PTEN

Summary

Gene Symbol: PTEN
Description: phosphatase and tensin homolog
Alias: 10q23del, BZS, CWS1, DEC, GLM2, MHAM, MMAC1, PTEN1, PTENbeta, TEP1, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN, MMAC1 phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10, mitochondrial PTENalpha, mitochondrial phosphatase and tensin protein alpha, mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1, phosphatase and tensin-like protein, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN, protein tyrosine phosphatase
Species: human
Products:     PTEN

Top Publications

  1. Gao F, Li H, Chen Y, Yu X, Wang R, Chen X. Upregulation of PTEN involved in scorpion venom-induced apoptosis in a lymphoma cell line. Leuk Lymphoma. 2009;50:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In Raji cells, BmK venom upregulated the expression of PTEN accompanied by decreased levels of Akt and Bad phosphorylation...
  2. Huang F, Zhang L, Wu D, Yuan X, Yu Y, Zhao X, et al. PTEN regulates BCRP/ABCG2 and the side population through the PI3K/Akt pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88298 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced drug resistance along with downregulated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome -10 (PTEN) and activated phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt)...
  3. Yin Y, Shen W. PTEN: a new guardian of the genome. Oncogene. 2008;27:5443-53 pubmed publisher
    The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor is a phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphoinositol-3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway and suppresses cell survival as well as cell proliferation...
  4. Shen W, Balajee A, Wang J, Wu H, Eng C, Pandolfi P, et al. Essential role for nuclear PTEN in maintaining chromosomal integrity. Cell. 2007;128:157-70 pubmed
    A broad spectrum of mutations in PTEN, encoding a lipid phosphatase that inactivates the P13-K/AKT pathway, is found associated with primary tumors...
  5. Huang F, Wu D, Zhang L, Yu Y, Yuan X, Li W, et al. Inactivation of PTEN increases ABCG2 expression and the side population through the PI3K/Akt pathway in adult acute leukemia. Cancer Lett. 2013;336:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..that ABCG2 expression and SP cell ratios can be upregulated by the inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein, achieved in this study by removing inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway...
  6. Li H, Gao Q, Guo L, Lu S. The PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway regulates stem-like cells in primary esophageal carcinoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011;11:950-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, PTEN, rather than mTOR, was found to be involved in SP cell regulation in primary ESCC cells...
  7. Yoshimoto M, Cunha I, Coudry R, Fonseca F, Torres C, Soares F, et al. FISH analysis of 107 prostate cancers shows that PTEN genomic deletion is associated with poor clinical outcome. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:678-85 pubmed
    This study examines the clinical impact of PTEN genomic deletions using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of 107 prostate cancers, with follow-up information covering a period of up to 10 years...
  8. Kim J, Lee C, Bonifant C, Ressom H, Waldman T. Activation of p53-dependent growth suppression in human cells by mutations in PTEN or PIK3CA. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:662-77 pubmed
    ..we performed microarray analysis and subsequent quantitative reverse transcription-PCR on an isogenic set of PTEN gene-targeted human cancer cells...
  9. Meng F, Henson R, Lang M, Wehbe H, Maheshwari S, Mendell J, et al. Involvement of human micro-RNA in growth and response to chemotherapy in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:2113-29 pubmed
    ..miR-21 modulates gemcitabine-induced apoptosis by phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-dependent activation of PI 3-kinase signaling...
  10. Lacalle R, Gomez Mouton C, Barber D, Jimenez Baranda S, Mira E, Martinez A C, et al. PTEN regulates motility but not directionality during leukocyte chemotaxis. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:6207-15 pubmed
    The localization at opposite cell poles of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) governs Dictyostelium chemotaxis...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Gao F, Li H, Chen Y, Yu X, Wang R, Chen X. Upregulation of PTEN involved in scorpion venom-induced apoptosis in a lymphoma cell line. Leuk Lymphoma. 2009;50:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In Raji cells, BmK venom upregulated the expression of PTEN accompanied by decreased levels of Akt and Bad phosphorylation...
  2. Huang F, Zhang L, Wu D, Yuan X, Yu Y, Zhao X, et al. PTEN regulates BCRP/ABCG2 and the side population through the PI3K/Akt pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88298 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced drug resistance along with downregulated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome -10 (PTEN) and activated phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt)...
  3. Yin Y, Shen W. PTEN: a new guardian of the genome. Oncogene. 2008;27:5443-53 pubmed publisher
    The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor is a phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphoinositol-3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway and suppresses cell survival as well as cell proliferation...
  4. Shen W, Balajee A, Wang J, Wu H, Eng C, Pandolfi P, et al. Essential role for nuclear PTEN in maintaining chromosomal integrity. Cell. 2007;128:157-70 pubmed
    A broad spectrum of mutations in PTEN, encoding a lipid phosphatase that inactivates the P13-K/AKT pathway, is found associated with primary tumors...
  5. Huang F, Wu D, Zhang L, Yu Y, Yuan X, Li W, et al. Inactivation of PTEN increases ABCG2 expression and the side population through the PI3K/Akt pathway in adult acute leukemia. Cancer Lett. 2013;336:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..that ABCG2 expression and SP cell ratios can be upregulated by the inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein, achieved in this study by removing inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway...
  6. Li H, Gao Q, Guo L, Lu S. The PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway regulates stem-like cells in primary esophageal carcinoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011;11:950-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, PTEN, rather than mTOR, was found to be involved in SP cell regulation in primary ESCC cells...
  7. Yoshimoto M, Cunha I, Coudry R, Fonseca F, Torres C, Soares F, et al. FISH analysis of 107 prostate cancers shows that PTEN genomic deletion is associated with poor clinical outcome. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:678-85 pubmed
    This study examines the clinical impact of PTEN genomic deletions using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of 107 prostate cancers, with follow-up information covering a period of up to 10 years...
  8. Kim J, Lee C, Bonifant C, Ressom H, Waldman T. Activation of p53-dependent growth suppression in human cells by mutations in PTEN or PIK3CA. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:662-77 pubmed
    ..we performed microarray analysis and subsequent quantitative reverse transcription-PCR on an isogenic set of PTEN gene-targeted human cancer cells...
  9. Meng F, Henson R, Lang M, Wehbe H, Maheshwari S, Mendell J, et al. Involvement of human micro-RNA in growth and response to chemotherapy in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:2113-29 pubmed
    ..miR-21 modulates gemcitabine-induced apoptosis by phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-dependent activation of PI 3-kinase signaling...
  10. Lacalle R, Gomez Mouton C, Barber D, Jimenez Baranda S, Mira E, Martinez A C, et al. PTEN regulates motility but not directionality during leukocyte chemotaxis. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:6207-15 pubmed
    The localization at opposite cell poles of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) governs Dictyostelium chemotaxis...
  11. Ishihara H, Sasaoka T, Kagawa S, Murakami S, Fukui K, Kawagishi Y, et al. Association of the polymorphisms in the 5'-untranslated region of PTEN gene with type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. FEBS Lett. 2003;554:450-4 pubmed
    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is known to act as a lipid phosphatase hydrolyzing phosphatidylinositol (PI)(3,4,5)P(3) to PI(4,5)P(2)...
  12. Chen M, Pratt C, Zeeman M, Schultz N, Taylor B, O Neill A, et al. Identification of PHLPP1 as a tumor suppressor reveals the role of feedback activation in PTEN-mutant prostate cancer progression. Cancer Cell. 2011;20:173-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Phlpp1-loss causes neoplasia and, on partial Pten-loss, carcinoma in mouse prostate...
  13. Tian L, Fang Y, Xue J, Chen J. Four microRNAs promote prostate cell proliferation with regulation of PTEN and its downstream signals in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75885 pubmed publisher
    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), as a tumor suppressor, plays vital roles in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms of PTEN regulation still need further investigation...
  14. Jensen J, Knoop A, Laenkholm A, Grauslund M, Jensen M, Santoni Rugiu E, et al. PIK3CA mutations, PTEN, and pHER2 expression and impact on outcome in HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:2034-42 pubmed publisher
    ..factor receptor-2 (HER2) phosphorylation status (pHER2-Tyr1221/1222) and if PIK3CA, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), or pHER2 has an impact on outcome in HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant ..
  15. González Santamaría J, Campagna M, Ortega Molina A, Marcos Villar L, de la Cruz Herrera C, Gonzalez D, et al. Regulation of the tumor suppressor PTEN by SUMO. Cell Death Dis. 2012;3:e393 pubmed publisher
    The crucial function of the PTEN tumor suppressor in multiple cellular processes suggests that its activity must be tightly controlled...
  16. Banneau G, Guedj M, MacGrogan G, de Mascarel I, Velasco V, Schiappa R, et al. Molecular apocrine differentiation is a common feature of breast cancer in patients with germline PTEN mutations. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12:R63 pubmed publisher
    ..in patients with Cowden disease, a cancer-prone syndrome caused by germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN characterized by the occurrence throughout life of hyperplastic, hamartomatous and malignant growths affecting ..
  17. Han B, Mehra R, Lonigro R, Wang L, Suleman K, Menon A, et al. Fluorescence in situ hybridization study shows association of PTEN deletion with ERG rearrangement during prostate cancer progression. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:1083-93 pubmed publisher
    The link between ERG rearrangement and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) deletion is unclear in prostate cancer progression...
  18. Kavela S, Shinde S, Ratheesh R, Viswakalyan K, Bashyam M, Gowrishankar S, et al. PNUTS functions as a proto-oncogene by sequestering PTEN. Cancer Res. 2013;73:205-14 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN is a well-defined tumor suppressor gene that antagonizes the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate a multitude of cellular processes, such as survival, growth, motility, invasiveness, and angiogenesis...
  19. Guo S, Ye H, Teng Y, Wang Y, Yang G, Li X, et al. Akt-p53-miR-365-cyclin D1/cdc25A axis contributes to gastric tumorigenesis induced by PTEN deficiency. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2544 pubmed publisher
    Although PTEN/Akt signaling is frequently deregulated in human gastric cancers, the in vivo causal link between its dysregulation and gastric tumorigenesis has not been established...
  20. Ding L, Chen S, Liu P, Pan Y, Zhong J, Regan K, et al. CBP loss cooperates with PTEN haploinsufficiency to drive prostate cancer: implications for epigenetic therapy. Cancer Res. 2014;74:2050-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we develop functional evidence for CBP and PTEN interaction in prostate cancer based on findings of their correlate expression in the human disease...
  21. Dal Col J, Zancai P, Terrin L, Guidoboni M, Ponzoni M, Pavan A, et al. Distinct functional significance of Akt and mTOR constitutive activation in mantle cell lymphoma. Blood. 2008;111:5142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..that the constitutive activation of Akt correlates with the expression of the phosphorylated, inactive form of PTEN. Phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PI3-K)/Akt or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition decreased the growth ..
  22. Frattini M, Saletti P, Romagnani E, Martin V, Molinari F, Ghisletta M, et al. PTEN loss of expression predicts cetuximab efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:1139-45 pubmed
    To evaluate whether the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-Ras and PTEN, all members of the EGFR signalling pathway, may affect the clinical response in cetuximab-treated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients...
  23. Langlois M, Roy S, Auclair B, Jones C, Boudreau F, Carrier J, et al. Epithelial phosphatase and tensin homolog regulates intestinal architecture and secretory cell commitment and acts as a modifier gene in neoplasia. FASEB J. 2009;23:1835-44 pubmed publisher
    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, is one of the most frequently mutated/deleted tumor suppressor genes in human cancers...
  24. Vazquez F, Grossman S, Takahashi Y, Rokas M, Nakamura N, Sellers W. Phosphorylation of the PTEN tail acts as an inhibitory switch by preventing its recruitment into a protein complex. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:48627-30 pubmed
    b>PTEN is a tumor suppressor protein that functions, in large part, by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and by doing so antagonizing the action of phosphoinositide 3-kinase...
  25. Poetsch M, Lorenz G, Kleist B. Detection of new PTEN/MMAC1 mutations in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas with loss of chromosome 10. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2002;132:20-4 pubmed
    ..mutations of PTEN/MMAC1 occurred in exons 5 (five different mutations in the neighborhood of the protein tyrosine phosphatase domain), 6, 7, and 8. Only one of these mutations had been described before...
  26. Saito T, Oda Y, Kawaguchi K, Takahira T, Yamamoto H, Tamiya S, et al. PTEN/MMAC1 gene mutation is a rare event in soft tissue sarcomas without specific balanced translocations. Int J Cancer. 2003;104:175-8 pubmed
    The tumor suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1 was identified on chromosome 10q23.3, which is homozygously deleted in many human malignancies. The loss of chromosome 10q was also frequently reported in some types of soft tissue sarcomas...
  27. Meng F, Henson R, Wehbe Janek H, Ghoshal K, Jacob S, Patel T. MicroRNA-21 regulates expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in human hepatocellular cancer. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:647-58 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of miR-21 in cultured HCC cells increased expression of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor, and decreased tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion...
  28. Kong D, Suzuki A, Zou T, Sakurada A, Kemp L, Wakatsuki S, et al. PTEN1 is frequently mutated in primary endometrial carcinomas. Nat Genet. 1997;17:143-4 pubmed
  29. Sheng X, Koul D, Liu J, Liu T, Yung W. Promoter analysis of tumor suppressor gene PTEN: identification of minimum promoter region. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;292:422-6 pubmed
    Mutations of PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 10, which encodes a protein-tyrosine and lipid-phosphatase, are prevalent in various human cancers, including glioblastoma...
  30. Howitt J, Lackovic J, Low L, Naguib A, Macintyre A, Goh C, et al. Ndfip1 regulates nuclear Pten import in vivo to promote neuronal survival following cerebral ischemia. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:29-36 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome TEN) is the major negative regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and has cell-specific functions including tumor suppression...
  31. Halvorsen O, Haukaas S, Akslen L. Combined loss of PTEN and p27 expression is associated with tumor cell proliferation by Ki-67 and increased risk of recurrent disease in localized prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:1474-9 pubmed
    Recent experimental work indicates a major role for PTEN and p27 in prostate cancer...
  32. Zhu X, Zhou F, Qin D, Zeng Y, Lv Z, Yao S, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of Ras/c-Raf/MEK1/2, PI3K/AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:1035-51 pubmed publisher
    ....
  33. Zhou M, Gu L, Findley H, Jiang R, Woods W. PTEN reverses MDM2-mediated chemotherapy resistance by interacting with p53 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Cancer Res. 2003;63:6357-62 pubmed
    The tumor suppressor PTEN has been associated with the cellular localization of MDM2 in regulation of apoptosis through inhibiting PI3k/Akt signaling...
  34. Weigelt B, Warne P, Downward J. PIK3CA mutation, but not PTEN loss of function, determines the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to mTOR inhibitory drugs. Oncogene. 2011;30:3222-33 pubmed publisher
    ..PI3K) pathway is commonly activated in breast cancers due to frequent mutations in PIK3CA, loss of expression of PTEN or over-expression of receptor tyrosine kinases...
  35. Yoshimi A, Goyama S, Watanabe Okochi N, Yoshiki Y, Nannya Y, Nitta E, et al. Evi1 represses PTEN expression and activates PI3K/AKT/mTOR via interactions with polycomb proteins. Blood. 2011;117:3617-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Evi1 directly represses phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) transcription in the murine bone marrow, which leads to activation of AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) ..
  36. Huang J, Niu X, Pippen A, Annex B, Kontos C. Adenovirus-mediated intraarterial delivery of PTEN inhibits neointimal hyperplasia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:354-8 pubmed
    ..We recently demonstrated that the inositol 3-phosphatase PTEN is expressed in VSMCs and that its overexpression inhibits these cellular responses...
  37. Gao Q, Ye F, Xia X, Xing H, Lu Y, Zhou J, et al. Correlation between PTEN expression and PI3K/Akt signal pathway in endometrial carcinoma. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009;29:59-63 pubmed publisher
    In order to investigate the role of the PTEN expression in carcinogenesis and development of endometrial carcinoma and clarify whether and how PTEN and PI3K/Akt pathway relate to endometrial carcinoma, the expression of PTEN and phospho-..
  38. Connor K, Subbaram S, Regan K, Nelson K, Mazurkiewicz J, Bartholomew P, et al. Mitochondrial H2O2 regulates the angiogenic phenotype via PTEN oxidation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16916-24 pubmed
    Recent studies have demonstrated that the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10), the antagonist of the phosphosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade, is susceptible to H2O2-dependent ..
  39. Vasudevan K, Burikhanov R, Goswami A, Rangnekar V. Suppression of PTEN expression is essential for antiapoptosis and cellular transformation by oncogenic Ras. Cancer Res. 2007;67:10343-50 pubmed
    ..Ras suppresses the expression of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN), and this action of oncogenic Ras is mediated by the Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-..
  40. Odriozola L, Singh G, Hoang T, Chan A. Regulation of PTEN activity by its carboxyl-terminal autoinhibitory domain. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23306-15 pubmed
    The regulation of PTEN intrinsic biochemical properties has not been fully elucidated. In this report, we investigated the role of the PTEN carboxyl-terminal tail domain in regulating its membrane targeting and catalytic functions...
  41. Langlois M, Bergeron S, Bernatchez G, Boudreau F, Saucier C, Perreault N, et al. The PTEN phosphatase controls intestinal epithelial cell polarity and barrier function: role in colorectal cancer progression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15742 pubmed publisher
    The PTEN phosphatase acts on phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphates resulting from phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. PTEN expression has been shown to be decreased in colorectal cancer...
  42. Dida F, Li Y, Iwao A, Deguchi T, Azuma E, Komada Y. Resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis caused by constitutional phosphorylation of Akt and PTEN in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Exp Hematol. 2008;36:1343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphate and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) level was the same in both sensitive cells and resistant cells, but was quickly downregulated in sensitive cells ..
  43. Knobbe C, Merlo A, Reifenberger G. Pten signaling in gliomas. Neuro Oncol. 2002;4:196-211 pubmed
    In 1997, the PTEN gene (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) was identified as a tumor suppressor gene on the long arm of chromosome 10...
  44. Steck P, Pershouse M, Jasser S, Yung W, Lin H, Ligon A, et al. Identification of a candidate tumour suppressor gene, MMAC1, at chromosome 10q23.3 that is mutated in multiple advanced cancers. Nat Genet. 1997;15:356-62 pubmed
    ..We have identified a gene, designated MMAC1, that spans these deletions and encodes a widely expressed 5.5-kb mRNA...
  45. Wu H, Wang S, Weng D, Xing H, Song X, Zhu T, et al. Reversal of the malignant phenotype of ovarian cancer A2780 cells through transfection with wild-type PTEN gene. Cancer Lett. 2008;271:205-14 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) is a tumor suppressor gene identified on human chromosome 10q23...
  46. Pezzolesi M, Zbuk K, Waite K, Eng C. Comparative genomic and functional analyses reveal a novel cis-acting PTEN regulatory element as a highly conserved functional E-box motif deleted in Cowden syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1058-71 pubmed
    Germline mutations in PTEN, encoding a phosphatase on 10q23, cause Cowden syndrome (CS) and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS)...
  47. Gutierrez A, Sanda T, Grebliunaite R, Carracedo A, Salmena L, Ahn Y, et al. High frequency of PTEN, PI3K, and AKT abnormalities in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2009;114:647-50 pubmed publisher
    To more comprehensively assess the pathogenic contribution of the PTEN-PI3K-AKT pathway to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), we examined diagnostic DNA samples from children with T-ALL using array comparative genomic ..
  48. Orrico A, Galli L, Buoni S, Orsi A, Vonella G, Sorrentino V. Novel PTEN mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders and macrocephaly. Clin Genet. 2009;75:195-8 pubmed publisher
    Somatic mutations of the phosphatase and tensin (PTEN) gene have been frequently detected in many types of human cancer...
  49. Noro R, Gemma A, Miyanaga A, Kosaihira S, Minegishi Y, Nara M, et al. PTEN inactivation in lung cancer cells and the effect of its recovery on treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Int J Oncol. 2007;31:1157-63 pubmed
    To understand the mechanisms of PTEN inactivation, which is reported to be involved in tumor progression and drug resistance in lung cancer, we analyzed the expression levels of PTEN at mRNA and protein levels, along with the genetic and ..
  50. Farrow B, Evers B. Activation of PPARgamma increases PTEN expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;301:50-3 pubmed
    ..of this study was to examine whether activation of PPARgamma can increase the expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN and inhibit PI3K activity...
  51. Zou Z, Zhang R, Fan L, Wang L, Fang C, Zhang L, et al. Low expression level of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten predicts poor prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2013;54:1159-64 pubmed publisher
    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is one of the best-studied tumor suppressor genes which can promote cell proliferation and contribute to tumorigenesis...
  52. Song M, Salmena L, Pandolfi P. The functions and regulation of the PTEN tumour suppressor. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2012;13:283-96 pubmed publisher
    The importance of the physiological function of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is illustrated by its frequent disruption in cancer...
  53. Varga E, Pastore M, Prior T, Herman G, McBride K. The prevalence of PTEN mutations in a clinical pediatric cohort with autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, and macrocephaly. Genet Med. 2009;11:111-7 pubmed publisher
    To define the prevalence of PTEN mutations in a clinical cohort of pediatric subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), developmental delay/mental retardation (DD/MR), and/or macrocephaly and to assess genotype-phenotype correlations...
  54. Schneider E, Keppler R, Prawitt D, Steinwender C, Roos F, ThUroff J, et al. Migration of renal tumor cells depends on dephosphorylation of Shc by PTEN. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:823-31 pubmed publisher
    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a phosphatase using FAK and Shc as direct substrates, and Akt as a key effector via PIP3. PTEN regulates cell migration and may influence metastases...
  55. Hsu C, Kao T, Chang W, Nieh S, Wang H, Chung Y. Clinical significance of tumor suppressor PTEN in colorectal carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2011;37:140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mutation, hypermethylation and subcellular location of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) are closely correlated with carcinogenesis, progression and prognosis of malignancy...
  56. Cohen Y, Shalmon B, Korach J, Barshack I, Fridman E, Rechavi G. AKT1 pleckstrin homology domain E17K activating mutation in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;116:88-91 pubmed publisher
    The PI3K/AKT pathway is frequently activated in endometrial carcinoma (EC) mainly due to mutations in the PIK3CA and PTEN genes. These events are common and believed to be the key to endometrial carcinogenesis...
  57. Ettl T, Baader K, Stiegler C, Muller M, Agaimy A, Zenk J, et al. Loss of PTEN is associated with elevated EGFR and HER2 expression and worse prognosis in salivary gland cancer. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:719-26 pubmed publisher
    Activity of the tumour-suppressor gene PTEN is reduced in different types of cancer and implicates non-responsiveness to targeted therapy. This study evaluates the gene and protein status of PTEN in salivary gland carcinomas.
  58. Wang J, Huang T, Chen F, Hsieh M, Lin S, Hou M, et al. Mutation analysis of the putative tumor suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1 in advanced gastric carcinomas. Virchows Arch. 2003;442:437-43 pubmed
    A novel tumor suppressor gene, PTEN/MMAC1, located on chromosome band 10q23.3, encodes a 403-amino acid, dual-specificity protein phosphatase. The defects in this gene are responsible for the development of some advanced cancers...
  59. Zhang L, Ho Fun Lee V, Wong A, Kwong D, Zhu Y, Dong S, et al. MicroRNA-144 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma through repression of PTEN. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:454-63 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that miR-144 was inversely correlated with the tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in NPC specimens and cell lines, and then we identified PTEN as a direct target of miR-144 in NPC cell lines...
  60. Zhou F, Xue M, Qin D, Zhu X, Wang C, Zhu J, et al. HIV-1 Tat promotes Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis by regulating PI3K/PTEN/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53145 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistic studies indicated Tat activates PI3K and AKT, and inactivates PTEN and GSK-3β in vIL-6 expressing cells...
  61. Konopka B, Janiec Jankowska A, Czapczak D, Paszko Z, Bidzinski M, Olszewski W, et al. Molecular genetic defects in endometrial carcinomas: microsatellite instability, PTEN and beta-catenin (CTNNB1) genes mutations. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007;133:361-71 pubmed
    The present study aims to assess the incidence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and mutations in the PTEN and beta-catenin (CTNNB1) genes in endometrial carcinomas and to analyze the detected defects in these factors in relation to ..
  62. Covey T, Edes K, Coombs G, Virshup D, Fitzpatrick F. Alkylation of the tumor suppressor PTEN activates Akt and β-catenin signaling: a mechanism linking inflammation and oxidative stress with cancer. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13545 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN, a phosphoinositide-3-phosphatase, serves dual roles as a tumor suppressor and regulator of cellular anabolic/catabolic metabolism...