been overexpressed in E...
  54. Zhang H, Liu B, Li T, Zhu Y, Luo G, Jiang Y, et al. AMPK activation serves a critical role in mitochondria quality control via modulating mitophagy in the heart under chronic hypoxia. Int J Mol Med. 2018;41:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPK was activated under hypoxia. Notably, when the activation of AMPK was enhanced by the AMPK agonist AICAR, mitochondrial autophagy was increased accordingly...
  55. Dervieux T, Wessels J, van der Straaten T, Penrod N, Moore J, Guchelaar H, et al. Gene-gene interactions in folate and adenosine biosynthesis pathways affect methotrexate efficacy and tolerability in rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:935-44 pubmed publisher
    ..False-positive report probabilities were below 0.2, thereby indicating that true signals were likely detected in this cohort. These data indicate that gene-gene interactions impact MTX efficacy and tolerability in rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  56. Fales K, Njoroge F, Brooks H, Thibodeaux S, Torrado A, Si C, et al. Discovery of N-(6-Fluoro-1-oxo-1,2-dihydroisoquinolin-7-yl)-5-[(3R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl]thiophene-2-sulfonamide (LSN 3213128), a Potent and Selective Nonclassical Antifolate Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Ribonucleotide Formyltransferase (AICARFT). J Med Chem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..with potent and specific inhibitory activity for aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (AICARFT), an enzyme in the purine biosynthetic pathway...
  57. Vergis J, Bulock K, Fleming K, Beardsley G. Human 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase/inosine 5'-monophosphate cyclohydrolase. A bifunctional protein requiring dimerization for transformylase activity but not for cyclohydrolase activity. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7727-33 pubmed
    ..These showed that the equilibrium is only significantly shifted in the presence of both AICAR and a folate analog, resulting in a 10-fold reduction in the dissociation constant...
  58. Wang S, Kobayashi K, Kogure Y, Yamanaka H, Yamamoto S, Yagi H, et al. Negative Regulation of TRPA1 by AMPK in Primary Sensory Neurons as a Potential Mechanism of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes. 2018;67:98-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with two AMPK activators, metformin or AICAR, inhibited TRPA1 activity in DRG neurons by decreasing the amount of membrane-associated TRPA1...
  59. Zhang B, Shi Y, Zou J, Chen X, Tang W, Ye F, et al. High glucose stimulates cell proliferation and Collagen IV production in rat mesangial cells through inhibiting AMPK-KATP signaling. Int Urol Nephrol. 2017;49:2079-2086 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPK agonist (AICAR) was used to analyze the role of this kinase. The expression of KATP subunit (Kir6.1, Kir6...
  60. Lu Q, Mundy M, Chambers E, Lange T, Newton J, Borgas D, et al. Alda-1 Protects Against Acrolein-induced Acute Lung Injury and Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of AMPK with AICAR blunted acrolein-induced increase in endothelial monolayer permeability, but not mitochondrial oxidative stress or ..
  61. Baresova V, Skopova V, Sikora J, Patterson D, Sovová J, Zikanova M, et al. Mutations of ATIC and ADSL affect purinosome assembly in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with AICA-ribosiduria and ADSL deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1534-43 pubmed publisher
    ..in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with AICA-ribosiduria and ADSL deficiency that various mutations of ATIC and ADSL destabilize to various degrees of purinosome assembly and found that the ability to form purinosomes ..
  62. Gualdoni G, Mayer K, Göschl L, Boucheron N, Ellmeier W, Zlabinger G. The AMP analog AICAR modulates the Treg/Th17 axis through enhancement of fatty acid oxidation. FASEB J. 2016;30:3800-3809 pubmed
    ..the impact of several AMPK activators on Treg-cell differentiation and found that the direct activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide), but not the indirect activators metformin and 2-deoxyglucose, ..