PRSS2

Summary

Gene Symbol: PRSS2
Description: serine protease 2
Alias: TRY2, TRY8, TRYP2, trypsin-2, anionic trypsinogen, protease serine 2 preproprotein, protease, serine 2, protease, serine, 2 (trypsin 2), trypsin II, trypsinogen 2
Species: human
Products:     PRSS2

Top Publications

  1. Paju A, Sorsa T, Tervahartiala T, Koivunen E, Haglund C, Leminen A, et al. The levels of trypsinogen isoenzymes in ovarian tumour cyst fluids are associated with promatrix metalloproteinase-9 but not promatrix metalloproteinase-2 activation. Br J Cancer. 2001;84:1363-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that trypsin may play a role in the regulation of the MMP-dependent proteolysis associated with invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. ..
  2. Masson E, Le Maréchal C, Delcenserie R, Chen J, Ferec C. Hereditary pancreatitis caused by a double gain-of-function trypsinogen mutation. Hum Genet. 2008;123:521-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate a heterozygous hybrid PRSS2 (encoding anionic trypsinogen)/PRSS1 gene in a French white family with hereditary pancreatitis, by means of quantitative fluorescent ..
  3. Andersen A, Novovic S, Ersbøll A, Jorgensen L, Hansen M. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2010;39:26-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the test demonstrated an adequate sensitivity to be used for rapid early screening of AP in daily clinics. ..
  4. Stenman M, Ainola M, Valmu L, Bjartell A, Ma G, Stenman U, et al. Trypsin-2 degrades human type II collagen and is expressed and activated in mesenchymally transformed rheumatoid arthritis synovitis tissue. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:1119-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, trypsin-2 and its regulators should be further studied for use as markers of prognosis and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  5. Moilanen M, Sorsa T, Stenman M, Nyberg P, Lindy O, Vesterinen J, et al. Tumor-associated trypsinogen-2 (trypsinogen-2) activates procollagenases (MMP-1, -8, -13) and stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) and degrades type I collagen. Biochemistry. 2003;42:5414-20 pubmed
    ....
  6. Williams S, Gotley D, Antalis T. Human trypsinogen in colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2001;93:67-73 pubmed
    ..by human colorectal tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal colonic mucosa identified an isoform of TRY (TRY2) up-regulated in colorectal cancers...
  7. Masson E, Le Maréchal C, Chandak G, Lamoril J, Bezieau S, Mahurkar S, et al. Trypsinogen copy number mutations in patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:82-8 pubmed
    ..approximately 605 kilobase segment containing the PRSS1 (encoding cationic trypsinogen) and PRSS2 (encoding anionic trypsinogen) genes causes hereditary pancreatitis...
  8. Witt H, Sahin Toth M, Landt O, Chen J, Kahne T, Drenth J, et al. A degradation-sensitive anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) variant protects against chronic pancreatitis. Nat Genet. 2006;38:668-73 pubmed
    ..activity owing to mutated PRSS1 enhances the risk for chronic pancreatitis, mutations in the gene encoding anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) may also predispose to disease...
  9. Sorsa T, Salo T, Koivunen E, Tyynela J, Konttinen Y, Bergmann U, et al. Activation of type IV procollagenases by human tumor-associated trypsin-2. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:21067-74 pubmed
    ..The ability of human tumor cell-derived trypsin-2 to activate latent MMPs suggests a role for trypsin-2 in initiating the proteinase cascade that mediates tumor invasion and metastasis formation. ..
  10. Bjartell A, Paju A, Zhang W, Gadaleanu V, Hansson J, Landberg G, et al. Expression of tumor-associated trypsinogens (TAT-1 and TAT-2) in prostate cancer. Prostate. 2005;64:29-39 pubmed
    ..Further studies on the role of TAT in invasive PCa and on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of TAT expression are warranted. ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Paju A, Sorsa T, Tervahartiala T, Koivunen E, Haglund C, Leminen A, et al. The levels of trypsinogen isoenzymes in ovarian tumour cyst fluids are associated with promatrix metalloproteinase-9 but not promatrix metalloproteinase-2 activation. Br J Cancer. 2001;84:1363-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that trypsin may play a role in the regulation of the MMP-dependent proteolysis associated with invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. ..
  2. Masson E, Le Maréchal C, Delcenserie R, Chen J, Ferec C. Hereditary pancreatitis caused by a double gain-of-function trypsinogen mutation. Hum Genet. 2008;123:521-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate a heterozygous hybrid PRSS2 (encoding anionic trypsinogen)/PRSS1 gene in a French white family with hereditary pancreatitis, by means of quantitative fluorescent ..
  3. Andersen A, Novovic S, Ersbøll A, Jorgensen L, Hansen M. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2010;39:26-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the test demonstrated an adequate sensitivity to be used for rapid early screening of AP in daily clinics. ..
  4. Stenman M, Ainola M, Valmu L, Bjartell A, Ma G, Stenman U, et al. Trypsin-2 degrades human type II collagen and is expressed and activated in mesenchymally transformed rheumatoid arthritis synovitis tissue. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:1119-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, trypsin-2 and its regulators should be further studied for use as markers of prognosis and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  5. Moilanen M, Sorsa T, Stenman M, Nyberg P, Lindy O, Vesterinen J, et al. Tumor-associated trypsinogen-2 (trypsinogen-2) activates procollagenases (MMP-1, -8, -13) and stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) and degrades type I collagen. Biochemistry. 2003;42:5414-20 pubmed
    ....
  6. Williams S, Gotley D, Antalis T. Human trypsinogen in colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2001;93:67-73 pubmed
    ..by human colorectal tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal colonic mucosa identified an isoform of TRY (TRY2) up-regulated in colorectal cancers...
  7. Masson E, Le Maréchal C, Chandak G, Lamoril J, Bezieau S, Mahurkar S, et al. Trypsinogen copy number mutations in patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:82-8 pubmed
    ..approximately 605 kilobase segment containing the PRSS1 (encoding cationic trypsinogen) and PRSS2 (encoding anionic trypsinogen) genes causes hereditary pancreatitis...
  8. Witt H, Sahin Toth M, Landt O, Chen J, Kahne T, Drenth J, et al. A degradation-sensitive anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) variant protects against chronic pancreatitis. Nat Genet. 2006;38:668-73 pubmed
    ..activity owing to mutated PRSS1 enhances the risk for chronic pancreatitis, mutations in the gene encoding anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) may also predispose to disease...
  9. Sorsa T, Salo T, Koivunen E, Tyynela J, Konttinen Y, Bergmann U, et al. Activation of type IV procollagenases by human tumor-associated trypsin-2. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:21067-74 pubmed
    ..The ability of human tumor cell-derived trypsin-2 to activate latent MMPs suggests a role for trypsin-2 in initiating the proteinase cascade that mediates tumor invasion and metastasis formation. ..
  10. Bjartell A, Paju A, Zhang W, Gadaleanu V, Hansson J, Landberg G, et al. Expression of tumor-associated trypsinogens (TAT-1 and TAT-2) in prostate cancer. Prostate. 2005;64:29-39 pubmed
    ..Further studies on the role of TAT in invasive PCa and on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of TAT expression are warranted. ..
  11. Vercaigne Marko D, Carrere J, Guy Crotte O, Figarella C, Hayem A. Human cationic and anionic trypsins: differences of interaction with alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1989;370:1163-71 pubmed
    Human cationic (trypsin 1) and anionic (trypsin 2) trypsins were obtained by controlled activation of purified trypsinogens 1 and 2, respectively...
  12. Cevik Y, Kavalci C, Ozer M, Daş M, Kiyak G, Ozdogan M. The role of urine trypsinogen-2 test in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in the Emergency Department. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2010;16:125-9 pubmed
    ....
  13. Whitcomb D, Larusch J, Krasinskas A, Klei L, Smith J, Brand R, et al. Common genetic variants in the CLDN2 and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci alter risk for alcohol-related and sporadic pancreatitis. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We now report two associations at genome-wide significance identified and replicated at PRSS1-PRSS2 (P < 1 × 10(-12)) and X-linked CLDN2 (P < 1 × 10(-21)) through a two-stage genome-wide study (stage 1: 676 ..
  14. Uemura K, Murakami Y, Sudo T, Hashimoto Y, Nakashima A, Yamaoka E, et al. Elevation of urine trypsinogen 2 is an independent risk factor for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pancreas. 2012;41:876-81 pubmed publisher
    Previous reports suggested that the urine trypsinogen 2 (U-TRP2) test might be a valuable method for the diagnosis of postoperative pancreatitis after pancreatic surgery...
  15. Pasternak A, White A, Jeffery C, Medina N, Cahoon M, Ringe D, et al. The energetic cost of induced fit catalysis: Crystal structures of trypsinogen mutants with enhanced activity and inhibitor affinity. Protein Sci. 2001;10:1331-42 pubmed
    ..Together, these data illustrate that induced fit does not generally contribute to enzyme specificity. ..
  16. Figarella C, Negri G, Guy O. The two human trypsinogens. Inhibition spectra of the two human trypsins derived from their purified zymogens. Eur J Biochem. 1975;53:457-63 pubmed
    ..b>Trypsin 2 was completely inhibited in a one-to-one molar ratio while trypsin 1 was poorly inhibited...
  17. Sundaresan S, Chacko A, Dutta A, Bhatia E, Witt H, Te Morsche R, et al. Divergent roles of SPINK1 and PRSS2 variants in tropical calcific pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2009;9:145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The trypsin inhibitor (SPINK1) N34S variant partially explains the genetic susceptibility to TCP. As anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) G191R protects against chronic pancreatitis in Europeans, we investigated whether this variant ..
  18. Teich N, Le Maréchal C, Kukor Z, Caca K, Witzigmann H, Chen J, et al. Interaction between trypsinogen isoforms in genetically determined pancreatitis: mutation E79K in cationic trypsin (PRSS1) causes increased transactivation of anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2). Hum Mutat. 2004;23:22-31 pubmed
    The human pancreas secretes two major trypsinogen isoforms, cationic and anionic trypsinogen. To date, 19 genetic variants have been identified in the cationic trypsinogen gene (PRSS1) of patients with hereditary, familial, or sporadic ..
  19. Tseng C, Chen C, Lin S, Chang F, Lin H, Lee S. Rapid urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip in the diagnosis of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Pancreas. 2011;40:1211-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A negative urinary dipstick test at 3 hours after the procedure rules out post-ERCP pancreatitis with a high probability and allows of early discharge plan. ..
  20. Gao J, Zhu F, Lv S, Li Z, Ling Z, Gong Y, et al. Identification of pancreatic juice proteins as biomarkers of pancreatic cancer. Oncol Rep. 2010;23:1683-92 pubmed
    ..Two proteins were up-regulated, serine proteinase-2 (PRSS2) preproprotein and pancreatic lipase-related protein-1 (PLRP1), and two proteins were down-regulated, ..
  21. Adamo P, Porazinski S, Rajatileka S, Jumbe S, Hagen R, Cheung M, et al. The oncogenic transcription factor ERG represses the transcription of the tumour suppressor gene PTEN in prostate cancer cells. Oncol Lett. 2017;14:5605-5610 pubmed publisher
    ..ERG overexpression reduced endogenous PTEN expression, whereas ERG knockdown increased PTEN expression. The ability of ERG to repress PTEN may contribute to a more cancer-permissive environment...
  22. Pujante I, Moyano F, Martos Sitcha J, Mancera J, Martinez Rodriguez G. Effect of different salinities on gene expression and activity of digestive enzymes in the thick-lipped grey mullet (Chelon labrosus). Fish Physiol Biochem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    The effects of different environmental salinities (0, 12, 40, and 55 ppt) on pepsinogen 2 (pga2), trypsinogen 2 (try2), chymotrypsinogen (ctr), and pancreatic alpha-amylase (amy2a) gene expression, and on the total activities of their ..
  23. Kume K, Masamune A, Takagi Y, Kikuta K, Watanabe T, Satoh K, et al. A loss-of-function p.G191R variant in the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) gene in Japanese patients with pancreatic disorders. Gut. 2009;58:820-4 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been recently shown that a loss-of-function variant, c.571G>A (p.G191R), in the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) gene protects against chronic pancreatitis in European populations...
  24. Kobayashi K, Sasaki T, Serikawa M, Inoue M, Itsuki H, Chayama K. Assessment of trypsinogen-2 levels as an early diagnostic for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2011;40:1206-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that TRY-2 is a more sensitive marker than amylase, and it can be useful in early diagnosis of post-ERCP pancreatitis. ..
  25. Avanthi S, Ravi Kanth V, Agarwal J, Lakhtakia S, Gangineni K, Rao G, et al. Association of claudin2 and PRSS1-PRSS2 polymorphisms with idiopathic recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis: A case-control study from India. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;30:1796-801 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the association of claudin2 and PRSS1-PRSS2 polymorphisms with idiopathic RAP and CP...
  26. Zhou C, Young D, Yeboah E, Coburn S, Tettey Y, Biritwum R, et al. TMPRSS2:ERG Gene Fusions in Prostate Cancer of West African Men and a Meta-Analysis of Racial Differences. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186:1352-1361 pubmed publisher
    ..The lower prevalence of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions in men of African descent implies that alternative genomic mechanisms might explain the disproportionately high prostate cancer burden in such populations. ..
  27. Wang Z, Wang Y, Zhang J, Hu Q, Zhi F, Zhang S, et al. Significance of the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cancer. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:5450-5458 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the precise mechanism of these results remains unclear; therefore, further studies are required. ..
  28. Pollard S, Meier W, Chow P, Rosa J, Wiley D. CD4-binding regions of human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120 defined by proteolytic digestion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:11320-4 pubmed
    ....
  29. Santhosh S, Witt H, Te Morsche R, Nemoda Z, Molnar T, Pap A, et al. A loss of function polymorphism (G191R) of anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) confers protection against chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2008;36:317-20 pubmed publisher
  30. Baptista A, Jonson P, Hough E, Petersen S. The origin of trypsin: evidence for multiple gene duplications in trypsins. J Mol Evol. 1998;47:353-62 pubmed
    ..This ancestral trypsin gene was subsequently duplicated, leading to the earliest version of a full-sized trypsin, from which the contemporary trypsins have developed. ..
  31. Teich N, Nemoda Z, Kohler H, Heinritz W, Mossner J, Keim V, et al. Gene conversion between functional trypsinogen genes PRSS1 and PRSS2 associated with chronic pancreatitis in a six-year-old girl. Hum Mutat. 2005;25:343-7 pubmed
    ..The recombination replaced at least 289 nucleotides with the paralogous sequence from the anionic trypsinogen gene (serine protease 2; PRSS2), and resulted in the PRSS1 mutations c.86A > T and c...
  32. Perona J, Tsu C, McGrath M, Craik C, Fletterick R. Relocating a negative charge in the binding pocket of trypsin. J Mol Biol. 1993;230:934-49 pubmed
    ..This structural flexibility may be of critical importance to the retention of catalytic activity by the variant enzyme. ..
  33. Lempinen M, Isoniemi H, Makisalo H, Nordin A, Halme L, Arola J, et al. Enhanced detection of cholangiocarcinoma with serum trypsinogen-2 in patients with severe bile duct strictures. J Hepatol. 2007;47:677-83 pubmed
    ..759. Our results suggest that serum trypsinogen-2 is a most useful marker for diagnosing patients with cholangiocarcinoma, and it is superior to serum CA19-9 and CEA. ..
  34. Vilen S, Nyberg P, Hukkanen M, Sutinen M, Ylipalosaari M, Bjartell A, et al. Intracellular co-localization of trypsin-2 and matrix metalloprotease-9: possible proteolytic cascade of trypsin-2, MMP-9 and enterokinase in carcinoma. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:914-26 pubmed
    ....
  35. Campa D, Pastore M, Capurso G, Hackert T, Di Leo M, Izbicki J, et al. Do pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis share the same genetic risk factors? A PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium investigation. Int J Cancer. 2018;142:290-296 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a weak association between the minor allele of the PRSS1-PRSS2-rs10273639 and an increased risk of developing PDAC (ORhomozygous  = 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1...
  36. Wu D, Ni J, Beretov J, Cozzi P, Willcox M, Wasinger V, et al. Urinary biomarkers in prostate cancer detection and monitoring progression. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017;118:15-26 pubmed publisher
    ....
  37. Konttinen Y, Halinen S, Hanemaaijer R, Sorsa T, Hietanen J, Ceponis A, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 type IV collagenase/gelatinase implicated in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome. Matrix Biol. 1998;17:335-47 pubmed
    ..Due to the role of basal lamina as an important molecular sieve and extracellular matrix-cell signal, these pathological changes may contribute to the pathogenesis of the syndrome. ..
  38. Cederqvist K, Haglund C, Heikkila P, Sorsa T, Tervahartiala T, Stenman U, et al. Pulmonary trypsin-2 in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2003;112:570-7 pubmed
    ..This raises the possibility that therapy with exogenous proteinase inhibitors might prevent the development of BPD in preterm infants with respiratory distress. ..
  39. Felderbauer P, Karakas E, Fendrich V, Lebert R, Bartsch D, Bulut K. Multifactorial genesis of pancreatitis in primary hyperparathyroidism: evidence for "protective" (PRSS2) and "destructive" (CTRC) genetic factors. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2011;119:26-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in the Chymotrypsin C gene (CTRC) it became clear that also protective genetic variants exist in the anionic trypsinogen gene (PRSS2) that decrease susceptibility for pancreatitis...
  40. Pu H, Begemann D, Kyprianou N. Aberrant TGF-β Signaling Drives Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer in a Male Mouse Model of Prostate Tumorigenesis. Endocrinology. 2017;158:1612-1622 pubmed publisher
    ..The work defines a potentially significant new targeting platform for overcoming therapeutic resistance in CRPC...
  41. Paju A, Bjartell A, Zhang W, Nordling S, Borgstrom A, Hansson J, et al. Expression and characterization of trypsinogen produced in the human male genital tract. Am J Pathol. 2000;157:2011-21 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that trypsinogen isoenzymes found in seminal fluid are produced locally in the male genital tract and that they may play a physiological role in the semen. ..
  42. Cao J, Xia C, Cui T, Guo H, Li H, Ren Y, et al. Correlations between serum trypsinogen-2 and pancreatic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 2015;62:435-40 pubmed
    ..Levels between 1.8 μg/L and 19.9 μg/L strongly suggest PC. Detection of serum trypsinogen-2 may provide simple, sensitive, specific non-invasive initial screening for early PC diagnosis. ..
  43. Derikx M, Kovacs P, Scholz M, Masson E, Chen J, Ruffert C, et al. Polymorphisms at PRSS1-PRSS2 and CLDN2-MORC4 loci associate with alcoholic and non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis in a European replication study. Gut. 2015;64:1426-33 pubmed publisher
    ..A genome-wide association study reported an association of chronic pancreatitis (CP) with variants in PRSS1-PRSS2 (rs10273639; near the gene encoding cationic trypsinogen) and CLDN2-MORC4 loci (rs7057398 in RIPPLY1 and ..
  44. Mayumi T, Inui K, Maetani I, Yokoe M, Sakamoto T, Yoshida M, et al. Validity of the urinary trypsinogen-2 test in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2012;41:869-75 pubmed publisher
    ..2% and 7.63, respectively. This simple, rapid, easy, and noninvasive urinary trypsinogen-2 test can diagnose or rule out most cases of acute pancreatitis. ..
  45. Lauhio A, Sorsa T, Srinivas R, Stenman M, Tervahartiala T, Stenman U, et al. Urinary matrix metalloproteinase -8, -9, -14 and their regulators (TRY-1, TRY-2, TATI) in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Ann Med. 2008;40:312-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that a trypsin-MMP cascade is involved in the pathogenesis of DNP, which may offer new possibilities for diagnosis and treatment of DNP with MMP inhibitors. ..
  46. Jin T, Huang W, Jiang K, Xiong J, Xue P, Javed M, et al. Urinary trypsinogen-2 for diagnosing acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2013;12:355-62 pubmed
    ..Urinary trypsinogen-2 (UT-2) has been increasingly used but its clinical value for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis has not yet been systematically assessed...
  47. Belorgey D, Dirrig S, Amouric M, Figarella C, Bieth J. Inhibition of human pancreatic proteinases by mucus proteinase inhibitor, eglin c and aprotinin. Biochem J. 1996;313 ( Pt 2):555-60 pubmed
    The kinetic investigation of the inhibition of human pancreatic trypsin 1, trypsin 2 and chymotrypsin A by mucus proteinase inhibitor, eglin c and aprotinin reveals that (i) the first protein is a potent inhibitor of chymotrypsin A (kass...
  48. Zhong J, Li L, Wang Z, Bai H, Gai F, Duan J, et al. Potential Resistance Mechanisms Revealed by Targeted Sequencing from Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients with Primary Resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs). J Thorac Oncol. 2017;12:1766-1778 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in EGFR and its downstream pathway, as well as mutations that affect tumor cell function, are related to primary resistance. Somatic single-nucleotide mutation patterns might be associated with primary resistance to EGFR TKIs. ..
  49. Shirato K, Kawase M, Matsuyama S. Wild-type human coronaviruses prefer cell-surface TMPRSS2 to endosomal cathepsins for cell entry. Virology. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that circulating HCoVs in the field generally use cell-surface TMPRSS2 for cell entry, not endosomal cathepsins, in human airway epithelial cells...
  50. Johansen D, Manjer J, Regner S, Lindkvist B. Pre-diagnostic levels of anionic trypsinogen, cationic trypsinogen, and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in relation to pancreatic cancer risk. Pancreatology. 2010;10:229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental studies have suggested that trypsinogen may enhance tumor progression and that the ratio between anionic trypsinogen and cationic trypsinogen (HAT/HCT) and between the sum of trypsinogens and pancreatic secretory trypsin ..
  51. Kitahara K, Kawa S, Katsuyama Y, Umemura T, Ozaki Y, Takayama M, et al. Microsatellite scan identifies new candidate genes for susceptibility to alcoholic chronic pancreatitis in Japanese patients. Dis Markers. 2008;25:175-80 pubmed
    ..detected in association with previously reported susceptibility genes for chronic pancreatitis, such as PRSS1, PRSS2, CTRC, SPINK1, CFTR, ALDH2, and CYP2E1...
  52. Ronai Z, Witt H, Rickards O, Destro Bisol G, Bradbury A, Sahin Toth M. A common African polymorphism abolishes tyrosine sulfation of human anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2). Biochem J. 2009;418:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..457G>C) in the PRSS2 (serine protease 2, human anionic trypsinogen) gene, which changed Asp(153) to a histidine residue (p.D153H). The p...
  53. van Deemter M, Kuijer R, Harm Pas H, Jacoba van der Worp R, Hooymans J, Los L. Trypsin-mediated enzymatic degradation of type II collagen in the human vitreous. Mol Vis. 2013;19:1591-9 pubmed
    ..Trypsin-1 and trypsin-2 appear to have a function in the degradation of vitreous type II collagen. They could therefore have a role in the development of vitreous liquefaction. ..
  54. Vilen S, Suojanen J, Salas F, Risteli J, Ylipalosaari M, Itkonen O, et al. Trypsin-2 enhances carcinoma invasion by processing tight junctions and activating ProMT1-MMP. Cancer Invest. 2012;30:583-92 pubmed
    ..The effects of invasion were analyzed using trypsin-2 over-expressing human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells (Try2-HSC-3) in vitro and in vivo...
  55. Chen J, Ferec C. Gene conversion-like missense mutations in the human cationic trypsinogen gene and insights into the molecular evolution of the human trypsinogen family. Mol Genet Metab. 2000;71:463-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, this genetic finding provides, for the first time, concrete evidence of the contribution made by gene conversion to the molecular evolution of the human trypsinogen family. ..
  56. Nakamura H, Fujii Y, Ohuchi E, Yamamoto E, Okada Y. Activation of the precursor of human stromelysin 2 and its interactions with other matrix metalloproteinases. Eur J Biochem. 1998;253:67-75 pubmed
    ....
  57. Polonikov A, Samgina T, Nazarenko P, Bushueva O, Ivanov V. Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking are Important Modifiers of the Association Between Acute Pancreatitis and the PRSS1-PRSS2 Locus in Men. Pancreas. 2017;46:230-236 pubmed publisher
    ..whether the susceptibility to acute pancreatitis (AP) attributable to polymorphism rs10273639 at the PRSS1-PRSS2 locus is dependent on alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking...
  58. Chen J, Li L, Chin L. Parkinson disease protein DJ-1 converts from a zymogen to a protease by carboxyl-terminal cleavage. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:2395-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a role for DJ-1 protease in cellular defense against oxidative stress and have important implications for understanding and treating PD. ..
  59. Emi M, Nakamura Y, Ogawa M, Yamamoto T, Nishide T, Mori T, et al. Cloning, characterization and nucleotide sequences of two cDNAs encoding human pancreatic trypsinogens. Gene. 1986;41:305-10 pubmed
    ..Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA using the cloned cDNA as a probe, revealed that the human trypsinogen genes constitute a multigene family of more than ten genes. ..
  60. Kimland M, Russick C, Marks W, Borgstrom A. Immunoreactive anionic and cationic trypsin in human serum. Clin Chim Acta. 1989;184:31-46 pubmed
    ..In acute pancreatitis there is an increase over normal of both irAT and irCT with a proportionally greater increase in irAT than irCT. Similar changes are also found in uremic patients...