TGF-beta1

Summary

Gene Symbol: TGF-beta1
Description: transforming growth factor beta 1
Alias: CED, DPD1, LAP, TGFB, TGFbeta, transforming growth factor beta-1, TGF-beta-1, latency-associated peptide, prepro-transforming growth factor beta-1
Species: human
Products:     TGF-beta1

Top Publications

  1. Li Z, Habuchi T, Tsuchiya N, Mitsumori K, Wang L, Ohyama C, et al. Increased risk of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia associated with transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene polymorphism at codon10. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:237-40 pubmed
    ..However, it appeared to have no impact on the disease status or age of onset of PCa. ..
  2. Border W, Noble N. Transforming growth factor beta in tissue fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1286-92 pubmed
  3. Liu F, Pouponnot C, Massague J. Dual role of the Smad4/DPC4 tumor suppressor in TGFbeta-inducible transcriptional complexes. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3157-67 pubmed
    Upon ligand binding, the receptors of the TGFbeta family phosphorylate Smad proteins, which then move into the nucleus where they activate transcription...
  4. Thuault S, Tan E, Peinado H, Cano A, Heldin C, Moustakas A. HMGA2 and Smads co-regulate SNAIL1 expression during induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The data propose that HMGA2 acts in a gene-specific manner to orchestrate the transcriptional network necessary for the EMT program. ..
  5. Kaur G, Rapthap C, Kumar N, Kumar S, Neolia S, Mehra N. Frequency distribution of cytokine gene polymorphisms in the healthy North Indian population. Tissue Antigens. 2007;69:113-20 pubmed
    ..The data can be used for anthropological comparisons, as well as for association studies with different diseases and for use in transplant situations involving acute and chronic rejection. ..
  6. Chaudhry S, Cain S, Morgan A, Dallas S, Shuttleworth C, Kielty C. Fibrillin-1 regulates the bioavailability of TGFbeta1. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:355-67 pubmed
    ..Altered TGFbeta signaling is a major contributor to the pathology of Marfan syndrome (MFS) and related diseases...
  7. Michaeloudes C, Sukkar M, Khorasani N, Bhavsar P, Chung K. TGF-β regulates Nox4, MnSOD and catalase expression, and IL-6 release in airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;300:L295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of Nox4 using small interfering RNA partially prevented the inhibition of MnSOD but had no effect on catalase and IL-6 expression. These findings provide novel insights into redox regulation of ASM function by TGF-β. ..
  8. Yu N, Kozlowski J, Park I, Chen L, Zhang Q, Xu D, et al. Overexpression of transforming growth factor β1 in malignant prostate cells is partly caused by a runaway of TGF-β1 auto-induction mediated through a defective recruitment of protein phosphatase 2A by TGF-β type I receptor. Urology. 2010;76:1519.e8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that TGF-β1 overexpression in malignant cells is caused, at least in part, by a runaway of TGF-β1 auto-induction through ERK activation because of a defective recruitment of PP2A-Bα by TβRI. ..
  9. Peñuelas S, Anido J, Prieto Sánchez R, Folch G, Barba I, Cuartas I, et al. TGF-beta increases glioma-initiating cell self-renewal through the induction of LIF in human glioblastoma. Cancer Cell. 2009;15:315-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that TGF-beta and LIF have an essential role in the regulation of GICs in human glioblastoma. ..
  10. Bayat A, Bock O, Mrowietz U, Ollier W, Ferguson M. Genetic susceptibility to keloid disease and hypertrophic scarring: transforming growth factor beta1 common polymorphisms and plasma levels. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111:535-43; discussion 544-6 pubmed
    ..To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a case-control association study in keloid disease and hypertrophic scars using any single nucleotide polymorphisms. ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Li Z, Habuchi T, Tsuchiya N, Mitsumori K, Wang L, Ohyama C, et al. Increased risk of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia associated with transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene polymorphism at codon10. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:237-40 pubmed
    ..However, it appeared to have no impact on the disease status or age of onset of PCa. ..
  2. Border W, Noble N. Transforming growth factor beta in tissue fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1286-92 pubmed
  3. Liu F, Pouponnot C, Massague J. Dual role of the Smad4/DPC4 tumor suppressor in TGFbeta-inducible transcriptional complexes. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3157-67 pubmed
    Upon ligand binding, the receptors of the TGFbeta family phosphorylate Smad proteins, which then move into the nucleus where they activate transcription...
  4. Thuault S, Tan E, Peinado H, Cano A, Heldin C, Moustakas A. HMGA2 and Smads co-regulate SNAIL1 expression during induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The data propose that HMGA2 acts in a gene-specific manner to orchestrate the transcriptional network necessary for the EMT program. ..
  5. Kaur G, Rapthap C, Kumar N, Kumar S, Neolia S, Mehra N. Frequency distribution of cytokine gene polymorphisms in the healthy North Indian population. Tissue Antigens. 2007;69:113-20 pubmed
    ..The data can be used for anthropological comparisons, as well as for association studies with different diseases and for use in transplant situations involving acute and chronic rejection. ..
  6. Chaudhry S, Cain S, Morgan A, Dallas S, Shuttleworth C, Kielty C. Fibrillin-1 regulates the bioavailability of TGFbeta1. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:355-67 pubmed
    ..Altered TGFbeta signaling is a major contributor to the pathology of Marfan syndrome (MFS) and related diseases...
  7. Michaeloudes C, Sukkar M, Khorasani N, Bhavsar P, Chung K. TGF-β regulates Nox4, MnSOD and catalase expression, and IL-6 release in airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;300:L295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of Nox4 using small interfering RNA partially prevented the inhibition of MnSOD but had no effect on catalase and IL-6 expression. These findings provide novel insights into redox regulation of ASM function by TGF-β. ..
  8. Yu N, Kozlowski J, Park I, Chen L, Zhang Q, Xu D, et al. Overexpression of transforming growth factor β1 in malignant prostate cells is partly caused by a runaway of TGF-β1 auto-induction mediated through a defective recruitment of protein phosphatase 2A by TGF-β type I receptor. Urology. 2010;76:1519.e8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that TGF-β1 overexpression in malignant cells is caused, at least in part, by a runaway of TGF-β1 auto-induction through ERK activation because of a defective recruitment of PP2A-Bα by TβRI. ..
  9. Peñuelas S, Anido J, Prieto Sánchez R, Folch G, Barba I, Cuartas I, et al. TGF-beta increases glioma-initiating cell self-renewal through the induction of LIF in human glioblastoma. Cancer Cell. 2009;15:315-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that TGF-beta and LIF have an essential role in the regulation of GICs in human glioblastoma. ..
  10. Bayat A, Bock O, Mrowietz U, Ollier W, Ferguson M. Genetic susceptibility to keloid disease and hypertrophic scarring: transforming growth factor beta1 common polymorphisms and plasma levels. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111:535-43; discussion 544-6 pubmed
    ..To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a case-control association study in keloid disease and hypertrophic scars using any single nucleotide polymorphisms. ..
  11. Lei X, Yang J, Nichols R, Sun L. Abrogation of TGFbeta signaling induces apoptosis through the modulation of MAP kinase pathways in breast cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:1687-95 pubmed
    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) can modulate the activity of various MAP kinases. However, how this pathway may mediate TGFbeta-induced malignant phenotypes remains elusive...
  12. Dosanjh A. Transforming growth factor-beta expression induced by rhinovirus infection in respiratory epithelial cells. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2006;38:911-4 pubmed
    ..The production of TGF-beta may be indicative of a normal repair mechanism to counter inflammation, or in the setting of persistent asthma, could potentially lead to increased fibrosis and collagen deposition. ..
  13. Li J, Weinberg M, Zerbini L, Prince S. The oncogenic TBX3 is a downstream target and mediator of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies the TGF-β1 signaling pathway as a potentially important player in the regulation of TBX3 in development and cancer. ..
  14. Cipriano R, Kan C, Graham J, Danielpour D, Stampfer M, Jackson M. TGF-beta signaling engages an ATM-CHK2-p53-independent RAS-induced senescence and prevents malignant transformation in human mammary epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanisms that initiate and maintain OIS in epithelial cells may provide a foundation for future therapies aimed at reengaging this proliferative barrier as a cancer therapy. ..
  15. Minamiya Y, Miura M, Hinai Y, Saito H, Ito M, Ono T, et al. Transforming growth factor-β1 29T>C genetic polymorphism is associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Tumour Biol. 2010;31:437-41 pubmed publisher
    ..045) are factors associated with a significantly greater likelihood of developing lymph node metastasis. TGF-β1 29T>C genetic polymorphism is an independent factor associated with lymph node metastasis in adenocarcinoma of the lung. ..
  16. Nabokikh A, Ilhan A, Bilban M, Gartner W, Vila G, Niederle B, et al. Reduced TGF-beta1 expression and its target genes in human insulinomas. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007;115:674-82 pubmed
    ..This revealed an insulinoma-associated down-regulation of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and its target genes...
  17. Qi W, Chen X, Holian J, Mreich E, Twigg S, Gilbert R, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta1 differentially mediates fibronectin and inflammatory cytokine expression in kidney tubular cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F1070-7 pubmed
    ..Conversely, decreased expression of TGF-beta(1) results in increased TGF-beta(2), TGF-beta(3), AP-1, and pSmad2 that potentially mediates the observed increase in fibronectin. ..
  18. Gu X, Ji X, Shi L, Yi C, Zhao Y, Wang A, et al. Transforming growth factor beta1 gene variation Leu10Pro affects secretion and function in hepatic cells. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57:2901-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Pro10 up-regulated expression of CD105 and down-regulated expression of CD83. TGFβ1 gene Leu10Pro variation in signal peptide has significant effects on TGFβ1 secretion and functions in hepatic cells. ..
  19. Li A, Wang D, Feng X, Wang X. Latent TGFbeta1 overexpression in keratinocytes results in a severe psoriasis-like skin disorder. EMBO J. 2004;23:1770-81 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that certain pathological condition-induced TGFbeta1 overexpression in the skin may synergize with or induce molecules required for the development of Th1 inflammatory skin disorders. ..
  20. Seoane J. Escaping from the TGFbeta anti-proliferative control. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:2148-56 pubmed
    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) has a crucial role in tissue homeostasis and disruption of the TGFbeta pathway has been implicated in many human diseases including cancer...
  21. Masi L, Malentacchi C, Campanacci D, Franchi A. Transforming growth factor-beta isoform and receptor expression in chondrosarcoma of bone. Virchows Arch. 2002;440:491-7 pubmed
    ..004, log-rank test). Our data indicate that TGF-beta isoforms are produced by neoplastic cells of chondrosarcomas and could have a potential role as autocrine growth stimulators in these neoplasms. ..
  22. Guo W, Dong Z, Guo Y, Chen Z, Yang Z, Kuang G, et al. Polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-β1 associated with increased risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma in north China. Int J Immunogenet. 2011;38:215-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine that has been implicated in the oncogenesis and tumour progression...
  23. Kiskowski M, Jackson R, Banerjee J, Li X, Kang M, Iturregui J, et al. Role for stromal heterogeneity in prostate tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2011;71:3459-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The cancer stromal field effect supports a functional role for the unaltered fibroblasts as a cooperative mediator of cancer progression. ..
  24. Gomez Mateo J, Marin L, Lopez Alvarez M, Moya Quiles M, Miras M, Marin Moreno I, et al. TGF-beta1 gene polymorphism in liver graft recipients. Transpl Immunol. 2006;17:55-7 pubmed
    ..05). TGF-beta1 high secretor phenotype was also increased in the acute rejection group close to significance (p=0.06). In conclusion, these findings show a correlation between TGF-beta1 gene polymorphism and liver graft acceptance. ..
  25. Nam J, Terabe M, Kang M, Chae H, Voong N, Yang Y, et al. Transforming growth factor beta subverts the immune system into directly promoting tumor growth through interleukin-17. Cancer Res. 2008;68:3915-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to suppressing immune surveillance, tumor-induced TGF-beta may actively subvert the CD8+ arm of the immune system into directly promoting tumor growth by an IL-17-dependent mechanism. ..
  26. Levy L, Hill C. Alterations in components of the TGF-beta superfamily signaling pathways in human cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2006;17:41-58 pubmed
    ....
  27. Mu D, Cambier S, Fjellbirkeland L, Baron J, Munger J, Kawakatsu H, et al. The integrin alpha(v)beta8 mediates epithelial homeostasis through MT1-MMP-dependent activation of TGF-beta1. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:493-507 pubmed
    ..These data elucidate a novel mechanism of cellular homeostasis achieved through the coordination of the activities of members of three major gene families involved in cell-matrix interactions. ..
  28. Lu S, Reh D, Li A, Woods J, Corless C, Kulesz Martin M, et al. Overexpression of transforming growth factor beta1 in head and neck epithelia results in inflammation, angiogenesis, and epithelial hyperproliferation. Cancer Res. 2004;64:4405-10 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes correlated with enhanced Smad signaling in transgenic epithelia and stroma. Our study suggests that TGF-beta1 overexpression at early stages of HNSCC formation provides a tumor promoting microenvironment. ..
  29. Weigert C, Brodbeck K, Sawadogo M, Häring H, Schleicher E. Upstream stimulatory factor (USF) proteins induce human TGF-beta1 gene activation via the glucose-response element-1013/-1002 in mesangial cells: up-regulation of USF activity by the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:15908-15 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have provided evidence for a new molecular mechanism linking high glucose-enhanced HBP activity with increased nuclear USF protein levels and DNA binding activity and with up-regulated TGF-beta1 promoter activity. ..
  30. Lim C, Kim Y, Chae D, Ahn C, Han J, Kim S, et al. Association of C-509T and T869C polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with susceptibility to and progression of IgA nephropathy. Clin Nephrol. 2005;63:61-7 pubmed
    ..The transcriptional activity of the gene for TGF-beta1 and the plasma levels of TGF-beta1 protein are associated with C-509T polymorphism at the promoter region, and with T869C (Leu 10Pro) polymorphism at codon 10, of the TGF-beta1 gene...
  31. Kwon O, Song S, Ju K, Chung M, Park D, Kim S, et al. [Polymorphism in codons 10 and 25 of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene in Korean population and in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2003;42:212-9 pubmed
    ..007). The genetic polymorphism of TGF-beta1 at codon 10 might be associated with LC and morphology of HCC. The potential usefulness of TGF-beta1 genotyping needs further studies in large scale. ..
  32. Yu H, Konigshoff M, Jayachandran A, Handley D, Seeger W, Kaminski N, et al. Transgelin is a direct target of TGF-beta/Smad3-dependent epithelial cell migration in lung fibrosis. FASEB J. 2008;22:1778-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased ATII cell expression of tagln in experimental and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may contribute to TGF-beta-dependent ATII cell injury, repair, and migration in lung fibrosis. ..
  33. Koch W, Hoppmann P, Mueller J, Schomig A, Kastrati A. Association of transforming growth factor-beta1 gene polymorphisms with myocardial infarction in patients with angiographically proven coronary heart disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:1114-9 pubmed
    ..37) or haplotypes (P> or =0.35) was associated with myocardial infarction in women. Positive association findings in this study suggest that TGFB1 is a susceptibility locus for myocardial infarction. ..
  34. Kim Y, Lee H, Im J, Min B, Kim H, Jeong J, et al. Association of transforming growth factor-beta1 gene polymorphisms with a hepatocellular carcinoma risk in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Exp Mol Med. 2003;35:196-202 pubmed
    ....
  35. Chang H, Lee J, Hwang K, Kim M, Chang K, Park D, et al. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-induced human endometrial stromal cell decidualization through extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Smad activation in vitro: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma acts as a negative regulator of. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:1357-65 pubmed
    ..PPARgamma plays a negative role by directly acting on Smad and ERK phosphorylation in human endometrial cell decidualization that is induced by TGF-beta1 in vitro. ..
  36. Matsumura N, Huang Z, Mori S, Baba T, Fujii S, Konishi I, et al. Epigenetic suppression of the TGF-beta pathway revealed by transcriptome profiling in ovarian cancer. Genome Res. 2011;21:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that accumulation of age-related epigenetic modifications leads to suppression of TGF-beta signaling and contributes to ovarian carcinogenesis. ..
  37. Stoikos C, Harrison C, Salamonsen L, Dimitriadis E. A distinct cohort of the TGFbeta superfamily members expressed in human endometrium regulate decidualization. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1447-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Activin A, a transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily member, enhances HESC decidualization and localizes to decidual cells in human endometrium...
  38. Bathgate A, Pravica V, Perrey C, Hayes P, Hutchinson I. Polymorphisms in tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor beta1 genes and end-stage liver disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;12:1329-33 pubmed
    ..This allele has been associated with an increased production of TNFalpha in vitro and may indicate a predisposition to these inflammatory conditions. ..
  39. Kurpinski K, Lam H, Chu J, Wang A, Kim A, Tsay E, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta and notch signaling mediate stem cell differentiation into smooth muscle cells. Stem Cells. 2010;28:734-42 pubmed publisher
    ....
  40. Neil J, Tian M, Schiemann W. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and its E3 ligase activity promote transforming growth factor-{beta}-mediated nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation during breast cancer progression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively our findings have defined a novel role for xIAP in mediating oncogenic signaling by TGF-beta in breast cancer cells. ..
  41. Wan M, Tang Y, Tytler E, Lu C, Jin B, Vickers S, et al. Smad4 protein stability is regulated by ubiquitin ligase SCF beta-TrCP1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14484-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, SCF(beta-TrCP1) abrogates TGF-beta function in vivo by decreasing Smad4 stability. ..
  42. Zheng S, Wang J, Gray J, Soucier H, Horwitz D. Natural and induced CD4+CD25+ cells educate CD4+CD25- cells to develop suppressive activity: the role of IL-2, TGF-beta, and IL-10. J Immunol. 2004;172:5213-21 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the long-term effects of adoptively transferred natural-like CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells induced ex vivo are due to their ability to generate new cytokine-producing CD4(+) regulatory T cells in vivo. ..
  43. Asano Y, Ihn H, Yamane K, Kubo M, Tamaki K. Impaired Smad7-Smurf-mediated negative regulation of TGF-beta signaling in scleroderma fibroblasts. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:253-64 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of a disturbed negative regulation of TGF-beta signaling in fibrotic disorders. ..
  44. Grau A, Wen W, Ramroopsingh D, Gao Y, Zi J, Cai Q, et al. Circulating transforming growth factor-beta-1 and breast cancer prognosis: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;112:335-41 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether circulating transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta-1) is associated with overall and disease-free survival in a cohort of recently diagnosed ..
  45. Wen G, Hong M, Li B, Liao W, Cheng S, Hu B, et al. Transforming growth factor-β-induced protein (TGFBI) suppresses mesothelioma progression through the Akt/mTOR pathway. Int J Oncol. 2011;39:1001-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that TGFBI may repress mesothelioma tumorigenesis and progression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. ..
  46. Yu J, Pan L, Qin X, Chen H, Xu Y, Chen Y, et al. MTMR4 attenuates transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling by dephosphorylating R-Smads in endosomes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8454-62 pubmed publisher
    Homeostasis of Smad phosphorylation at its C-terminal SXS motif is essential for transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling...
  47. Ma X, Chen C, Xiong H, Li Y. Transforming growth factorβ1 L10P variant plays an active role on the breast cancer susceptibility in Caucasian: evidence from 10,392 cases and 11,697 controls. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;124:453-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Large well-designed epidemiological studies will be necessary to validate the risk identified in the current meta-analysis. ..
  48. Runyan C, Liu Z, Schnaper H. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Rab5 GTPase inversely regulate the Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein independently of transforming growth factor-β1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:35815-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that although TGF-β1 can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through reduction in SARA expression, SARA is also basally regulated by its interaction with PI3K. ..
  49. Chen C, Liu I, Fliesler S, Han X, Huang S, Huang J. Cholesterol suppresses cellular TGF-beta responsiveness: implications in atherogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3509-21 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that high cholesterol contributes to atherogenesis, at least in part, by suppressing TGF-beta responsiveness in vascular cells. ..
  50. Tian M, Schiemann W. The TGF-beta paradox in human cancer: an update. Future Oncol. 2009;5:259-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review recent findings that directly impact our understanding of the TGF-beta paradox and discuss their importance to targeting the oncogenic activities of TGF-beta in developing and progressing neoplasms. ..
  51. Mittal R, Manchanda P. Is low-frequency distribution of TGF-beta genotype associated with increased risk for end-stage renal disease?. DNA Cell Biol. 2007;26:172-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, high-producing genotype of TGF-beta may be beneficial and may play a potential role in the resolution of renal inflammation. ..
  52. Cordenonsi M, Montagner M, Adorno M, Zacchigna L, Martello G, Mamidi A, et al. Integration of TGF-beta and Ras/MAPK signaling through p53 phosphorylation. Science. 2007;315:840-3 pubmed
    ..This mechanism confines mesoderm specification in Xenopus embryos and promotes TGF-beta cytostasis in human cells. These data indicate a mechanism to allow extracellular cues to specify the TGF-beta gene-expression program. ..
  53. Panis C, Herrera A, Victorino V, Aranome A, Cecchini R. Screening of circulating TGF-β levels and its clinicopathological significance in human breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:737-42 pubmed
    ..0494). Patients with TGF-β1 levels lower than 20 pg/ml exhibited a tendency to have a reduced overall survival in a 40-month follow-up. Lower levels of circulating TGF-β1 are associated with a poor disease prognosis. ..
  54. Li X, Zhang Y, Wang Q, Fu S. Association between endogenous gene expression and growth regulation induced by TGF-beta1 in human gastric cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:61-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a novel functional role of p21 as an accelerant of TGF-beta1-mediated apoptosis in GC cells. ..
  55. Kaklamani V, Baddi L, Liu J, Rosman D, Phukan S, Bradley C, et al. Combined genetic assessment of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway variants may predict breast cancer risk. Cancer Res. 2005;65:3454-61 pubmed
    ..25-3.87). This is the first study assessing the TGF-beta signaling pathway through two common and functionally relevant TGFBR1 and TGFB1 variants. This approach may predict breast cancer risk in a large subset of the population. ..
  56. Cheifetz S, Bellon T, Calés C, Vera S, Bernabeu C, Massague J, et al. Endoglin is a component of the transforming growth factor-beta receptor system in human endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:19027-30 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta however is binding with high affinity to only a small fraction of the available endoglin molecules, suggesting that some rate-limiting event is required to sustain TGF-beta binding to endoglin. ..
  57. Peralta Zaragoza O, Berm dez Morales V, Guti rrez Xicotencatl L, Alcocer Gonz lez J, Recillas Targa F, Madrid Marina V. E6 and E7 oncoproteins from human papillomavirus type 16 induce activation of human transforming growth factor beta1 promoter throughout Sp1 recognition sequence. Viral Immunol. 2006;19:468-80 pubmed publisher
    ....
  58. Reis F, Ribeiro M, Maia A, Spritzer P. Regulation of human endometrial transforming growth factor beta1 and beta3 isoforms through menstrual cycle and medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment. Histol Histopathol. 2002;17:739-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). a cytokine produced by endometrial cells, has been shown to modulate endometrial cell proliferation in vitro...
  59. Li X, Yue Z, Zhang Y, Bai J, Meng X, Geng J, et al. Elevated serum level and gene polymorphisms of TGF-beta1 in gastric cancer. J Clin Lab Anal. 2008;22:164-71 pubmed publisher
    ....
  60. Lin M, Stewart D, Spitz M, Hildebrandt M, Lu C, Lin J, et al. Genetic variations in the transforming growth factor-beta pathway as predictors of survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:1050-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that genetic variations in the TGF-β pathway are potential predictors of overall survival in NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiation. ..
  61. Joshi N, Kale M, Hake S, Kannan S. Transforming growth factor β signaling pathway associated gene polymorphisms may explain lower breast cancer risk in western Indian women. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21866 pubmed publisher
    ....
  62. Hume G, Fowler E, Lincoln D, Eri R, Templeton D, Florin T, et al. Angiotensinogen and transforming growth factor beta1: novel genes in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. J Med Genet. 2006;43:e51 pubmed
    ..06). The association of the angiotensinogen-6 variant with Crohn's disease supports a potential role for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists in disease treatment. ..