CD4

Summary

Gene Symbol: CD4
Description: CD4 molecule
Alias: CD4mut, T-cell surface glycoprotein CD4, CD4 antigen (p55), CD4 receptor, T-cell surface antigen T4/Leu-3
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. pmc Crystal structure of a soluble cleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer
    Jean Philippe Julien
    Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 342:1477-83. 2013
  2. pmc Therapeutic efficacy of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys
    Dan H Barouch
    1 Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA 2 Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 503:224-8. 2013
  3. pmc Molecular architecture of native HIV-1 gp120 trimers
    Jun Liu
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 455:109-13. 2008
  4. pmc Structural basis for broad and potent neutralization of HIV-1 by antibody VRC01
    Tongqing Zhou
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 329:811-7. 2010
  5. pmc Structural basis of immune evasion at the site of CD4 attachment on HIV-1 gp120
    Lei Chen
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 326:1123-7. 2009
  6. ncbi The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus
    A G Dalgleish
    Nature 312:763-7. 1984
  7. pmc Asymmetric recognition of the HIV-1 trimer by broadly neutralizing antibody PG9
    Jean Philippe Julien
    Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:4351-6. 2013
  8. pmc Rational HIV immunogen design to target specific germline B cell receptors
    Joseph Jardine
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 340:711-6. 2013
  9. pmc Increasing the potency and breadth of an HIV antibody by using structure-based rational design
    Ron Diskin
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 334:1289-93. 2011
  10. pmc Trimeric HIV-1 glycoprotein gp140 immunogens and native HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins display the same closed and open quaternary molecular architectures
    Audray Harris
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11440-5. 2011

Research Grants

  1. A Flow Through Cell Counting Assay
    SIMON BYSTRYAK; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. SIMON BYSTRYAK; Fiscal Year: 2014
  3. Longitudinal Studies of HIV-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia
    William N Rom; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Molecular Phenotyping of NOD Mice
    Ivan C Gerling; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. HIV/TB in Uganda: Punctuated Antiretroviral Therapy
    Christopher Whalen; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. Small Animal Model of HIV Neuropathogenesis in the HAART Era
    Pietro P Sanna; Fiscal Year: 2012
  7. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in HAART-treated HIV infection
    Maria C Villacres; Fiscal Year: 2010
  8. JOAN WEINBERGER BERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2015
  9. HAART to Prevent HIV Transmission to Infants In Botswana
    Roger L Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. Marcia McDonnell Holstad; Fiscal Year: 2015

Detail Information

Publications572 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Crystal structure of a soluble cleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer
    Jean Philippe Julien
    Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 342:1477-83. 2013
    HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) target cells is mediated by cleaved envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers that have been challenging to characterize structurally. Here, we describe the crystal structure at 4...
  2. pmc Therapeutic efficacy of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys
    Dan H Barouch
    1 Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA 2 Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 503:224-8. 2013
    ..Our findings strongly encourage the investigation of monoclonal antibody therapy for HIV-1 in humans. ..
  3. pmc Molecular architecture of native HIV-1 gp120 trimers
    Jun Liu
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 455:109-13. 2008
    ..and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) mediate virus binding to the cell surface receptor CD4 on target cells to initiate infection...
  4. pmc Structural basis for broad and potent neutralization of HIV-1 by antibody VRC01
    Tongqing Zhou
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 329:811-7. 2010
    ..HIV-1 infection, antibodies are generated against the region of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds CD4, the primary receptor for HIV-1...
  5. pmc Structural basis of immune evasion at the site of CD4 attachment on HIV-1 gp120
    Lei Chen
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 326:1123-7. 2009
    The site on HIV-1 gp120 that binds to the CD4 receptor is vulnerable to antibodies. However, most antibodies that interact with this site cannot neutralize HIV-1...
  6. ncbi The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus
    A G Dalgleish
    Nature 312:763-7. 1984
    ..A subset of T lymphocytes positive for the CD4 antigen (also termed T4 antigen), is depleted in AIDS and PGL patients...
  7. pmc Asymmetric recognition of the HIV-1 trimer by broadly neutralizing antibody PG9
    Jean Philippe Julien
    Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:4351-6. 2013
    ..Together, these structural and biophysical findings should facilitate the design of HIV-1 immunogens that possess all elements of the quaternary PG9 epitope required to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies against this region...
  8. pmc Rational HIV immunogen design to target specific germline B cell receptors
    Joseph Jardine
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 340:711-6. 2013
    ..Potent VRC01-class bNAbs against the CD4 binding site of HIV gp120 have been isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals; however, such bNAbs have not been ..
  9. pmc Increasing the potency and breadth of an HIV antibody by using structure-based rational design
    Ron Diskin
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 334:1289-93. 2011
    Antibodies against the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the HIV-1 spike protein gp120 can show exceptional potency and breadth. We determined structures of NIH45-46, a more potent clonal variant of VRC01, alone and bound to gp120...
  10. pmc Trimeric HIV-1 glycoprotein gp140 immunogens and native HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins display the same closed and open quaternary molecular architectures
    Audray Harris
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11440-5. 2011
    The initial step in HIV-1 infection occurs with the binding of cell surface CD4 to trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env), a heterodimer of a transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) and a surface glycoprotein (gp120)...
  11. pmc Vaccine-elicited primate antibodies use a distinct approach to the HIV-1 primary receptor binding site informing vaccine redesign
    Karen Tran
    International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, Departments of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology and Immunology and Microbial Science, and Center for HIV AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:E738-47. 2014
    ..We recently reported the isolation of previously unidentified vaccine-elicited, CD4 binding site (CD4bs)-directed mAbs from rhesus macaques immunized with soluble Env trimers, indicating that this ..
  12. pmc Broadly neutralizing antibody PGT121 allosterically modulates CD4 binding via recognition of the HIV-1 gp120 V3 base and multiple surrounding glycans
    Jean Philippe Julien
    Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003342. 2013
    ..We then used ITC and FACS to demonstrate that the PGT121 antibodies inhibit CD4 binding to gp120 despite the epitope being distal from the CD4 binding site...
  13. pmc Conformational changes induced in the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein by soluble CD4 binding
    Q J Sattentau
    Academic Department of Genito Urinary Medicine, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 174:407-15. 1991
    ..binds to the surface of T lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system via a high affinity interaction between CD4 and the HIV outer envelope glycoprotein, gp120...
  14. pmc The mannose-dependent epitope for neutralizing antibody 2G12 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120
    Rogier W Sanders
    Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Virol 76:7293-305. 2002
    ..It resides on a face orthogonal to the CD4 binding face, on a surface proximal to, but distinct from, that implicated in coreceptor binding...
  15. pmc Energetics of the HIV gp120-CD4 binding reaction
    D G Myszka
    Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:9026-31. 2000
    HIV infection is initiated by the selective interaction between the cellular receptor CD4 and gp120, the external envelope glycoprotein of the virus...
  16. doi HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment
    Michael H Malim
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, Borough Wing, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London, SE1 9RT, UK
    Cell Host Microbe 3:388-98. 2008
    ..Broadly speaking, the HIV-1 accessory proteins modify the local environment within infected cells to ensure viral persistence, replication, dissemination, and transmission...
  17. ncbi Dissociation of gp120 from HIV-1 virions induced by soluble CD4
    J P Moore
    Chester Beatty Laboratories, Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom
    Science 250:1139-42. 1990
    The CD4 antigen is the high affinity cellular receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)...
  18. ncbi Delineation of a region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 glycoprotein critical for interaction with the CD4 receptor
    L A Lasky
    Cell 50:975-85. 1987
    ..In addition, a single amino acid substitution in this region results in significantly decreased binding, suggesting that sequences within this region are directly involved in the binding of gp120 to the CD4 receptor.
  19. pmc Dendritic cells preferentially transfer CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants to CD4+ T lymphocytes in trans
    Thijs van Montfort
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 82:7886-96. 2008
    ..We observed that DCs preferentially facilitated infection of CD4(+) T lymphocytes of viral strains with an envelope phenotype found late in disease...
  20. pmc Longer V1V2 region with increased number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein protects against HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies
    Marit J van Gils
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, M01 120, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands
    J Virol 85:6986-95. 2011
    ..HIV-1 variants from contemporary seroconverters decreased the neutralization sensitivity to CD4-binding site-directed antibodies...
  21. pmc Structural dynamics of HIV-1 envelope Gp120 outer domain with V3 loop
    Masaru Yokoyama
    Laboratory of Viral Genomics, Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4 7 1 Gakuen, Musashi Murayama shi, Tokyo, Japan
    PLoS ONE 7:e37530. 2012
    ..The net charge of the hypervariable V3 loop on the HIV-1 envelope gp120 outer domain plays a key role in modulating viral phenotype. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation remain poorly understood...
  22. pmc MPER-specific antibodies induce gp120 shedding and irreversibly neutralize HIV-1
    Claudia R Ruprecht
    Institute of Medical Virology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 208:439-54. 2011
    ..Antibodies directed to the CD4 binding site, V3 loop, and the MPER can induce gp120 shedding, and shedding activity is detected with high ..
  23. ncbi Defective suppressor function in CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cells from patients with type 1 diabetes
    Shelley Lindley
    Department of Immunobiology, Guy s, King s and St Thomas School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, New Guy s House, Guy s Hospital London SE1 9RT, UK
    Diabetes 54:92-9. 2005
    ..in maintenance of peripheral tolerance include a specialized subset of regulatory T-cells (Treg) within the CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cell population, but the function and phenotype of these cells in type 1 diabetes have not been ..
  24. pmc HIV-1 Nef targets MHC-I and CD4 for degradation via a final common beta-COP-dependent pathway in T cells
    Malinda R Schaefer
    Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000131. 2008
    To facilitate viral infection and spread, HIV-1 Nef disrupts the surface expression of the viral receptor (CD4) and molecules capable of presenting HIV antigens to the immune system (MHC-I)...
  25. pmc Vpu serine 52 dependent counteraction of tetherin is required for HIV-1 replication in macrophages, but not in ex vivo human lymphoid tissue
    Michael Schindler
    Heinrich Pette Institute for Experimental Virology and Immunology, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
    Retrovirology 7:1. 2010
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein degrades CD4 and counteracts a restriction factor termed tetherin (CD317; Bst-2) to enhance virion release...
  26. ncbi Cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 occurs within minutes and may not involve the participation of virus particles
    H Sato
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Virology 186:712-24. 1992
    ..or specific envelope/receptor antibodies revealed that the cell-to-cell spread of HIV required: (1) gp120-CD4 interaction and (2) reverse transcription...
  27. ncbi The V3 domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein is critical for chemokine-mediated blockade of infection
    F Cocchi
    Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nat Med 2:1244-7. 1996
    ..The ability of the chemokines to block the early steps of HIV infection could be exploited to develop novel therapeutic approaches for AIDS...
  28. pmc Antibody 8ANC195 reveals a site of broad vulnerability on the HIV-1 envelope spike
    Louise Scharf
    Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Cell Rep 7:785-95. 2014
    ..The site includes portions of gp41 and N-linked glycans adjacent to the CD4-binding site on gp120, making 8ANC195 the first donor-derived anti-HIV-1 bNAb with an epitope spanning both Env ..
  29. pmc HIV entry and envelope glycoprotein-mediated fusion
    Robert Blumenthal
    Nanobiology Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:40841-9. 2012
    ..However, the coupling between the lipid and protein pathways that give rise to fusion has not been resolved. Here, we discuss the known and unknown about the overall HIV Env-mediated fusion process...
  30. pmc Molecular architecture of the uncleaved HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer
    Youdong Mao
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:12438-43. 2013
    ..Binding the receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4, triggers Env conformational changes from the metastable unliganded state to the fusion-active state...
  31. ncbi The solution structure of HIV-1 Nef reveals an unexpected fold and permits delineation of the binding surface for the SH3 domain of Hck tyrosine protein kinase
    S Grzesiek
    Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Struct Biol 3:340-5. 1996
    ..This unique feature may suggest possible avenues for drug design aimed at inhibiting the interaction between Nef and SH3 domains...
  32. pmc Redox-triggered infection by disulfide-shackled human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudovirions
    James M Binley
    Departments of Immunology and Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 77:5678-84. 2003
    ..These pseudovirions attach to cells expressing CD4 and coreceptor but infect only when triggered with reducing agent, implying that gp120-gp41 dissociation is ..
  33. pmc Bile salt-stimulated lipase from human milk binds DC-SIGN and inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transfer to CD4+ T cells
    Marloes A Naarding
    Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3367-74. 2006
    ..the interaction of the gp120 envelope protein of HIV-1 with DC-SIGN can facilitate the transfer of virus to CD4+ T lymphocytes in trans and enhance infection...
  34. doi Moesin is required for HIV-1-induced CD4-CXCR4 interaction, F-actin redistribution, membrane fusion and viral infection in lymphocytes
    Marta Barrero-Villar
    Servicio de Inmunologia, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    J Cell Sci 122:103-13. 2009
    ..1 (HIV-1) envelope regulates the initial attachment of viral particles to target cells through its association with CD4 and either CXCR4 or CCR5...
  35. pmc Differential role of autophagy in CD4 T cells and macrophages during X4 and R5 HIV-1 infection
    Lucile Espert
    CPBS, UM1, UM2, CNRS, Institut de Biologie, 4, CS 69033, Montpellier, France
    PLoS ONE 4:e5787. 2009
    HIV-1 can infect and replicate in both CD4 T cells and macrophages...
  36. pmc HIV-1 envelope, integrins and co-receptor use in mucosal transmission of HIV
    Claudia Cicala
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Transl Med 9:S2. 2011
    ..that HIV-1 infection typically involves an interaction between the viral envelope protein gp120/41 and the CD4 molecule followed by a second interaction with a chemokine receptor, usually CCR5 or CXCR4...
  37. pmc Binding of the mannose-specific lectin, griffithsin, to HIV-1 gp120 exposes the CD4-binding site
    Kabamba Bankoledi Alexandre
    AIDS Virus Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Virol 85:9039-50. 2011
    ..We found that GRFT enhanced the binding of HIV-1 to plates coated with anti-CD4bs antibodies b12 and b6 or the CD4 receptor mimetic CD4-IgG2...
  38. pmc Maturation-induced cloaking of neutralization epitopes on HIV-1 particles
    Amanda S Joyner
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002234. 2011
    ..Masking of neutralization-sensitive epitopes during particle maturation may contribute to HIV-1 immune evasion and has practical implications for vaccine strategies targeting the gp41 MPER...
  39. pmc Reacquisition of Nef-mediated tetherin antagonism in a single in vivo passage of HIV-1 through its original chimpanzee host
    Nicola Götz
    Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 12:373-80. 2012
    ..Our data demonstrate that primate lentiviruses can reacquire lost accessory gene functions during a single in vivo passage and suggest that other functional constraints keep Nef ready to regain antitetherin activity...
  40. pmc Variation in HIV-1 R5 macrophage-tropism correlates with sensitivity to reagents that block envelope: CD4 interactions but not with sensitivity to other entry inhibitors
    Paul J Peters
    Center for AIDS Research, Program in Molecular Medicine and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, 373 Plantation Street, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Retrovirology 5:5. 2008
    ..These R5 envelopes conferred a wide range of macrophage tropism and included highly macrophage-tropic variants from brain and non-macrophage-tropic variants from lymph node...
  41. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 induces a stop signal and virological synapse formation in noninfected CD4+ T cells
    Gaia Vasiliver-Shamis
    VA Medical Center, 423 E 23rd St, Room 18 124 North, New York, NY 10010, USA
    J Virol 82:9445-57. 2008
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected T cells form a virological synapse with noninfected CD4(+) T cells in order to efficiently transfer HIV-1 virions from cell to cell...
  42. pmc The HIV envelope but not VSV glycoprotein is capable of mediating HIV latent infection of resting CD4 T cells
    Dongyang Yu
    Department of Molecular and Microbiology, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000633. 2009
    HIV fusion and entry into CD4 T cells are mediated by two receptors, CD4 and CXCR4...
  43. pmc HIV-infected T cells are migratory vehicles for viral dissemination
    Thomas T Murooka
    the Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nature 490:283-7. 2012
    ..Both uncoordinated motility of syncytia and adhesion to CD4(+) lymph node cells led to the formation of long membrane tethers, increasing cell lengths to up to ten times that ..
  44. pmc Multilayered mechanism of CD4 downregulation by HIV-1 Vpu involving distinct ER retention and ERAD targeting steps
    Javier G Magadán
    Cell Biology and Metabolism Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000869. 2010
    A key function of the Vpu protein of HIV-1 is the targeting of newly-synthesized CD4 for proteasomal degradation...
  45. pmc High-multiplicity HIV-1 infection and neutralizing antibody evasion mediated by the macrophage-T cell virological synapse
    Christopher J A Duncan
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Virol 88:2025-34. 2014
    ..show that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) efficiently transmit a high-multiplicity HIV-1 infection to autologous CD4(+) T cells through a viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) receptor- and actin-dependent virological synapse (VS), ..
  46. pmc Fine mapping of the interaction of neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies with the CD4 binding site of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120
    Ralph Pantophlet
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 77:642-58. 2003
    ..residues important for gp120 recognition by neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs)...
  47. ncbi Distribution and three-dimensional structure of AIDS virus envelope spikes
    Ping Zhu
    Department of Biological Science and Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA
    Nature 441:847-52. 2006
    ..Reconciling available atomic structures with the three-dimensional whole spike density map yields insights into the orientation of Env spike structural elements and possible structural bases of their functions...
  48. pmc Structure-based design, synthesis, and characterization of dual hotspot small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors
    Judith M LaLonde
    Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010, USA
    J Med Chem 55:4382-96. 2012
    ..is initiated with a binding event between the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 and the cellular receptor protein CD4. The CD4-gp120 interface is dominated by two hotspots: a hydrophobic gp120 cavity capped by Phe43(CD4) and an ..
  49. pmc A functional interaction between gp41 and gp120 is observed for monomeric but not oligomeric, uncleaved HIV-1 Env gp140
    Miklos Guttman
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Virol 87:11462-75. 2013
    ..Moreover, the gp140 monomers respond to CD4 binding in manner that is consistent with the initial stages of Env activation: CD4 binding induces structural ..
  50. pmc Broadly neutralizing antibodies that inhibit HIV-1 cell to cell transmission
    Marine Malbec
    Virus and Immunity Unit, Department of Virology and 2 Laboratory of Humoral Response to Pathogens, Department of Immunology Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France
    J Exp Med 210:2813-21. 2013
    ..Here we identify a subset of bNAbs that inhibit both cell-free and cell-mediated infection in primary CD4(+) lymphocytes...
  51. pmc Human monoclonal antibody 2G12 defines a distinctive neutralization epitope on the gp120 glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    A Trkola
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA
    J Virol 70:1100-8. 1996
    ..consistent with this, antibodies able to block 2G12 binding to recombinant gp120 were not detected in significant quantities in 16 HIV-positive human serum samples...
  52. ncbi Isolation of TAK-779-resistant HIV-1 from an R5 HIV-1 GP120 V3 loop library
    Keisuke Yusa
    Department of Medical Virology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 2 1 1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860 8556, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:30083-90. 2005
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (GP) 120 interacts with CD4 and the CCR5 coreceptor for viral entry...
  53. pmc Variations in autologous neutralization and CD4 dependence of b12 resistant HIV-1 clade C env clones obtained at different time points from antiretroviral naïve Indian patients with recent infection
    Rajesh Ringe
    Department of Molecular Virology, National AIDS Research Institute, Indian Council of Medical Research, G 73 MIDC, Bhosari, Pune, India
    Retrovirology 7:76. 2010
    ....
  54. pmc Loss of asparagine-linked glycosylation sites in variable region 5 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope is associated with resistance to CD4 antibody ibalizumab
    Jonathan Toma
    Monogram Biosciences, 345 Oyster Point Blvd, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    J Virol 85:3872-80. 2011
    Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355) is a first-in-class, monoclonal antibody inhibitor of CD4-mediated human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) entry...
  55. pmc Molecular design, functional characterization and structural basis of a protein inhibitor against the HIV-1 pathogenicity factor Nef
    Sebastian Breuer
    Abteilung Physikalische Biochemie, Max Planck Institut fur molekulare Physiologie, Dortmund, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e20033. 2011
    ..of four target sites: (i) SH3 domain interaction, (ii) interference with protein transport processes, (iii) CD4 binding and (iv) targeting to lipid membranes...
  56. pmc ADP ribosylation factor 1 activity is required to recruit AP-1 to the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) cytoplasmic tail and disrupt MHC-I trafficking in HIV-1-infected primary T cells
    Elizabeth R Wonderlich
    Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Virol 85:12216-26. 2011
    ..These data support a model in which Nef and ARF-1 stabilize an interaction between MHC-I and AP-1 to disrupt the presentation of HIV-1 epitopes to CTLs...
  57. pmc DC-SIGN increases the affinity of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein interaction with CD4
    Karolin Hijazi
    King s College London, Dental Institute, Oral Immunology, Tower Wing, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e28307. 2011
    ..DC-SIGN has been implicated in both productive infection of DCs and the DC-mediated trans infection of CD4(+) T cells that occurs in the absence of replication...
  58. pmc Selection pressure on HIV-1 envelope by broadly neutralizing antibodies to the conserved CD4-binding site
    Xueling Wu
    Vaccine Research Center, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 86:5844-56. 2012
    ..progressing HIV-1-infected donor and was shown to neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains by binding to the conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of gp120...
  59. pmc HIV-1 Nef enhances dendritic cell-mediated viral transmission to CD4+ T cells and promotes T-cell activation
    Corine St Gelais
    Center for Retrovirus Research, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e34521. 2012
    HIV-1 Nef enhances dendritic cell (DC)-mediated viral transmission to CD4(+) T cells, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood...
  60. pmc MiniCD4 protein resistance mutations affect binding to the HIV-1 gp120 CD4 binding site and decrease entry efficiency
    Katrijn Grupping
    Virology Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    Retrovirology 9:36. 2012
    Binding of the viral envelope protein (Env), and particularly of its gp120 subunit, to the cellular CD4 receptor is the first essential step of the HIV-1 entry process...
  61. pmc Nef functions in BLT mice to enhance HIV-1 replication and deplete CD4+CD8+ thymocytes
    Wei Zou
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7042, USA
    Retrovirology 9:44. 2012
    ..The major problem in determining the role of Nef in HIV/AIDS has been the lack of tractable in vivo models where Nef's complex pathogenic phenotype can be recapitulated...
  62. pmc Broad neutralization by a combination of antibodies recognizing the CD4 binding site and a new conformational epitope on the HIV-1 envelope protein
    Florian Klein
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    J Exp Med 209:1469-79. 2012
    ..method identified antibodies that bind to a new broadly neutralizing epitope in the vicinity of the V3 loop and the CD4-induced site (CD4i)...
  63. pmc Nef-induced major histocompatibility complex class I down-regulation is functionally dissociated from its virion incorporation, enhancement of viral infectivity, and CD4 down-regulation
    H Akari
    Department of Virology, The University of Tokushima School of Medicine, Tokushima, Tokushima 770 8503, Japan
    J Virol 74:2907-12. 2000
    ..We also showed that Met 20 was unnecessary for the down-regulation of CD4. These findings indicate that the region governing MHC-I down-regulation is proximate in the alpha-helix domain but ..
  64. pmc Estimating the stoichiometry of human immunodeficiency virus entry
    Carsten Magnus
    Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Virol 83:1523-31. 2009
    ..Attachment and fusion involve envelope glycoprotein trimers on the surface of the virion and the CD4 receptor and chemokine coreceptors on the surface of the target cell...
  65. doi Role of HIV-1 Nef protein for virus replication in vitro
    Abhay Jere
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan
    Microbes Infect 12:65-70. 2010
    ..This review summarizes and organizes current knowledge of HIV-1 Nef with respect to this particularly virological activity for understanding the basis of its in vivo function...
  66. pmc Dendritic cells transmit HIV-1 through human small intestinal mucosa
    Ruizhong Shen
    Departmentsof Medicine Gastroenterology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 2182, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 87:663-70. 2010
    ..Jejunal DCs also expressed the HIV-1 receptor CD4 and coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 and in suspension rapidly took up cell-free HIV-1...
  67. pmc An altered and more efficient mechanism of CCR5 engagement contributes to macrophage tropism of CCR5-using HIV-1 envelopes
    Jasminka Sterjovski
    Center for Virology, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Virology 404:269-78. 2010
    ..The magnitude of macrophage entry by Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses correlated with increased immunoreactivity of CD4-induced gp120 epitopes, increased ability to scavenge low levels of cell-surface CCR5, reduced sensitivity to the ..
  68. ncbi Nef induces CD4 endocytosis: requirement for a critical dileucine motif in the membrane-proximal CD4 cytoplasmic domain
    C Aiken
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037 1099
    Cell 76:853-64. 1994
    b>CD4 is crucial for antigen-driven helper T cell signaling and is used as receptor by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  69. ncbi The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates
    H Choe
    Division of Human Retrovirology Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 85:1135-48. 1996
    ..CCR5, when expressed along with CD4, the HIV-1 receptor, allowed cell lines resistant to most primary HIV-1 isolates to be infected...
  70. doi Immune evasion and counteraction of restriction factors by HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses
    Frank Kirchhoff
    Institute of Molecular Virology, University Hospital Ulm, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 8:55-67. 2010
    ....
  71. pmc Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to CD4 and CXCR4 receptors differentially regulates expression of inflammatory genes and activates the MEK/ERK signaling pathway
    W Popik
    Oncology Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    J Virol 72:6406-13. 1998
    ..These results provide firm molecular evidence that binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins to CD4 receptor initiates a signaling pathway(s) independent of the binding to the chemokine receptor that leads to the ..
  72. pmc Mobility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receptor CD4 and coreceptor CCR5 in living cells: implications for HIV fusion and entry events
    Carolyn M Steffens
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Virol 78:9573-8. 2004
    ..Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technology, we find that both CD4 and CCR5 are mobile in the cell membrane...
  73. ncbi A conserved HIV gp120 glycoprotein structure involved in chemokine receptor binding
    C D Rizzuto
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 280:1949-53. 1998
    ..target cells depends on a sequential interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein with the cellular receptors, CD4 and members of the chemokine receptor family...
  74. pmc Purification, characterization, and immunogenicity of a soluble trimeric envelope protein containing a partial deletion of the V2 loop derived from SF162, an R5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate
    Indresh K Srivastava
    Vaccines Research, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Virol 77:11244-59. 2003
    ..of the purified trimeric protein was also confirmed by determinations of its ability to bind the HIV receptor, CD4, and its ability to bind a panel of well-characterized neutralizing monoclonal antibodies...
  75. doi Role of Nef in primate lentiviral immunopathogenesis
    F Kirchhoff
    Institute of Virology, University of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Cell Mol Life Sci 65:2621-36. 2008
    ..This evolutionary loss of a specific Nef function may contribute to the high virulence of HIV-1 in humans...
  76. ncbi A dual-tropic primary HIV-1 isolate that uses fusin and the beta-chemokine receptors CKR-5, CKR-3, and CKR-2b as fusion cofactors
    B J Doranz
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Cell 85:1149-58. 1996
    ..Expression of CKR-5 with CD4 enables nonpermissive cells to form syncytia with cells expressing M-tropic, but not T-tropic, HIV-1 env proteins...
  77. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef-induced down-modulation of CD4 is due to rapid internalization and degradation of surface CD4
    S S Rhee
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 68:5156-63. 1994
    ..of 27 kDa, is localized to the cytoplasmic surfaces of cellular membranes, and has been reported to down-modulate CD4 in human T cells...
  78. ncbi HIV gp120: double lock strategy foils host defences
    Q J Sattentau
    Centre d immunologie de Marseille Luminy, Marseille, France
    Structure 6:945-9. 1998
    The recent determination of the structure of a complex formed between the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120, CD4 and an antibody fragment has revealed new mechanisms for viral evasion of the immune response and shed light on how the virus enters ..
  79. ncbi Structural and functional characterization of the human CCR5 receptor in complex with HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein and CD4 receptor by molecular modeling studies
    Shuqun Liu
    Institue of Bioinformatics, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, People s Republic of China
    J Mol Model 9:329-36. 2003
    ..HIV) into cells depends on a sequential interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein with the cellular receptors CD4 and members of the chemokine receptor family...
  80. pmc CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I downregulation by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef protein in pediatric AIDS progression
    Nicoletta Casartelli
    Division of Immunology and Infectious Disease, Children s Hospital Bambino Gesu, Rome, Italy
    J Virol 77:11536-45. 2003
    ..steady-state expression of a Nef protein, for their relative ability to downregulate cell surface expression of CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and for their capacity to bind the clathrin adaptor AP-1 ..
  81. ncbi HIV-1 Vpu sequesters beta-transducin repeat-containing protein (betaTrCP) in the cytoplasm and provokes the accumulation of beta-catenin and other SCFbetaTrCP substrates
    Corinne Besnard-Guerin
    Institut Cochin, Department of Infectious Diseases, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Université R Descartes Paris V, 27 rue du Faubourg St Jacques, 75014 Paris, France
    J Biol Chem 279:788-95. 2004
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein acts as an adaptor for the proteasomal degradation of CD4 by recruiting CD4 and beta-transducin repeat-containing protein (betaTrCP), the receptor component of the multisubunit SCF-..
  82. ncbi CD4-induced epitopes in the HIV envelope glycoprotein, gp120
    Anthony L DeVico
    Division of Basic and Vaccine Research, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Curr HIV Res 5:561-71. 2007
    ..CD4-induced epitopes, these domains are stabilized on transition state gp120 structures as a consequence of CD4 receptor engagement...
  83. pmc Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of small molecule inhibitors of CD4-gp120 binding based on virtual screening
    Judith M LaLonde
    Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 19:91-101. 2011
    ..JRC-II-191 inhibits infection of HIV-1 by blocking the binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the CD4 receptor and is therefore an important lead in the development of a potent viral entry inhibitor...
  84. pmc HIV-1 Nef disrupts intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class I, CD4, CD8, and CD28 by distinct pathways that share common elements
    Jolie A Leonard
    Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    J Virol 85:6867-81. 2011
    ..The best-characterized targets of Nef are major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and CD4, but Nef also has been reported to target several other proteins, including CD8β, CD28, CD80, CD86, and CD1d...
  85. pmc The structural biology of HIV-1: mechanistic and therapeutic insights
    Alan Engelman
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 10:279-90. 2012
    ..Here, we review recent advances in HIV-1 structural biology, focusing on the molecular mechanisms of viral replication and on the development of new therapeutics...
  86. pmc Kinetic mechanism for HIV-1 neutralization by antibody 2G12 entails reversible glycan binding that slows cell entry
    Emily J Platt
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:7829-34. 2012
    ..These results reveal a unique reversible kinetic mechanism for neutralization by an antibody that binds near a critical V3 region in the glycan shield of gp120...
  87. pmc The highly conserved layer-3 component of the HIV-1 gp120 inner domain is critical for CD4-required conformational transitions
    Anik Desormeaux
    Centre de Recherche du CHUM, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Virol 87:2549-62. 2013
    ..b>CD4 engagement with the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein subunit represents the first step during HIV-1 entry...
  88. pmc Mapping genetic determinants for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to soluble CD4
    W A O'Brien
    Department of Medicine, West Los Angeles Veteran s Administration Medical Center, California
    J Virol 66:3125-30. 1992
    Neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with soluble CD4 (sCD4) can be achieved over a broad range of concentrations for different virus strains...
  89. ncbi A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef is essential for sorting into clathrin-coated pits and for downregulation of CD4
    M Greenberg
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724, USA
    Curr Biol 8:1239-42. 1998
    ..The downregulation of surface CD4 molecules and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens by Nef is believed to be important in AIDS ..
  90. pmc Nonneutralizing antibodies to the CD4-binding site on the gp120 subunit of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 do not interfere with the activity of a neutralizing antibody against the same site
    Carolina Herrera
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Virol 77:1084-91. 2003
    ..neutralizing (b12) and nonneutralizing (205-42-15, 204-43-1, 205-46-9) MAbs to the epitope cluster overlapping the CD4-binding site (CD4BS) on gp120...
  91. pmc CD4 coexpression regulates DC-SIGN-mediated transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Jian Hua Wang
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, BSB 203, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Virol 81:2497-507. 2007
    ..However, the mechanisms that underlie DC transmission of HIV-1 to CD4(+) T cells are not fully understood. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin, efficiently promotes HIV-1 trans infection...
  92. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Nef protein downmodulates the ligands of the activating receptor NKG2D and inhibits natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity
    Cristina Cerboni
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, Istituto Pasteur Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, University La Sapienza, 00161 Rome, Italy
    J Gen Virol 88:242-50. 2007
    ..These findings provide a novel insight into the mechanisms evolved by HIV-1 to escape from the NK-cell response...
  93. pmc Impact of V2 mutations on escape from a potent neutralizing anti-V3 monoclonal antibody during in vitro selection of a primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate
    Junji Shibata
    Division of Clinical Retrovirology and Infectious Diseases, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860 0811, Japan
    J Virol 81:3757-68. 2007
    ..surface and affecting the neutralization phenotype against not only anti-V3 antibody but also recombinant soluble CD4. These data suggested that HIV-1 can escape from anti-V3 antibody attack by changing the conformation of the ..
  94. pmc Nef can enhance the infectivity of receptor-pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles
    Massimo Pizzato
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Virol 82:10811-9. 2008
    ..We found that Nef significantly enhances the infectivity of CD4-chemokine receptor pseudotypes for cells expressing HIV-1 Env...
  95. pmc Determinants in HIV-1 Nef for enhancement of virus replication and depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo
    Stefanie Homann
    Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    Retrovirology 6:6. 2009
    ..cell populations and cytokine milieu found in vivo, supports a productive infection without exogenous stimulation, and Nef contributes to efficient HIV-1 replication as well as CD4+ T cell depletion in this experimental ex vivo-model.
  96. pmc Membrane raft association of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 correlates with enhanced virus release
    Autumn Ruiz
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
    Virology 408:89-102. 2010
    ..Finally, we present data showing that raft association-defective transmembrane mutants of Vpu have impaired enhanced virus release function, but still maintain the ability to down-regulate CD4.
  97. ncbi CD4 dimers constitute the functional component required for T cell activation
    Maria Cristina Moldovan
    Laboratoire d Immunologie, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Immunol 169:6261-8. 2002
    The CD4 molecule plays a key role in the development and activation of helper T cells. Dimerization and oligomerization is often a necessary step in the function of several cell surface receptors...
  98. pmc Functional and immunologic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins containing deletions of the major variable regions
    R Wyatt
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Boston, Massachusetts
    J Virol 67:4557-65. 1993
    ..envelope glycoproteins that retained the ability to interact with the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein and the CD4 receptor. Shedding of the gp120 exterior glycoprotein by soluble CD4 was observed for the mutant with the V3 deletion ..
  99. pmc Identification of CXCR4 domains that support coreceptor and chemokine receptor functions
    B J Doranz
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Virol 73:2752-61. 1999
    ..MN demonstrated the ability of HIV-1 gp120 to bind directly and specifically to the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in a CD4-dependent manner, using a conformationally complex structure on CXCR4...
  100. ncbi Marked structural and functional heterogeneity in CXCR4: separation of HIV-1 and SDF-1alpha responses
    Andrew J Sloane
    HIV Protein Interactions Laboratory, Centre for Virus Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia
    Immunol Cell Biol 83:129-43. 2005
    ..This separation of structure and function has implications for understanding HIV-1 entry and SDF-1alpha responses and may indicate therapeutic possibilities...
  101. pmc Small-molecule CD4 mimics interact with a highly conserved pocket on HIV-1 gp120
    Navid Madani
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, JFB 824, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Structure 16:1689-701. 2008
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) interaction with the primary receptor, CD4, induces conformational changes in the viral envelope glycoproteins that allow binding to the CCR5 second receptor and virus entry into the host cell...

Research Grants110 found, 100 shown here

  1. A Flow Through Cell Counting Assay
    SIMON BYSTRYAK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of the proposed research is to develop a novel quantitative flow through cell counting method for enumeration of CD4+ T lymphocytes in human blood. CD4 cell counts are needed to stage and monitor HIV-infected patients...
  2. SIMON BYSTRYAK; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..of the proposed research is to develop a novel quantitative flow through cell counting method for enumeration of CD4+ T lymphocytes in human blood. CD4 cell counts are needed to stage and monitor HIV-infected patients...
  3. Longitudinal Studies of HIV-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia
    William N Rom; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3 million). HAART reduces plasma viral load below the limits of detection in most patients, increases CD4+ counts, and reduces the incidence of opportunistic infections...
  4. Molecular Phenotyping of NOD Mice
    Ivan C Gerling; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..subsets in NOD, NOR, and C57BL/6 female mice between 2 and 4 weeks of age (Specifically the B-lymphocytes, CD4 positive T-lymphocytes, CDSpositive T-lymphocytes, and NK cells. Specific Aim 2...
  5. HIV/TB in Uganda: Punctuated Antiretroviral Therapy
    Christopher Whalen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..guidelines on the management of HIV-associated pulmonary TB recommend antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in patients with CD4+ T cells < 200 cells/muL but not for HIV-infected TB patients who present with high CD4+ cells...
  6. Small Animal Model of HIV Neuropathogenesis in the HAART Era
    Pietro P Sanna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by HAART do not correlate with indicators of florid HIV-replication such as high plasma HIV-1 viral load and low CD4+ counts...
  7. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in HAART-treated HIV infection
    Maria C Villacres; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A majority of HIV-infected women receiving HAART present good virus control and recovery of CD4 counts upon treatment...
  8. JOAN WEINBERGER BERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..These results were independent of viral load, age, gender and CD4 counts...
  9. HAART to Prevent HIV Transmission to Infants In Botswana
    Roger L Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to prevent MTCT (PMTCT) in Botswana, 560 pregnant women who intend to breastfeed their infants, and who have CD4 cell counts >200 cells/mm3, will be randomized to receive TZV vs...
  10. Marcia McDonnell Holstad; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..condition, on the outcomes of adherence (pill counts, drug levels in hair samples, self report), viral load, CD4 counts, drug resistance...
  11. LIPOGENESIS & LIPOPROTEIN COMPLICATIONS OF HIV THERAPY
    David Y Hui; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..potential of macrophages and HDL/apoAl in seronegative subjects with treatment- naive HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ cell counts of >350 or <200 cells mu L to determine the impact of HIV infection and immune functions on HDL ..
  12. Jeffrey T Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..interviewing and cognitive-behavioral skills training, to demonstrate significant improvements in viral load, CD4 cell count, and self-reported adherence among a racially and ethnically diverse sample of HIV+ women and men ..
  13. JOCELYN CHRISTINE ANDERSON; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..medical records will be reviewed to obtain biologic markers of disease progression and medication adherence (CD4 count and viral load) as well as covariates related to HIV disease progression (hospitalizations, opportunistic ..
  14. GWAS on Determinants of HIV-1 Subtype C Infection
    Myron E Essex; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Significant associations with HIV infection status and trajectories of viral load (VL) and CD4 levels from the GWAS will be replicated in a group of 5,500 HIV+ and 5,500 HIV- Tswana adults enrolled in the ..
  15. JUDITH JACQUELINE LOK; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..in the beginning stages of HIV-1 infection, (2) the impact of treatment regimes that initiate HAART once CD4 count drops below a certain threshold, possibly depending on viral load, and (3) the impact of immune activation ..
  16. Ann Elizabeth Kurth; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..will leverage Kenya's new MARPs/NSP platform to seek out IDUs, deliver rapid HIV testing, point of care CD4 count and link to ART, and evaluate community viral load in Nairobi and coastal Mombasa, where most IDUs in Kenya ..
  17. PS05-085, Surv of HIV/AIDS Related Events Among Persons Not Receiving Care
    BARBARA BOLDEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..identified as not receiving medical care by database matches of the HIV/AIDS registry with databases of laboratory (CD4 and viral load) data, prescription drug data, and medical services...
  18. HIV-1 Fitness and Recombination
    Eric J Arts; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..HIV-1 history cohort, we have now confirmed our initial observations of slower disease progression (as related to CD4+ cell declines) in subtype C infected women over subtype A and then subtype D infected women...
  19. MICHAEL DAVID HUGHES; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..2) models and methods for evaluating algorithms for the monitoring of CD4 count and viral load for treatment management, and (2.3) methods for deep sequencing data. Aim 3...
  20. TUAN DINH LE; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..of HIV infection, immunologic and virologic control are partly dissociated, such that contemporaneous setpoints for CD4 cell counts and viral load are established during early infection...
  21. Text Messaging Intervention to Improve ART Adherence among HIV-positive Youth
    Robert Garofalo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to explore the efficacy of an SMS text messaging intervention on a secondary, exploratory outcome: viral load and CD4 counts, over a 6-month intervention period;3) to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and satisfaction of this ..
  22. Low Cost Laser Diagnostic for CD4+ T Cell Counting
    Michael J Lochhead; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The overall goal of this project is to develop and commercialize a simple cell counter for routine enumeration of CD4 cells for management of HIV-infected individuals...
  23. Alexander Miethke; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..In preliminary studies, we have shown that adoptive transfer of Treg-containing CD4+ cells prior to RRV inoculation constrained hepatic expansion of NK and CD8 lymphocytes and attenuated the BA ..
  24. Modulation of the early host response to SIV in pathogenic infection
    Amitinder Kaur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..macaques (RM) differ from those occurring in the natural host sooty mangabeys (SM) with regards to the presence of CD4+ T lymphocyte apoptosis and increase in TNF- receptor associated apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) We hypothesize ..
  25. HIV-1 regulation by MTb: pathogen and host factor
    Anne Goldfeld; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In turn, HIV-1-mediated depletion of CD4+ T lymphocyte populations significantly increases the risk of reactivation of latent TB disease...
  26. VIVIANA A SIMON; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Both retroviruses mainly infect CD4+ T-lymphocytes, but differ with respect to their ability to infect cell populations essential for the generation of ..
  27. Effect of cellular microRNAs on HIV-1 replication
    Hui Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..found that several cellular miRNAs are involved in establishing and maintaining HIV-1 latency in resting primary CD4 T-lymphocytes...
  28. Single Cell with One Particle Entry (SCOPE) for Study of HIV Infection
    Wei Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (Provided by the applicant) Abstract: Through infection of CD4 positive (CD4+) T lymphocytes, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) has claimed twenty-five million lives since its discovery in 1983...
  29. Heterogeneity in Cytokine Responses to HIV-1 Infection
    Jianming Tang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..measurements of viral load (virus-host equilibrium), CD8+CD38+ T-cell percentage (T-cell activation), and CD4+ T-cell counts (immunodeficiency)...
  30. Characterization of Nef vesicles and their effect on T cells and macrophage
    Michael D Powell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>CD4+ T cells are gradually depleted and the infected individuals eventually succumb to a variety of opportunistic ..
  31. Importance of antigen specific immunoglobulin responses in controlling SIV/SHIV i
    Bapi Pahar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses against pathogens and vaccines by inducing progressive loss of these CD4+ T helper cells...
  32. Patricia E Molina; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..associated with decreased immune activation and anti-inflammatory properties (based on predicted targets) in CD4+ T lymphocytes, intestinal mucosa, and brain of THC-treated SIV-infected animals...
  33. Lentivirus-based Immunogene Therapy for HIV Infection
    Carl June; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Effects of lentiviral engineered CD4 T cells on the host virus relationship will be determined using unique patient samples...
  34. Effect of Cocaine and LTR Polymorphism on HIV-1 Pathogenesis
    Richard B Markham; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) Within the four groups quantify the expression levels within peripheral blood CD4 T lymphocytes and monocytes of c-fos and JunB, as representative immediate early gene components of AP-1...
  35. Abraham P Lee; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..In addition to the counting of CD4+ T Lymphocytes, it is also highly desirable to perform viral load counts at the point-of-care, as both these ..
  36. Cellular Immunity to Category A-C Viruses in Humans
    ROBERT WILLIAM FINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..includes 4 Research Projects, a Technology Development Project (TOP), and 5 Cores: Project 1 will analyze human CD4 and CDS T-cell responses to influenza virus vaccine and natural infection and define the characteristics associated ..
  37. The voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel in psoriatic disease: A novel therapeutic target
    Siba P Raychaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Expression of Kv1.3 is increased in both CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells and Kv1...
  38. SPOTTED FEVER RICKETTSIAL ANTIGENS
    David H Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by remarkable suppression of lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 and IFN-gamma production by IL-10 producing CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells in acute fatal murine spotted fever rickettsiosis compared to self-limited infection...
  39. JOHN CHRISTIAN TILTON; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..with DMPA contraceptives (synthetic progestin) and bacterial vaginosis affect protein expression in ectocervical CD4+ T lymphocytes and their susceptibility to fusion and productive infection with HIV...
  40. LATEIRA DENISE HAYNES; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..We hypothesize that absence of ABCG1 in CD4 T cells is atheroprotective due to impaired TH17 differentiation...
  41. Measurement of CCR5 and CCL3L1 on Single Cell by Fluorescent Metal Nanoparticle
    Richard Yuqi Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Presence of the CC-chemokine co-receptors CCR5 on the cell surface of CD4+ T-lymphocytes is necessary for successful HIV-1 infection...
  42. EVA MARIA CARMONA PORQUERA; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..As part of their innate activation BG induce stimulation of dendritic cell (DCs) and subsequent CD4 differentiation. BG have been additionally shown to modulate B cell responses independent of CD4 cells...
  43. Alteration of circadian rhythm and sleep by HIV protein Tat
    Jian M Ding; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of circadian rhythm and sleep occurs in AIDS patients with different disease stages and with a wide range of CD4 counts...
  44. Non-CD4 Host defense against P. carinii Pneumonia
    Jay K Kolls; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The well-known inverse relationship between CD4+ lymphocyte count and the risk of PC infection does not hold all of the answers to mechanisms of host defense ..
  45. CHIRATIDZO ELLEN NDHLOVU; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Early diagnosis of cryptococcal disease can be achieved by effectively screening patients with low CD4 counts (<100cells/mm3) prior to the initiation of ART...
  46. Richard E Chaisson; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..We will determine the association of TB and maternal CD4 counts and HIV viral loads, HIV-related complications and deaths, and transmission of HIV to infants...
  47. Multi-vitamins, HAART and HIV/AIDS in Uganda
    Wafaie W Fawzi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..B-vitamins, C, and E) to determine their efficacy in slowing disease progression, indicated by increased CD4 count, weight gain, and improved quality of life, and decreased morbidity, mortality, and drug-related adverse ..
  48. Oral Transmission of HIV through Breastfeeding
    Louise Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..shedding based on HIV RNA in peripheral blood and other markers of the severity of maternal disease including CD4 counts;and (3) whether higher concentrations of innate immune factors in breast milk are associated with slower ..
  49. Jeffrey H Samet; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..to (1) improve markers of mortality as measured by the VACS index;(2) slow HIV disease progression as measured by CD4 cell count;(3) improve markers of AMI risk as measured by the Reynolds risk score;and (4) lower levels of microbial ..
  50. Immune Response to pneumococcal vaccination in HIV infected adults
    M A Westerink; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..response to the vaccine is less than optimal and correlates with the degree of immune suppression as measured by CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (1-10)...
  51. Nutrition and HIV Progression
    Christine A Wanke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There are data that suggest that the use of micronutrients could reduce CD4 count decline and delay death, however micronutrients alone will not support or maintain nutritional status...
  52. Evaluation of antiretroviral HIV prevention in African HIV discordant couples
    Jared Baeten; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..There is great scientific enthusiasm that earlier initiation of ART as treatment (i.e., at high CD4 counts, earlier than current treatment guidelines) and PrEP may prove to be highly efficacious strategies for ..
  53. Serologic memory and prevention of Pneumocystis-related COPD in AIDS macaque mode
    Karen A Norris; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..HIV+ subjects, Pc colonization is frequent even among those receiving anti-Pc prophylaxis and among those with high CD4 cell counts who are receiving antiretroviral therapy...
  54. Jay K Kolls; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Although there is a well- known relationship between CD4+ lymphocyte count and the risk of PC infection, the role of mononuclear phagocytes, CD8+ cells, gamma/delta T cells,..
  55. Immune Response to pneumococcal vaccination in HIV infected adults
    M A JULIA WESTERINK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..response to the vaccine is less than optimal and correlates with the degree of immune suppression as measured by CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (1-10)...
  56. Allison Ross Eckard; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..IOM) suggested 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration of e20 ng/mL improves CVD risk, inflammation, and CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected individuals, (2) increasing 25(OH)D concentrations to >30 ng/mL improves CVD risk ..
  57. Analyzing Patient-Provider Communication to Understand Disparities in HIV Care
    Ira B Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..between patients and providers, and 4) Determine whether 1-year HIV outcomes (changes in viral loads and CD4 counts) differ between blacks and whites, and the extent to which differences in overall and adherence specific ..
  58. CD8+ T cell mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication in Elite Suppressors
    Joel N Blankson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with progressive disease, are able to control the replication of a laboratory strain of HIV-1 in autologous CD4+ T cells...
  59. Understanding discontinuation of outpatient care among HIV-positive inpatients
    Lisa R Metsch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..indicated and even when on therapy, do not adhere to their regimens, behaviors that result in high viral loads, low CD4-cell counts, preventable hospitalizations and increased morbidity and mortality...
  60. Clinical Relevance of GB Virus C & Hepatitis C Virus in HIV+ Women
    Jason T Blackard; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..have reported a beneficial effect of GBV-C viremia on HIV disease progression - reduced HIV RNA levels, increased CD4 cell counts, and slower disease progression - predominantly in cohorts with a high proportion of men...
  61. Effects of HIV and ARV Exposure on Child Health and Neurodevelopment in Botswana.
    Shahin Lockman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with a single NRTI (zidovudine), among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers with similar antenatal CD4+ cell counts. 2. To prospectively compare neurodevelopmental outcomes among HIV-exposed but uninfected children, vs...
  62. Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..These impacts are more pronounced in cases of maternal CD4+ cell counts d 350 cells/uL, the threshold of eligibility for combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnant ..
  63. Genetic variation and regulatory networks: Mechanisms and complexity
    DANA PE ER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These tools will be made publicly available, including a friendly graphical user interface and visualization. ..
  64. The Role of Lipid Rafts in Vpu Function
    EDWARD BRICE STEPHENS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Vpu is known to interact with and shunt the CD4 molecule from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) to the proteasome for degradation...
  65. HIV-1 chemoprophylaxis and archived drug resistance in infants
    Deborah Persaud; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HIV-1 arising during non-suppressive antiretroviral therapy is archived in replication competent forms in resting CD4+T cells and is continuously activated to produce low level viremia even when viral loads are <50 copies/ml on ..
  66. Rational Design of HIV Fusion Inhibitors Targeting gp41
    Shibo Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..type-1 (HIV-1) into the target cell is initiated by binding of the envelope glycoprotein surface unit gp120 to CD4 and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5) followed by gp41 refolding from its native conformation to a fusion-active ..
  67. DC-SIGN Inhibitors for the Treatment of HIV Infection
    ALLEN BERNARD REITZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to serve as ligand that efficiently binds, concentrates, and mediates transfer of virus from the mucosal surface to CD4+ T cells...
  68. Brent E Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Our preliminary data further show that HIV-1- specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the lung have upregulated expression of PD-1 compared to T cells in blood, resulting in a ..
  69. A New Insight into HIV-1 Latency Through a Novel in Vitro System
    Fabio Romerio; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our cellular system recapitulates the events of primary and secondary antigen-driven immune response in which CD4+ T cells are activated with dendritic cells and antigen, infected in vitro with HIV-1, and then brought back to ..
  70. FRANCISCO FERNANDEZ-LIMA; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..g., expression of CD4 antigen and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-met) from Immune cells (Molt-3) and hepatocytes) to characterize ..
  71. Actions of Vif and APOBEC3 proteins in HIV-1 Replication
    Yong Hui Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) infects CD4-positive T cells and monocytes/macrophages and cause Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in humans...
  72. Benjamin K Chen; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..viral entry receptor, Env, first functions as a cell-adhesion receptor, and secondly after a transfer into target CD4 T cells, it functions as viral membrane fusion apparatus...
  73. A Cambodian Clinical Research Network for HIV &TB
    Sok Thim; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..in a clinical trial in Aim 1, is that the timing of (antiretroviral) ARV therapy in AIDS patients with TB and a low CD4 count impacts morbidity and mortality caused by co-infection...
  74. Baek Kim; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..provided by applicant): Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) uniquely infects both dividing/activated CD4+ T cell and nondividing cells such as macrophages...
  75. Krishanu Ray; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Accordingly, Dr. Ray will focus on the following aims: 1) To develop methods for examining HIV-1 gp120-CD4 interactions at the single molecule level...
  76. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL NMR OF HIV-1 ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEINS
    Jacob Anglister; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Initially gp120 binds to CD4, a molecule found on the surface of both T-cells and macrophages...
  77. Determining the Role of APOBEC3 Proteins in HIV-1 Drug Resistance
    JOHN SQUIRE ALBIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..HIV-1: These experiments will quantitatively determine which APOBEC3 proteins are present in activated CD4+ T cells and to what extent these proteins are suppressed early in infection...
  78. Covalent Vaccine for HIV
    Yasuhiro Nishiyama; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>CD4 binding by the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 is an obligatory step in the HIV life cycle...
  79. Toward an HIV-1 macaque model
    Jason T Kimata; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..if HIV-1/SIV-vif clones constructed from different HIV-1 subtypes will replicate in primary pig-tailed macaque CD4+ T-cells in order to gain further insight into the species-specific tropism of HIV-1...
  80. Suryaram Gummuluru; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..While DCs themselves are invariably infected, HIV-1 particles captured by DCs are efficiently transmitted to CD4+ T cells, a mechanism of HIV-1 trans infection...
  81. Mechanisms of CD4 Depletion and Proliferation in SIV
    Ronald Veazey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION: The hallmark of HIV infection is the progressive decline in CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood and the eventual collapse of the immune system, despite an apparently small number of HJ\T-infected cells in this tissue...
  82. HIV-1 Resistance to Type I Interferon in Macaques
    Jason T Kimata; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for the in vivo infection to escape the effects of type I interferon (IFN) induced innate restriction i pig-tail CD4+ T-cells...
  83. DOMAIN STABILITY AND INTERACTIONS IN CD4
    Christie Brouillette; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The objectives of this proposal are to characterize and quantitate the functional consequences of s-CD4 domain structure...
  84. Savita Pahwa; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Further we hypothesize that lower nadir CD4 is associated with greater virus reservoir size, immune activation, co-morbidity and poorer immune reconstitution...
  85. Diane V Havlir; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..initiation are predominantly based in the systems conditions in resource limited settings: 1) delays in obtaining CD4 cell counts for ART eligibility, 2) provider misconceptions of the urgency of ART initiation among specific patient ..
  86. Eric J Arts; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Uganda/Zimbabwe (Ug/Zim) natural HIV-1 history cohort study involving 270 women (>10,000 data/sample points), CD4 cell declines in subtype C infected women were significantly slower than in subtype A and subtype D infected women...
  87. Self-Generation of Prospective Memory in HIV-Infected Methamphetamine Users
    Erica Weber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., education), psychiatric (e.g., Major Depressive Disorder), HIV disease (e.g., nadir CD4 counts), and addiction (e.g., recency of MA use) correlates of the self-generation effect on PM in MA/HIV...
  88. Closing the gaps in PMTCT program coverage, early infant diagnosis and treatment.
    Mary Ann Davies; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The combined PMTCT e-register will be linked to a system of urgent reporting of laboratory results of low CD4 counts in pregnant women and positive infant HIV-PCR test results to clinics, with tracing to ensure prompt ART ..
  89. A lateral flow CD4 counting assay for resource-poor regions
    Michael Lane; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The current need for routine measurement CD4+ cell counts of HIV-infected individual's is immense...
  90. Global Immunological Response to Effective Antiretroviral Therapy (GiREAT:CD4)
    Bryan Lau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): CD4 cell counts have been shown to initially increase sharply in response to the initiation of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  91. Role of Deoxyhypusine Synthase in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes
    STEPHANIE CHESTNUT COLVIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..T1DM involves a complex cascade of events that occurs between cells of the immune system (antigen-presenting cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and B cells) and the Beta cells of the pancreas, leading to the release of pro-..
  92. Dirk Uwe G Bartsch; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..our research group and others have shown that vision loss and neurological loss continues to occur despite elevated CD4 counts...
  93. Joseph L Mankowski; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..The value of this model is: 1) Both CD4+ T cells and monocyte/macrophages are infected, 2) tissues including brain and spleen harbor virus in HAART-treated ..
  94. Lupus Glomenulonephritis and NK T cells
    Samuel Strober; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our studies in mice and humans with lupus show that CD4+ natural killer (NK) T cells spontaneously interact with autologous B cells via the CD1d antigen presenting ..
  95. Natasha M Girgis; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..mansoni infected mice. In addition, we will determine the roles of IL-4 and CD4+ Th2 cells in inducing or maintaining AAM through monocyte recruitment and/or proliferation during acute and ..
  96. Chou Zen Giam; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..provided by applicant): HTLV-I is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a malignancy of CD4+ T cells whose etiology is associated with the viral transactivator/oncoprotein, Tax...
  97. John C Cambier; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..human Type 1 Diabetes, a disease known to require B cells that are thought to function by antigen presentation to CD4 T cells...