PTGS2

Summary

Gene Symbol: PTGS2
Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Alias: COX-2, COX2, GRIPGHS, PGG/HS, PGHS-2, PHS-2, hCox-2, prostaglandin G/H synthase 2, PGH synthase 2, PHS II, cyclooxygenase 2, cyclooxygenase 2b, prostaglandin H2 synthase 2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
Species: human
Products:     PTGS2

Top Publications

  1. Yamauchi M, Lochhead P, Imamura Y, Kuchiba A, Liao X, Qian Z, et al. Physical activity, tumor PTGS2 expression, and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:1142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..catenin) or CDKN1B (p27) status on colon cancer prognosis, interactive effects of physical activity and tumor PTGS2 (the official symbol for COX-2) status on clinical outcome remain unknown...
  2. Parfenova H, Parfenov V, Shlopov B, Levine V, Falkos S, Pourcyrous M, et al. Dynamics of nuclear localization sites for COX-2 in vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C166-78 pubmed
    ..COX-2 nuclear localization sites and trafficking between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in endothelial cells may indicate a novel function of COX-2 in regulating gene expression...
  3. Gharib A, Karam R, Abd El Rahman T, Elsawy W. COX-2 polymorphisms -765G→C and -1195A→G and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Gene. 2014;543:234-6 pubmed publisher
    ..37). The A allele was present significantly more often in HCC patients (OR 1.5; 95%CI, 1.05-2.14). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the -1195AA genotype and A allele have an important role in HCC risk in Egyptian patients. ..
  4. Mohamed F, Hussein Y, El Deen I, Sabea M. Cyclooxygenase-2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:1461-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been suggested to be associated with hepatocarcinogenesis...
  5. Chen S, Wu C, Lee Y, Tam K, Tsai Y, Liou J, et al. Caveolin-1 interacts with Derlin-1 and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of cyclooxygenase-2 via collaboration with p97 complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified Cav-1 as a key player in Derlin-1- and p97-mediated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) ubiquitination and degradation...
  6. Wang X, Huang M, Zhang X, Hua R, Guo W. COX-2-765G>C polymorphism increases the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73213 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the COX-2-765 C allele was related to increased cancer susceptibility, especially gastric cancer and cancer in the Asian population. ..
  7. Jiao G, Ren T, Lu Q, Sun Y, Lou Z, Peng X, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:2489-95 pubmed publisher
    ..741, 95 % CI 0.762-3.979, P = 0.188), but the difference was not significant. Therefore, this meta-analysis demonstrated that high COX-2 expression might be an unfavorable prognostic effect in osteosarcoma. ..
  8. Bu X, Zhao C. The association between cyclooxygenase-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:1479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence from the meta-analysis supports an association between COX-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and HCC risk in Asians. Further studies with large sample and careful design are needed to identify the possible association in Caucasians. ..
  9. Shao N, Feng N, Wang Y, Mi Y, Li T, Hua L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of COX-2 expression and polymorphisms in prostate cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:10997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). COX-2 might play an important role in the progress of PCa, overexpression of COX-2 correlates with T3-T4 stages of PCa. COX-2 might be a potential therapy target for PCa and work as a prognostic factor for PCa patients. ..
  10. Dhakal H, Naume B, Synnestvedt M, Borgen E, Kaaresen R, Schlichting E, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in invasive breast carcinomas and its prognostic impact. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27:1315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, COX-2 expression in this series was associated with the presence of hormone receptors. Low COX-2 expression was observed in triple-negative breast carcinomas. ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Yamauchi M, Lochhead P, Imamura Y, Kuchiba A, Liao X, Qian Z, et al. Physical activity, tumor PTGS2 expression, and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:1142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..catenin) or CDKN1B (p27) status on colon cancer prognosis, interactive effects of physical activity and tumor PTGS2 (the official symbol for COX-2) status on clinical outcome remain unknown...
  2. Parfenova H, Parfenov V, Shlopov B, Levine V, Falkos S, Pourcyrous M, et al. Dynamics of nuclear localization sites for COX-2 in vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C166-78 pubmed
    ..COX-2 nuclear localization sites and trafficking between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in endothelial cells may indicate a novel function of COX-2 in regulating gene expression...
  3. Gharib A, Karam R, Abd El Rahman T, Elsawy W. COX-2 polymorphisms -765G→C and -1195A→G and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Gene. 2014;543:234-6 pubmed publisher
    ..37). The A allele was present significantly more often in HCC patients (OR 1.5; 95%CI, 1.05-2.14). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the -1195AA genotype and A allele have an important role in HCC risk in Egyptian patients. ..
  4. Mohamed F, Hussein Y, El Deen I, Sabea M. Cyclooxygenase-2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:1461-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been suggested to be associated with hepatocarcinogenesis...
  5. Chen S, Wu C, Lee Y, Tam K, Tsai Y, Liou J, et al. Caveolin-1 interacts with Derlin-1 and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of cyclooxygenase-2 via collaboration with p97 complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified Cav-1 as a key player in Derlin-1- and p97-mediated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) ubiquitination and degradation...
  6. Wang X, Huang M, Zhang X, Hua R, Guo W. COX-2-765G>C polymorphism increases the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73213 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the COX-2-765 C allele was related to increased cancer susceptibility, especially gastric cancer and cancer in the Asian population. ..
  7. Jiao G, Ren T, Lu Q, Sun Y, Lou Z, Peng X, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:2489-95 pubmed publisher
    ..741, 95 % CI 0.762-3.979, P = 0.188), but the difference was not significant. Therefore, this meta-analysis demonstrated that high COX-2 expression might be an unfavorable prognostic effect in osteosarcoma. ..
  8. Bu X, Zhao C. The association between cyclooxygenase-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:1479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence from the meta-analysis supports an association between COX-2 1195 G/A polymorphism and HCC risk in Asians. Further studies with large sample and careful design are needed to identify the possible association in Caucasians. ..
  9. Shao N, Feng N, Wang Y, Mi Y, Li T, Hua L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of COX-2 expression and polymorphisms in prostate cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:10997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). COX-2 might play an important role in the progress of PCa, overexpression of COX-2 correlates with T3-T4 stages of PCa. COX-2 might be a potential therapy target for PCa and work as a prognostic factor for PCa patients. ..
  10. Dhakal H, Naume B, Synnestvedt M, Borgen E, Kaaresen R, Schlichting E, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in invasive breast carcinomas and its prognostic impact. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27:1315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, COX-2 expression in this series was associated with the presence of hormone receptors. Low COX-2 expression was observed in triple-negative breast carcinomas. ..
  11. Zhang H, Xu Y, Zhang Z, Li L. Meta-analysis of epidemiological studies demonstrates significant association of PTGS2 polymorphism rs689470 and no significant association of rs20417 with prostate cancer. Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:1642-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Two common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene, rs20417 and rs689470, have been found to alter the risk for prostate cancer, but the various studies are ..
  12. Huang M, Chen Q, Xiao J, Liu C, Zhao X. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:363-73 pubmed publisher
    ....
  13. Subbaram S, Lyons S, Svenson K, Hammond S, McCabe L, Chittur S, et al. Integrin α3β1 controls mRNA splicing that determines Cox-2 mRNA stability in breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) by integrin α3β1 in breast cancer cells can promote tumor progression...
  14. Kristinsson J, van Westerveld P, Te Morsche R, Roelofs H, Wobbes T, Witteman B, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 polymorphisms and the risk of esophageal adeno- or squamous cell carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:3493-7 pubmed
    ..Presence of the COX-2 -1195 GG genotype and of the GG/GG haplotype may result in a higher risk of developing esophageal carcinoma. ..
  15. Lukiw W, Pelaez R, Martinez J, Bazan N. Budesonide epimer R or dexamethasone selectively inhibit platelet-activating factor-induced or interleukin 1beta-induced DNA binding activity of cis-acting transcription factors and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in human epidermal keratinocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3914-9 pubmed
    ....
  16. Konheim Y, Wolford J. Association of a promoter variant in the inducible cyclooxygenase-2 gene (PTGS2) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians. Hum Genet. 2003;113:377-81 pubmed
    Recent studies have suggested that prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2), also known as cyclo-oxygenase 2, plays an etiological role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  17. Moore A, Young L, Dixon D. A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in cyclooxygenase-2 disrupts microRNA-mediated regulation. Oncogene. 2012;31:1592-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanisms allowing for pathogenic COX-2 overexpression are largely unknown. The gene for COX-2 (PTGS2) carries a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 8473 (T8473C), in exon 10 that is associated ..
  18. Pawliczak R, Logun C, Madara P, Lawrence M, Woszczek G, Ptasinska A, et al. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 Group IValpha but not secreted phospholipase A2 Group IIA, V, or X induces interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 gene and protein expression through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma 1 and 2 in human lung cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48550-61 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that cPLA2 has an influence on IL-8 and COX 2 gene and protein expression at least in part through PPAR-gamma.
  19. Lira M, Mazzola S, Tessari G, Malerba G, Ortombina M, Naldi L, et al. Association of functional gene variants in the regulatory regions of COX-2 gene (PTGS2) with nonmelanoma skin cancer after organ transplantation. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:49-57 pubmed
    ..Two common polymorphisms (-765G-->C, and -1195A-->G) in the promoter region of the COX-2 gene (now PTGS2), and one common polymorphism in the 3' UTR (8473T-->C) have been described, and reported as associated with ..
  20. Kobayashi H, Hashiguchi Y, Ueno H, Shinto E, Kajiwara Y, Mochizuki H. Absence of cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression is a predictor of tumor regression in rectal cancer treated with preoperative short-term chemoradiotherapy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50:1354-62 pubmed
    ..Cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression may be a marker for response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. ..
  21. Szerafin T, Erdei N, Fulop T, Pasztor E, Edes I, Koller A, et al. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin-mediated dilation in coronary arterioles of patients with diabetes mellitus. Circ Res. 2006;99:e12-7 pubmed
    ....
  22. Hill M, Papafili A, Booth H, Lawson P, Hubner M, Beynon H, et al. Functional prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 polymorphism predicts poor outcome in sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:915-22 pubmed
    ..Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) is a key regulatory enzyme in the synthesis of the antifibrotic agent prostaglandin E(2) and is reduced in ..
  23. Dalwadi H, Krysan K, Heuzé Vourc h N, Dohadwala M, Elashoff D, Sharma S, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 by interleukin-6 in non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:7674-82 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a rationale for the future development of STAT3, IL-6, and/or COX-2-targeted therapies for the treatment of lung cancer. ..
  24. Fukata M, Chen A, Klepper A, Krishnareddy S, Vamadevan A, Thomas L, et al. Cox-2 is regulated by Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling: Role in proliferation and apoptosis in the intestine. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:862-77 pubmed
    ..We wished to test the hypothesis that cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is important in TLR4-related mucosal repair...
  25. Liu F, Pan K, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Ma J, et al. Genetic variants in cyclooxygenase-2: Expression and risk of gastric cancer and its precursors in a Chinese population. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1975-84 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that COX-2 polymorphisms may play an important role, at least in part, in developing GC in this high-risk population. ..
  26. Yu K, Chen A, Yang C, Qiu L, Fan L, Xu W, et al. Current evidence on the relationship between polymorphisms in the COX-2 gene and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;122:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need for further large studies into the role of these polymorphisms (especially rs5277) and other potentially functional polymorphisms/haplotypes in the COX-2 gene as breast cancer risk modifiers. ..
  27. Hu Z, Miao X, Ma H, Wang X, Tan W, Wei Q, et al. A common polymorphism in the 3'UTR of cyclooxygenase 2/prostaglandin synthase 2 gene and risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Lung Cancer. 2005;48:11-7 pubmed
    ..10-9.00). These findings indicate that the COX-2 T8473C polymorphism may contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population. Further larger molecular epidemiological studies are warranted to confirm these findings. ..
  28. Subbaramaiah K, Norton L, Gerald W, Dannenberg A. Cyclooxygenase-2 is overexpressed in HER-2/neu-positive breast cancer: evidence for involvement of AP-1 and PEA3. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18649-57 pubmed
    ..The clear relationship between HER-2/neu status and COX-2 expression in human breast tumors suggests that this mechanism is likely to be operative in vivo. ..
  29. Pang L, Nie M, Corbett L, Donnelly R, Gray S, Knox A. Protein kinase C-epsilon mediates bradykinin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human airway smooth muscle cells. FASEB J. 2002;16:1435-7 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that PKC-e mediates BK-induced COX-2 expression in HASM cells. ..
  30. Bertelsen L, Paesold G, Eckmann L, Barrett K. Salmonella infection induces a hypersecretory phenotype in human intestinal xenografts by inducing cyclooxygenase 2. Infect Immun. 2003;71:2102-9 pubmed
    ..Western blot experiments revealed that infection was accompanied by increased cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) expression, with no change in Cox-1 levels...
  31. Liu W, Reinmuth N, Stoeltzing O, Parikh A, Tellez C, Williams S, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 is up-regulated by interleukin-1 beta in human colorectal cancer cells via multiple signaling pathways. Cancer Res. 2003;63:3632-6 pubmed
    ..The stability of COX-2 mRNA was not altered by IL-1 beta treatment. These data demonstrate that IL-1 beta induces COX-2 expression in HT-29 cells through multiple signaling pathways and NF-kappa B. ..
  32. Wang J, Chen B, Wang Y, Tsai Y, Chen W, Chang W, et al. Involvement of store-operated calcium signaling in EGF-mediated COX-2 gene activation in cancer cells. Cell Signal. 2012;24:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ....
  33. Zhu W, Wei B, Shan X, Liu P. -765G>C and 8473T>C polymorphisms of COX-2 and cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 33 case-control studies. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:277-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this meta-analysis suggesting that -765G>C may cause an increased risk of colorectal carcinoma and esophageal cancer in Asian descents while 8473T>C polymorphism may cause a decreased risk of breast and lung cancer. ..
  34. Lappi Blanco E, Kaarteenaho Wiik R, Maasilta P, Anttila S, Paakko P, Wolff H. COX-2 is widely expressed in metaplastic epithelium in pulmonary fibrous disorders. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;126:717-24 pubmed
    ..The mesenchymal cells remained negative. Our results suggest that irrespective of the underlying disease, lung injury that causes extensive fibrosis induces wide expression of COX-2 in the regenerating metaplastic epithelium. ..
  35. Vogel U, Christensen J, Wallin H, Friis S, Nexø B, Raaschou Nielsen O, et al. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response and interaction with NSAID use or smoking in relation to lung cancer risk in a prospective study. Mutat Res. 2008;639:89-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional SNPs IL-1B T-31C, IL6 G-174C, IL8 T-251A, IL10 C-592T, COX2 C8473T, COX2 A-1195G and PPARgamma2 Pro(12)Ala were included...
  36. Siemes C, Visser L, Coebergh J, Hofman A, Uitterlinden A, Stricker B. Protective effect of NSAIDs on cancer and influence of COX-2 C(-765G) genotype. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2008;8:753-64 pubmed
    ..Individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer who carry a COX-2 C(-765) allele and are on NSAIDs have an increased survival in comparison to non-users with the wild type (G(-765)). ..
  37. Shanmugam N, Reddy M, Natarajan R. Distinct roles of heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein K and microRNA-16 in cyclooxygenase-2 RNA stability induced by S100b, a ligand of the receptor for advanced glycation end products. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36221-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These new results demonstrate that diabetic stimuli can efficiently stabilize inflammatory genes via opposing actions of key RNA-binding proteins and miRs. ..
  38. Thompson C, Plummer S, Merkulova A, Cheng I, Tucker T, Casey G, et al. No association between cyclooxygenase-2 and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A6 genetic polymorphisms and colon cancer risk. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:2240-4 pubmed
    To investigate the association of variations in the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A6 (UGT1A6) genes and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use with risk of colon cancer...
  39. Chiu W, Shen S, Chow J, Lin C, Shia L, Chen Y. Contribution of reactive oxygen species to migration/invasion of human glioblastoma cells U87 via ERK-dependent COX-2/PGE(2) activation. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;37:118-29 pubmed publisher
    ....
  40. Zhang J, Zhang Q, Fu Y, Wang T, Zhang J, Xu P, et al. Expression of p-Akt and COX-2 in gastric adenocarcinomas and adenovirus mediated Akt1 and COX-2 ShRNA suppresses SGC-7901 gastric adenocarcinoma and U251 glioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2009;8:467-78 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of malignant tumor cell growth and provide evidence for combined gene therapy for malignant tumors. ..
  41. Liou J, Deng W, Gilroy D, Shyue S, Wu K. Colocalization and interaction of cyclooxygenase-2 with caveolin-1 in human fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34975-82 pubmed
    ..Because caveolae are rich in signaling molecules, this COX-2 compartment may play an important role in diverse pathophysiological processes. ..
  42. Dohadwala M, Batra R, Luo J, Lin Y, Krysan K, Pold M, et al. Autocrine/paracrine prostaglandin E2 production by non-small cell lung cancer cells regulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 and CD44 in cyclooxygenase-2-dependent invasion. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50828-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, blocking PGE2 production or activity by genetic or pharmacological interventions may prove to be beneficial in chemoprevention or treatment of NSCLC. ..
  43. Qiu D, Ma X, Peng Y, Chen X. Significance of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2002;8:815-7 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of COX-2 in well-differentiated HCC suggests that COX-2 may play a role in the early stages of hepatocarcinogensis. ..
  44. Hoeft B, Becker N, Deeg E, Beckmann L, Nieters A. Joint effect between regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, variants in inflammatory genes and risk of lymphoma. Cancer Causes Control. 2008;19:163-73 pubmed
    ..We examined the association of regular NSAID use and polymorphisms in prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (COX2), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES), interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A), IL-1 beta (IL1B), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (..
  45. Banu S, Lee J, Speights V, Starzinski Powitz A, Arosh J. Cyclooxygenase-2 regulates survival, migration, and invasion of human endometriotic cells through multiple mechanisms. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1180-9 pubmed
    ..Our results support the emerging concept that COX-2/PGE(2) promotes the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis in humans. ..
  46. Futagami S, Hiratsuka T, Shindo T, Hamamoto T, Tatsuguchi A, Nobue U, et al. COX-2 and CCR2 induced by CD40 ligand and MCP-1 are linked to VEGF production in endothelial cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008;78:137-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, MCP-1 had a synergistic effect on COX-2 and CCR2 protein expression in CD40L-stimulated HUVECs and thereby stimulated VEGF production in these cells. ..
  47. Haddad A, Flint Ashtamker G, Minzel W, Sood R, Rimon G, Barki Harrington L. Prostaglandin EP1 receptor down-regulates expression of cyclooxygenase-2 by facilitating its proteasomal degradation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17214-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings propose a new role for the EP(1) receptor in resolving inflammation through down-regulation of COX-2. ..
  48. Monroy C, Cortes A, Lopez M, D Amelio A, Etzel C, Younes A, et al. Hodgkin disease risk: role of genetic polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions in inflammation pathway genes. Mol Carcinog. 2011;50:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that, in combination, allelic variants in the COX2, IL18, ILR4, and IL10 genes modify the risk for developing HD...
  49. Akkiz H, Bayram S, Bekar A, Akgöllü E, Ulger Y. Functional polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase-2 gene and risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;347:201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, because this is the first report concerning the COX-2 -1195A>G, -765G>C, and +8473T>C polymorphisms and the risk of HCC, independent studies are needed to validate our findings. ..
  50. Østergaard M, Ernst A, Labouriau R, Dagiliene E, Krarup H, Christensen M, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2, multidrug resistance 1, and breast cancer resistance protein gene polymorphisms and inflammatory bowel disease in the Danish population. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in these processes were associated with CD and UC...
  51. Ali I, Luke B, Dean M, Greenwald P. Allellic variants in regulatory regions of cyclooxygenase-2: association with advanced colorectal adenoma. Br J Cancer. 2005;93:953-9 pubmed
    b>Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) is upregulated in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas...
  52. Tabernero A, Reimund J, Chasserot S, Muller C, Andriantsitohaina R. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids in small mesenteric arteries from patients with Crohn's disease. Circulation. 2003;107:1407-10 pubmed
    ....
  53. Obermajer N, Muthuswamy R, Lesnock J, Edwards R, Kalinski P. Positive feedback between PGE2 and COX2 redirects the differentiation of human dendritic cells toward stable myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Blood. 2011;118:5498-505 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we report that the establishment of a positive feedback loop between prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), the key regulator of PGE(2) synthesis, represents the determining factor in redirecting the ..
  54. Landen C, Mathur S, Richardson M, Creasman W. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in cervical, endometrial, and ovarian malignancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:1174-6 pubmed
    ..001). In this cohort, COX-2 expression is significantly more common in endometrial adenocarcinoma and ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma, but not in cervical squamous carcinoma, compared with normal tissue. ..
  55. Fidler M, Argiris A, Patel J, Johnson D, Sandler A, Villaflor V, et al. The potential predictive value of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and increased risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with erlotinib and celecoxib. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:2088-94 pubmed publisher
    ..GIB observed in our trial supports excluding patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease or those requiring therapeutic anticoagulation from future EGFR and COX-2 inhibitor studies. ..
  56. Festa Vasconcellos J, Piranda D, Amaral L, Índio do Brasil V, Koifman S, Vianna Jorge R. Polymorphisms in cycloxygenase-2 gene and breast cancer prognosis: association between PTGS2 haplotypes and histopathological features. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;132:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2 is encoded by a polymorphic gene, called PTGS2, and its expression may be genetically influenced...
  57. Moussa M, Omran Z, Nosseir M, Lotfy A, Swellam T. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression on urothelial and inflammatory cells of cystoscopic biopsies and urine cytology as a possible predictive marker for bladder carcinoma. APMIS. 2009;117:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ....
  58. Bouzourene H, Yan P, Sandmeier D, Zouhair A, Matter M, Vuilleumier H, et al. The role of COX-2 in rectal cancer treated with preoperative radiotherapy. Virchows Arch. 2008;452:499-505 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that COX-2 expression is overexpressed in the majority of rectal cancers treated with radiotherapy and likely plays a role in local relapse. ..
  59. Orbe J, Beloqui O, Rodriguez J, Belzunce M, Roncal C, Paramo J. Protective effect of the G-765C COX-2 polymorphism on subclinical atherosclerosis and inflammatory markers in asymptomatic subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;368:138-43 pubmed
    ....
  60. Hermanova M, Karasek P, Tomasek J, Lenz J, Jarkovsky J, Dite P. Comparative analysis of clinicopathological correlations of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in resectable pancreatic cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:1879-84 pubmed
    ..The immunohistochemically assessed level of COX-2 expression does not seem to represent a valuable independent prognostic factor and is not superior to the conventional prognostic factors. ..
  61. Peters W, Lacko M, Te Morsche R, Voogd A, Oude Ophuis M, Manni J. COX-2 polymorphisms and the risk for head and neck cancer in white patients. Head Neck. 2009;31:938-43 pubmed publisher
    ....
  62. Itatsu K, Sasaki M, Yamaguchi J, Ohira S, Ishikawa A, Ikeda H, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 is involved in the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cholangiocarcinoma induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:829-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we propose a novel signaling pathway of MMP-9 up-regulation in CC cells such that TNF-alpha induces the activation of COX-2 and PGE2 via TNF-R1 followed by the up-regulation of MMP-9 via the PGE2 (EP2/4) receptor. ..