vpu

Summary

Gene Symbol: vpu
Description: p16
Alias: p16, Vpu
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1

Top Publications

  1. doi HIV-1 antagonism of CD317 is species specific and involves Vpu-mediated proteasomal degradation of the restriction factor
    Christine Goffinet
    Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 5:285-97. 2009
  2. doi Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu
    Stuart J D Neil
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 451:425-30. 2008
  3. pmc The interferon-induced protein BST-2 restricts HIV-1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein
    Nanette Van Damme
    The San Diego Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:245-52. 2008
  4. pmc Tetherin inhibits HIV-1 release by directly tethering virions to cells
    David Perez-Caballero
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell 139:499-511. 2009
  5. pmc Tetherin-driven adaptation of Vpu and Nef function and the evolution of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 strains
    Daniel Sauter
    Institute of Molecular Virology, Universitatsklinikum, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 6:409-21. 2009
  6. pmc HIV-1 adaptation to NK-cell-mediated immune pressure
    Galit Alter
    Ragon Institute at MGH, MIT and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 476:96-100. 2011
  7. pmc Cell-cell spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 overcomes tetherin/BST-2-mediated restriction in T cells
    Clare Jolly
    MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Windeyer Building, London, United Kingdom
    J Virol 84:12185-99. 2010
  8. pmc Identification of amino acids in the human tetherin transmembrane domain responsible for HIV-1 Vpu interaction and susceptibility
    Tomoko Kobayashi
    Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawahara cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Virol 85:932-45. 2011
  9. pmc Antagonism of tetherin restriction of HIV-1 release by Vpu involves binding and sequestration of the restriction factor in a perinuclear compartment
    Mathieu Dubé
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal IRCM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000856. 2010
  10. pmc HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes innate restriction factor BST-2 via lipid-embedded helix-helix interactions
    Mark Skasko
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:58-67. 2012

Research Grants

  1. Overcoming blocks to HIV-1 replication in rhesus macaques.
    Theodora Hatziioannou; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. Single-Cycle SIV as a Novel AIDS Vaccine Approach
    David Evans; Fiscal Year: 2008
  3. Mechanisms of AID-dependent Adaptive and Innate Immunity
    Reuben S Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. MECHANISM OF NON-INTEGRASE-MEDIATED HIV-1 REPLICATION
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2001
  5. LEDGF-Integrase Structural Biology
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2005
  6. Single-Cycle SIV as a Non-Replicating Vaccine Strain
    David Evans; Fiscal Year: 2004
  7. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF HIV DNA INTEGRATION
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2009
  8. Molecular Mechanisms of HIV Disease Pathogenesis
    Kathleen L Collins; Fiscal Year: 2011
  9. SHIV ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALOPATHY
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2003
  10. Effect of Alcohol on SHIV Neuroinvasion
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2004

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications165 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi HIV-1 antagonism of CD317 is species specific and involves Vpu-mediated proteasomal degradation of the restriction factor
    Christine Goffinet
    Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 5:285-97. 2009
    ..blocks release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the cell surface and can be overcome by HIV-1 Vpu. Here, we show that mouse and rat CD317 potently inhibit HIV-1 release but are resistant to Vpu...
  2. doi Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu
    Stuart J D Neil
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 451:425-30. 2008
    ..of retrovirus particles, and other enveloped virus particles, and is antagonized by the HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu. This antiviral activity can be constitutively expressed or induced by interferon-alpha, and it consists of protein-..
  3. pmc The interferon-induced protein BST-2 restricts HIV-1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein
    Nanette Van Damme
    The San Diego Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:245-52. 2008
    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu counteracts a host factor that restricts virion release from infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced cellular protein BST-2/HM1.24/CD317 is such a factor...
  4. pmc Tetherin inhibits HIV-1 release by directly tethering virions to cells
    David Perez-Caballero
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell 139:499-511. 2009
    ....
  5. pmc Tetherin-driven adaptation of Vpu and Nef function and the evolution of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 strains
    Daniel Sauter
    Institute of Molecular Virology, Universitatsklinikum, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 6:409-21. 2009
    b>Vpu proteins of pandemic HIV-1 M strains degrade the viral receptor CD4 and antagonize human tetherin to promote viral release and replication...
  6. pmc HIV-1 adaptation to NK-cell-mediated immune pressure
    Galit Alter
    Ragon Institute at MGH, MIT and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 476:96-100. 2011
    ..NK cells might therefore have a previously underappreciated role in contributing to viral evolution...
  7. pmc Cell-cell spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 overcomes tetherin/BST-2-mediated restriction in T cells
    Clare Jolly
    MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Windeyer Building, London, United Kingdom
    J Virol 84:12185-99. 2010
    ..The HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes tetherin activity; however, whether tetherin also restricts cell-cell spread is unclear...
  8. pmc Identification of amino acids in the human tetherin transmembrane domain responsible for HIV-1 Vpu interaction and susceptibility
    Tomoko Kobayashi
    Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawahara cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Virol 85:932-45. 2011
    ..HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu) is a specific antagonist of human tetherin that might contribute to the high virulence of HIV-1...
  9. pmc Antagonism of tetherin restriction of HIV-1 release by Vpu involves binding and sequestration of the restriction factor in a perinuclear compartment
    Mathieu Dubé
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal IRCM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000856. 2010
    The Vpu accessory protein promotes HIV-1 release by counteracting Tetherin/BST-2, an interferon-regulated restriction factor, which retains virions at the cell-surface...
  10. pmc HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes innate restriction factor BST-2 via lipid-embedded helix-helix interactions
    Mark Skasko
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:58-67. 2012
    The Vpu protein of HIV-1 antagonizes BST-2 (tetherin), a broad spectrum effector of the innate immune response to viral infection, by an intermolecular interaction that maps genetically to the α-helical transmembrane domains (TMDs) of ..
  11. pmc HIV-1 Vpu blocks recycling and biosynthetic transport of the intrinsic immunity factor CD317/tetherin to overcome the virion release restriction
    Sarah Schmidt
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    MBio 2:e00036-11. 2011
    ..24/tetherin) imposes a barrier to HIV-1 release at the cell surface that can be overcome by the viral protein Vpu. Expression of Vpu results in a reduction of CD317 surface levels; however, the mechanism of this Vpu activity and ..
  12. pmc A cytoplasmic tail determinant in HIV-1 Vpu mediates targeting of tetherin for endosomal degradation and counteracts interferon-induced restriction
    Tonya Kueck
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002609. 2012
    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu counteracts tetherin (BST-2/CD317) by preventing its incorporation into virions, reducing its surface expression, and ultimately promoting its degradation...
  13. pmc Modulation of HIV-1-host interaction: role of the Vpu accessory protein
    Mathieu Dubé
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110, avenue des Pins Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7
    Retrovirology 7:114. 2010
    Viral protein U (Vpu) is a type 1 membrane-associated accessory protein that is unique to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and a subset of related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
  14. pmc The transmembrane domain of BST-2 determines its sensitivity to down-modulation by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu
    Liwei Rong
    McGill AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1E2
    J Virol 83:7536-46. 2009
    ..This antiviral activity is counteracted by such viral factors as Vpu of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  15. pmc Species-specific activity of SIV Nef and HIV-1 Vpu in overcoming restriction by tetherin/BST2
    Bin Jia
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000429. 2009
    ..HIV-1 overcomes this restriction by expressing an accessory protein, Vpu, which counteracts tetherin...
  16. pmc Compensatory changes in the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 confer resistance to tetherin/BST-2 in a pathogenic nef-deleted SIV
    Ruth Serra-Moreno
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA 01772 9102, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 9:46-57. 2011
    ..Whereas HIV-1 Vpu and HIV-2 Env counteract human tetherin, most SIVs use Nef to antagonize the tetherin proteins of their nonhuman ..
  17. pmc The ESCRT-0 component HRS is required for HIV-1 Vpu-mediated BST-2/tetherin down-regulation
    Katy Janvier
    Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001265. 2011
    ..This activity is related to the ability of the HIV-1 Vpu protein to down-regulate BST-2/tetherin...
  18. pmc Antagonism of CD317 restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle release and depletion of CD317 are separable activities of HIV-1 Vpu
    Christine Goffinet
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Virol 84:4089-94. 2010
    b>Vpu antagonizes human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle release inhibition by CD317/BST-2/Tetherin. Whether this Vpu activity strictly requires cellular depletion of the restriction factor is unclear...
  19. pmc HIV-1 Vpu and HIV-2 Env counteract BST-2/tetherin by sequestration in a perinuclear compartment
    Heiko Hauser
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Retrovirology 7:51. 2010
    In the absence of the Vpu protein, newly formed HIV-1 particles can remain attached to the surface of human cells due to the action of an interferon-inducible cellular restriction factor, BST-2/tetherin...
  20. pmc Serine-threonine ubiquitination mediates downregulation of BST-2/tetherin and relief of restricted virion release by HIV-1 Vpu
    Andrey A Tokarev
    Department of Medicine University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Virol 85:51-63. 2011
    The HIV-1 protein Vpu counteracts the antiviral activity of the innate restriction factor BST-2/tetherin by a mechanism that partly depends on its interaction with β-TrCP, a substrate adaptor for an SCF (Skp-Cullin 1-F box) E3 ubiquitin ..
  21. pmc Species-specific activity of HIV-1 Vpu and positive selection of tetherin transmembrane domain variants
    Matthew W McNatt
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000300. 2009
    ..An HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu, acts as an antagonist of tetherin...
  22. pmc Antiviral activity of the interferon-induced cellular protein BST-2/tetherin
    Andrey Tokarev
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, California 92093 0679, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:1197-210. 2009
    ..protein Vif led to the identification of cellular cytidine deaminases as host defense proteins, the study of HIV-1 Vpu recently led to the discovery of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein BST-2 (CD317; tetherin) as a novel ..
  23. pmc Inhibition of lipid antigen presentation in dendritic cells by HIV-1 Vpu interference with CD1d recycling from endosomal compartments
    Markus Moll
    Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Blood 116:1876-84. 2010
    ..the surface expression of CD1d in productively infected DCs and identify this as a novel activity of the HIV-1 vpu gene product...
  24. pmc β-TrCP is dispensable for Vpu's ability to overcome the CD317/Tetherin-imposed restriction to HIV-1 release
    Hanna Mari Tervo
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Retrovirology 8:9. 2011
    ..HIV-1 counteracts this restriction by expressing the accessory protein Vpu, yet the mechanism of this antagonism is incompletely understood...
  25. pmc Ubiquitination of BST-2 protein by HIV-1 Vpu protein does not require lysine, serine, or threonine residues within the BST-2 cytoplasmic domain
    Jean K Gustin
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:14837-50. 2012
    ..The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu binds to both BST-2 and βTrCP, a substrate-recognition subunit for the SCF (Skip1-Cullin1-F-box protein) E3 ..
  26. pmc Reacquisition of Nef-mediated tetherin antagonism in a single in vivo passage of HIV-1 through its original chimpanzee host
    Nicola Götz
    Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 12:373-80. 2012
    ..cross-species transmission, the chimpanzee precursor of pandemic HIV-1 switched from the accessory protein Nef to Vpu to effectively counteract human tetherin...
  27. pmc The RING-CH ligase K5 antagonizes restriction of KSHV and HIV-1 particle release by mediating ubiquitin-dependent endosomal degradation of tetherin
    Claire Pardieu
    MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000843. 2010
    ..Several mammalian viruses have evolved countermeasures that inactivate tetherin, with the prototype being the HIV-1 Vpu protein...
  28. doi Tetherin: holding on and letting go
    Daniel Sauter
    Institute of Molecular Virology, University Clinic Ulm, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Cell 141:392-8. 2010
    ..This Essay discusses the host restriction factor tetherin, which blocks the release of enveloped viruses like HIV-1, and the factors evolved by primate lentiviruses, such as Vpu and Nef, that antagonize tetherin's action.
  29. pmc Influenza virus is not restricted by tetherin whereas influenza VLP production is restricted by tetherin
    Rie Watanabe
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Dept of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201 2138, USA
    Virology 417:50-6. 2011
    ..Expression of the HIV protein Vpu overcame the tetherin block of influenza virus VLPs...
  30. pmc Separable determinants of subcellular localization and interaction account for the inability of group O HIV-1 Vpu to counteract tetherin
    Raphaël Vigan
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK
    J Virol 85:9737-48. 2011
    ..Unlike the Vpu proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M strains (M-Vpu), those from the nonpandemic ..
  31. pmc Role of the endocytic pathway in the counteraction of BST-2 by human lentiviral pathogens
    David Lau
    University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Virol 85:9834-46. 2011
    ..To counteract this host defense, HIV-1 uses the accessory protein Vpu, whereas HIV-2 uses its envelope glycoprotein (Env)...
  32. pmc Polarity changes in the transmembrane domain core of HIV-1 Vpu inhibits its anti-tetherin activity
    Mingyu Lv
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 6:e20890. 2011
    ..The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu can efficiently antagonize this restriction...
  33. pmc Accessory mutations maintain stability in drug-resistant HIV-1 protease
    Max W Chang
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Mol Biol 410:756-60. 2011
    ..These findings help us to explain the prevalence of mutations located far from the active site and underscore the importance of protein stability during the evolution of drug resistance in HIV...
  34. pmc The emerging role of HLA-C in HIV-1 infection
    Deanna A Kulpa
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Immunology 134:116-22. 2011
    ..This review highlights these results and explores the ways in which HLA-C surface expression could affect immune system function in the setting of HIV disease...
  35. pmc HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes BST-2 by interfering mainly with the trafficking of newly synthesized BST-2 to the cell surface
    Mathieu Dubé
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110 avenue des Pins Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Traffic 12:1714-29. 2011
    ..HIV-1 Vpu is thought to antagonize BST-2 by downregulating its surface levels via a mechanism that involves intracellular ..
  36. pmc Rab7A is required for efficient production of infectious HIV-1
    Marina Caillet
    INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002347. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that Rab7A contributes to the mechanism by which Vpu counteracts the restriction factor BST2/Tetherin and rescues HIV-1 release...
  37. pmc Transmembrane domain determinants of CD4 Downregulation by HIV-1 Vpu
    Javier G Magadán
    Cell Biology and Metabolism Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 86:757-72. 2012
    ..The downregulation of the CD4 coreceptor by the Vpu protein of HIV-1 is a prime example of a process that is dependent on specific properties of TMDs...
  38. pmc Vpu augments the initial burst phase of HIV-1 propagation and downregulates BST2 and CD4 in humanized mice
    Kei Sato
    Center for Emerging Virus Research, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
    J Virol 86:5000-13. 2012
    ..On the other hand, the HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu, has the ability to downregulate and counteract BST2...
  39. pmc BST-2 is rapidly down-regulated from the cell surface by the HIV-1 protein Vpu: evidence for a post-ER mechanism of Vpu-action
    Mark Skasko
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Virology 411:65-77. 2011
    Recent evidence suggests that transmembrane domain (TMD) interactions are essential for HIV-1 Vpu-mediated antagonism of the restriction factor BST-2/tetherin. We made Vpu TMD mutants to study the mechanism of BST-2 antagonism...
  40. pmc Degranulation of natural killer cells following interaction with HIV-1-infected cells is hindered by downmodulation of NTB-A by Vpu
    Ankur H Shah
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 8:397-409. 2010
    ..Normally, NK cell surface NTB-A binds to NTB-A on CD4+ T cells. However, HIV-1 Vpu downmodulates NTB-A on infected T cells...
  41. pmc Multilayered mechanism of CD4 downregulation by HIV-1 Vpu involving distinct ER retention and ERAD targeting steps
    Javier G Magadán
    Cell Biology and Metabolism Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000869. 2010
    A key function of the Vpu protein of HIV-1 is the targeting of newly-synthesized CD4 for proteasomal degradation...
  42. pmc A bidirectional SF2/ASF- and SRp40-dependent splicing enhancer regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rev, env, vpu, and nef gene expression
    Massimo Caputi
    Department of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    J Virol 78:6517-26. 2004
    ..characterized a novel bidirectional exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) that regulates the expression of the HIV-1 env, vpu, rev, and nef mRNAs. The ESE is localized downstream of the vpu-, env-, and nef-specific 3' splice site no. 5...
  43. pmc Antagonism to and intracellular sequestration of human tetherin by the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope glycoprotein
    Anna Le Tortorec
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:11966-78. 2009
    ..While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes the accessory gene vpu to overcome the action of tetherin, the lineage of primate lentiviruses that gave rise to HIV-2 does not...
  44. ncbi Vpu: a multifunctional protein that enhances the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    David R Hout
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
    Curr HIV Res 2:255-70. 2004
    The Vpu protein is the smallest of the proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  45. pmc Vpu directs the degradation of the human immunodeficiency virus restriction factor BST-2/Tetherin via a {beta}TrCP-dependent mechanism
    Janet L Douglas
    Oregon Health and Science University, Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Beaverton, 97006, USA
    J Virol 83:7931-47. 2009
    The primary roles attributed to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein are the degradation of the viral receptor CD4 and the enhancement of virion release...
  46. ncbi Dual role of host cell factors in HIV-1 replication: restriction and enhancement of the viral cycle
    Mayte Coiras
    AIDS Immunopathology Unit, National Centre of Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    AIDS Rev 12:103-12. 2010
    ..To level the match, HIV-1 encodes accessory proteins, such as Vif and Vpu, which play important roles in HIV-1 pathogenesis by counteracting cellular antiviral factors...
  47. pmc Identification of Residues in the BST-2 TM Domain Important for Antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu Using a Gain-of-Function Approach
    Takeshi Yoshida
    Viral Biochemistry Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, USA
    Front Microbiol 2:35. 2011
    The HIV-1 Vpu protein enhances the release of viral particles from the cell-surface in a cell-type specific manner. In the absence of Vpu, nascent virions remain tethered to the cell-surface in restricted cell-types...
  48. pmc Dynamics of preferential substrate recognition in HIV-1 protease: redefining the substrate envelope
    Aysegül Ozen
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    J Mol Biol 410:726-44. 2011
    ....
  49. pmc Some human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu proteins are able to antagonize macaque BST-2 in vitro and in vivo: Vpu-negative simian-human immunodeficiency viruses are attenuated in vivo
    Masashi Shingai
    NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    J Virol 85:9708-15. 2011
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu enhances the release of viral particles from infected cells by targeting BST-2/tetherin, a cellular protein inhibiting virus release...
  50. pmc Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 M group Vpu domains involved in antagonizing tetherin
    Sarah J Petit
    MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Cruciform Building, 90 Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Gen Virol 92:2937-48. 2011
    ..These lentiviruses encode accessory proteins, including Vpu, which has been shown to reduce CD4 levels on the cell surface, as well as increase virion release from the cell by ..
  51. pmc Fluorescent Reporter Signals, EGFP, and DsRed, Encoded in HIV-1 Facilitate the Detection of Productively Infected Cells and Cell-Associated Viral Replication Levels
    Kazutaka Terahara
    Department of Immunology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases Tokyo, Japan
    Front Microbiol 2:280. 2011
    ....
  52. pmc Anti-tetherin activities of HIV-1 Vpu and Ebola virus glycoprotein do not involve removal of tetherin from lipid rafts
    Lisa A Lopez
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Virol 86:5467-80. 2012
    ..Viral anti-tetherin factors, such as the HIV-1 Vpu protein, typically act by removing tetherin from the cell surface...
  53. pmc The structural biology of HIV-1: mechanistic and therapeutic insights
    Alan Engelman
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 10:279-90. 2012
    ..Here, we review recent advances in HIV-1 structural biology, focusing on the molecular mechanisms of viral replication and on the development of new therapeutics...
  54. ncbi β-TrCP dependency of HIV-1 Vpu-induced downregulation of CD4 and BST-2/tetherin
    Fabien P Blanchet
    Institute of Infection and Immunity, Department of Dermatology and Wound Healing, Cardiff University School of Medicine and University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, Wales, UK
    Curr HIV Res 10:307-14. 2012
    ..Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and some Simian counterparts express a small multifunctional protein, Vpu, which influences viral replication...
  55. pmc HIV-1 Vpu targets cell surface markers CD4 and BST-2 through distinct mechanisms
    Amy Andrew
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Viral Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 31:407-17. 2010
    b>Vpu is a small integral membrane protein encoded by HIV-1 and some SIV isolates. The protein is known to induce degradation of the viral receptor molecule CD4 and to enhance the release of newly formed virions from the cell surface...
  56. pmc Membrane raft association of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 correlates with enhanced virus release
    Autumn Ruiz
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
    Virology 408:89-102. 2010
    The Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to enhance virion release from certain cell types...
  57. ncbi High frequency of defective vpu compared with tat and rev genes in brain from patients with HIV type 1-associated dementia
    Elaine R Thomas
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:575-80. 2007
    ..Here we analyzed sequences of tat, rev, and vpu genes in 55 subgenomic clones previously shown to encode functional env genes from brain and lymphoid tissues of ..
  58. ncbi Towards a mechanism of function of the viral ion channel Vpu from HIV-1
    T Mehnert
    Biomembrane Structure Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    J Biomol Struct Dyn 24:589-96. 2007
    b>Vpu, an integral membrane protein encoded in HIV-1, is implicated in the release of new virus particles from infected cells, presumably mediated by ion channel activity of homo-oligomeric Vpu bundles...
  59. doi Structural and functional characterization of human SGT and its interaction with Vpu of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Sujit Dutta
    Collaborative Antiviral Research Group, Cancer and Developmental Cell Biology Division, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 61 Biopolis Drive, Singapore 138673
    Biochemistry 47:10123-31. 2008
    ..Previous studies show that full-length SGT can bind to both Vpu and Gag of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the overexpression of SGT in cells reduces the ..
  60. doi Vpu-mediated tetherin antagonism of ongoing HIV-1 infection in CD4(+) T-cells is not directly related to the extent of tetherin cell surface downmodulation
    Björn D Kuhl
    McGill University AIDS Center, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada
    Virology 417:353-61. 2011
    ..The antiviral activity of tetherin is antagonized by the HIV-1 protein Vpu, that downregulates tetherin from the cell surface...
  61. pmc Suppression of Tetherin-restricting activity upon human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particle release correlates with localization of Vpu in the trans-Golgi network
    Mathieu Dubé
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Immunology, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Virol 83:4574-90. 2009
    b>Vpu promotes the efficient release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by overcoming the activity of tetherin, a host cell restriction factor that retains assembled virions at the cell surface...
  62. pmc The formation of cysteine-linked dimers of BST-2/tetherin is important for inhibition of HIV-1 virus release but not for sensitivity to Vpu
    Amy J Andrew
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Viral Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    Retrovirology 6:80. 2009
    The Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein enhances virus release from infected cells and induces proteasomal degradation of CD4...
  63. pmc A flow cytometry-based FRET assay to identify and analyse protein-protein interactions in living cells
    Carina Banning
    Heinrich Pette Institute for Experimental Virology and Immunology, Hamburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e9344. 2010
    ..these limitations we developed a flow cytometry-based FRET assay and analysed interactions of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) Nef and Vpu proteins with cellular factors, as well as HIV Rev multimer-formation.
  64. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein induces rapid degradation of CD4
    R L Willey
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 66:7193-200. 1992
    ..We have recently demonstrated that the presence of the HIV-1-encoded integral membrane protein Vpu can reduce the formation of Env-CD4 complexes, resulting in increased gp160 processing and decreased CD4 stability...
  65. ncbi The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein: a potential regulator of proteolysis and protein transport in the mammalian secretory pathway
    M J Vincent
    Department of Molecular Biology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA
    Virology 213:639-49. 1995
    HIV-1 Vpu is a small transmembrane phosphoprotein of 16 kDa which performs critical roles in CD4 proteolysis and virus release...
  66. pmc Vpu-induced degradation of CD4: requirement for specific amino acid residues in the cytoplasmic domain of CD4
    M E Lenburg
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York, New York
    J Virol 67:7238-45. 1993
    Two functions have been attributed to the product of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpu open reading frame: it increases virion release from infected cells and induces rapid degradation of CD4 shortly after its synthesis...
  67. pmc Sequences present in the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 are necessary and sufficient to confer sensitivity to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein
    R L Willey
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 68:1207-12. 1994
    ..We have recently demonstrated that Vpu, a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-encoded integral membrane phosphoprotein, induces rapid degradation of CD4 ..
  68. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein induces degradation of chimeric envelope glycoproteins bearing the cytoplasmic and anchor domains of CD4: role of the cytoplasmic domain in Vpu-induced degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum
    M J Vincent
    Department of Molecular Biology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195
    J Virol 67:5538-49. 1993
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein is a transmembrane phosphoprotein which induces rapid degradation of CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
  69. ncbi Functional analysis of the phosphorylation sites on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein
    J Friborg
    Departement de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 8:10-22. 1995
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-encoded vpu product is a small class 1 integral membrane protein that is phosphorylated by the ubiquitous casein kinase II (CKII) in HIV-1-infected cells...
  70. ncbi Phosphorylation of both phosphoacceptor sites in the HIV-1 Vpu cytoplasmic domain is essential for Vpu-mediated ER degradation of CD4
    M Paul
    Department of Molecular Biology NC20, Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA
    Virology 232:207-16. 1997
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu is phosphorylated at two serine residues (Ser52 and Ser56) present within the acidic dodecapeptide region of the 54-aa cytoplasmic domain...
  71. pmc Signal peptide fragments of preprolactin and HIV-1 p-gp160 interact with calmodulin
    B Martoglio
    Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg ZMBH, Postfach 106249, 69052 Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 16:6636-45. 1997
    ..The functional consequences of such interactions remain to be established. However, our data suggest that signal sequences may be functionally more versatile than anticipated up to now...
  72. ncbi A novel human WD protein, h-beta TrCp, that interacts with HIV-1 Vpu connects CD4 to the ER degradation pathway through an F-box motif
    F Margottin
    CJF 97 03 INSERM, Institut Cochin de Genetique Moleculaire, Universite Paris V, Faculté de Médecine Cochin, France
    Mol Cell 1:565-74. 1998
    HIV-1 Vpu interacts with CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum and triggers CD4 degradation, presumably by proteasomes...
  73. ncbi Cell-surface expression of CD4 reduces HIV-1 infectivity by blocking Env incorporation in a Nef- and Vpu-inhibitable manner
    J Lama
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology Molecular Immunology Division, 10355 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    Curr Biol 9:622-31. 1999
    ..decreases the cell-surface expression of its cellular receptor, CD4, through the combined actions of Nef, Env and Vpu. Such functional convergence strongly suggests that CD4 downregulation is critical for optimal viral replication, ..
  74. ncbi Cell surface CD4 inhibits HIV-1 particle release by interfering with Vpu activity
    S Bour
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:33800-6. 1999
    ..This remarkably efficient receptor interference requires the activity of three separate viral proteins: Env, Vpu, and Nef...
  75. ncbi Association of Vpu-binding protein with microtubules and Vpu-dependent redistribution of HIV-1 Gag protein
    M A Handley
    McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Virology 291:198-207. 2001
    The efficient exit of HIV-1 particles from cells requires the action of the viral encoded protein Vpu. Vpu-binding protein (Ubp) is a cellular protein that interacts with both Vpu and the major structural component of the viral capsid (..
  76. ncbi Vpu exerts a positive effect on HIV-1 infectivity by down-modulating CD4 receptor molecules at the surface of HIV-1-producing cells
    Karine Levesque
    Laboratoire de Rétrovirologie Humaine, Departement de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Universite de Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada
    J Biol Chem 278:28346-53. 2003
    Human immunodeficiencey virus, type 1 (HIV-1) encodes three proteins, Nef, Vpu, and gp160, that down-modulate surface expression of the CD4 receptor during viral infection...
  77. pmc Directed expression of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu in Drosophila fat-body cells inhibits Toll-dependent immune responses
    François Leulier
    Centre de Génétique Moléculaire Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Batiment 26, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    EMBO Rep 4:976-81. 2003
    ..One of them, viral protein U (Vpu), has been shown to interfere with the cellular degradation machinery through interaction with SCF(beta-TrCP) ..
  78. ncbi HIV-1 Vpu: putting a channel to the TASK
    Klaus Strebel
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, MSC 0460, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Cell 14:150-2. 2004
    b>Vpu is an HIV-encoded protein that enhances virus release. Previously, this activity was correlated with an intrinsic ion channel activity of Vpu. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Hsu at all...
  79. ncbi Vpu-mediated degradation of CD4 reconstituted in yeast reveals mechanistic differences to cellular ER-associated protein degradation
    Birgit Meusser
    Max Delbruck Centrum fur Molekulare Medizin, Robert Rossle Strasse 10, 13092 Berlin, Germany
    Mol Cell 14:247-58. 2004
    ..crucial step of viral infection occurs at the endoplasmic reticulum and is triggered by the HIV encoded protein Vpu. Here we show that this process can be recapitulated in baker's yeast...
  80. ncbi Mutual functional destruction of HIV-1 Vpu and host TASK-1 channel
    Kate Hsu
    Institute of Molecular Cardiobiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Mol Cell 14:259-67. 2004
    Sequence analysis predicted significant structural homology between the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu and the N-terminal region of TASK-1, a mammalian background K(+) channel...
  81. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein interacts with CD74 and modulates major histocompatibility complex class II presentation
    Amjad Hussain
    Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
    J Virol 82:893-902. 2008
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu accessory protein is a transmembrane protein that down regulates CD4 expression and promotes the release of new virions...
  82. pmc An interferon-alpha-induced tethering mechanism inhibits HIV-1 and Ebola virus particle release but is counteracted by the HIV-1 Vpu protein
    Stuart J D Neil
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and the Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 2:193-203. 2007
    ..of viral particles on the surface of fibroblasts, T cells, or primary lymphocytes infected with HIV-1 lacking the Vpu protein...
  83. doi Crystal structures of highly constrained substrate and hydrolysis products bound to HIV-1 protease. Implications for the catalytic mechanism
    Joel D A Tyndall
    National School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, P O Box 913, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
    Biochemistry 47:3736-44. 2008
    ....
  84. ncbi Human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-encoded Vpu protein is phosphorylated by casein kinase II
    U Schubert
    Institut fur Medizinische Immunologie, Medizinische Fakultät Charité, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany
    Eur J Biochem 204:875-83. 1992
    b>Vpu as a human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-encoded 81-amino-acid integral-membrane protein was expressed in Escherichia coli using the inducible ptrc promoter of an ATG fusion vector. Recombinant Vpu is associated with membranes of E...
  85. ncbi Vpu-mediated proteolysis of gp160/CD4 chimeric envelope glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum: requirement of both the anchor and cytoplasmic domains of CD4
    N U Raja
    Department of Molecular Biology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195
    Virology 204:357-66. 1994
    The Vpu protein of HIV-1 induces degradation of CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum...
  86. ncbi The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encoded Vpu protein is phosphorylated by casein kinase-2 (CK-2) at positions Ser52 and Ser56 within a predicted alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix-motif
    U Schubert
    Institut fur Medizinische Immunologie, Medizinische Fakultät Charité, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Germany
    J Mol Biol 236:16-25. 1994
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encoded Vpu is a small integral membrane phosphoprotein that functions in the enhancement of viral particle release and has more recently been shown to cause degradation of CD4 at the ..
  87. pmc Differential activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1-encoded Vpu protein are regulated by phosphorylation and occur in different cellular compartments
    U Schubert
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 68:2260-71. 1994
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific Vpu is an 81-amino-acid amphipathic integral membrane protein with at least two different biological functions: (i) enhancement of virus particle release from the plasma membrane ..
  88. pmc The two biological activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein involve two separable structural domains
    U Schubert
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    J Virol 70:809-19. 1996
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein is an integral membrane phosphoprotein that induces CD4 degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum and enhances virus release from the cell surface...
  89. pmc CD4 down-modulation during infection of human T cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 involves independent activities of vpu, env, and nef
    B K Chen
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
    J Virol 70:6044-53. 1996
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genes vpu, env, and nef have all been implicated in modulating the levels of cell surface CD4 on infected cells...
  90. ncbi Interaction between the cytoplasmic domains of HIV-1 Vpu and CD4: role of Vpu residues involved in CD4 interaction and in vitro CD4 degradation
    F Margottin
    Unité 332, INSERM, ICGM Institut Cochin de Génétique moléculaire, Universite Paris V, France
    Virology 223:381-6. 1996
    The Vpu and CD4 cytoplasmic domains were found, by using a two-hybrid assay in yeast, to interact in the absence of their membrane anchor domains...
  91. pmc CD4 glycoprotein degradation induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein requires the function of proteasomes and the ubiquitin-conjugating pathway
    U Schubert
    Laboratories of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0440, USA
    J Virol 72:2280-8. 1998
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpu gene encodes a type I anchored integral membrane phosphoprotein with two independent functions...
  92. ncbi The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein inhibits NF-kappa B activation by interfering with beta TrCP-mediated degradation of Ikappa B
    S Bour
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:15920-8. 2001
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein binds to the CD4 receptor and induces its degradation by cytosolic proteasomes...
  93. ncbi The presence of the casein kinase II phosphorylation sites of Vpu enhances the CD4(+) T cell loss caused by the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(KU-lbMC33) in pig-tailed macaques
    Dinesh K Singh
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160, USA
    Virology 313:435-51. 2003
    ..virus (SHIV)/ macaque model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has become a useful tool to assess the role of Vpu in lentivirus pathogenesis...
  94. pmc Viral protein U counteracts a human host cell restriction that inhibits HIV-1 particle production
    Vasundhara Varthakavi
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2581, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15154-9. 2003
    ..Viral protein U (Vpu) is an HIV-1 accessory protein that enhances particle assembly and release in most human cells, but not in simian ..
  95. ncbi Identification of a region within the cytoplasmic domain of the subtype B Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that is responsible for retention in the golgi complex and its absence in the Vpu protein from a subtype C HIV-1
    Erik Pacyniak
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:379-94. 2005
    The structure of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is composed of a short Nterminal domain (NTD), a transmembrane domain (TM), and a cytoplasmic domain (CD)...
  96. ncbi NMR studies for identifying phosphopeptide ligands of the HIV-1 protein Vpu binding to the F-box protein beta-TrCP
    Nathalie Evrard-Todeschi
    Universite Rene Descartes Paris V, Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques UMR 8601 CNRS, 45 rue des Saint Peres, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France
    Peptides 27:194-210. 2006
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu enhances viral particle release and, its interaction with the ubiquitin ligase SCF-beta-TrCP triggers the HIV-1 receptor CD4 degradation by the proteasome...
  97. pmc Vpu and Tsg101 regulate intracellular targeting of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core protein precursor Pr55gag
    Kirsi Harila
    Department of Virology, Haartman Institute, P O Box 21, FIN 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    J Virol 80:3765-72. 2006
    ..indicated that Pr55gag was inserted into the plasma membrane and, when coexpressed with the viral accessory protein Vpu, Pr55gag remained at the plasma membrane and virions assembled at this site...
  98. pmc Contribution of Vpu, Env, and Nef to CD4 down-modulation and resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells to superinfection
    Steffen Wildum
    Department of Virology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    J Virol 80:8047-59. 2006
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) utilizes Vpu, Env, and Nef to down-modulate its primary CD4 receptor from the cell surface, and this function seems to be critical for the pathogenesis of AIDS...
  99. pmc Silencing of both beta-TrCP1 and HOS (beta-TrCP2) is required to suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu-mediated CD4 down-modulation
    Christophe Butticaz
    Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Virol 81:1502-5. 2007
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein interacts with CD4 within the endoplasmic reticula of infected cells and targets CD4 for degradation through interaction with beta-TrCP1...
  100. ncbi Mechanisms of CD4 downregulation by the Nef and Vpu proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses
    O Wolf Lindwasser
    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Mol Med 7:171-84. 2007
    ..primate immunodeficiency viruses have evolved at least two distinct mechanisms, mediated by the Nef and Vpu viral proteins, to "downregulate" CD4 in the host cells...
  101. ncbi Involvement of the betaTrCP in the ubiquitination and stability of the HIV-1 Vpu protein
    Nadia Belaïdouni
    Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 357:688-93. 2007
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein binds to the CD4 receptor and targets it to the proteasome for degradation...

Research Grants13

  1. Overcoming blocks to HIV-1 replication in rhesus macaques.
    Theodora Hatziioannou; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..If successful, this proposal will lead to improved animal models for HIV-1 infection and will considerably facilitate the development and testing of drug and vaccine interventions. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  2. Single-Cycle SIV as a Novel AIDS Vaccine Approach
    David Evans; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Associations between immune responses elicited by scSIV and the outcome of challenge will be analyzed for each specific aim to reveal potential mechanisms of protection. ..
  3. Mechanisms of AID-dependent Adaptive and Innate Immunity
    Reuben S Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. MECHANISM OF NON-INTEGRASE-MEDIATED HIV-1 REPLICATION
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Further aims are to develop gene therapy vectors based on non-integrating retroviruses. ..
  5. LEDGF-Integrase Structural Biology
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. Single-Cycle SIV as a Non-Replicating Vaccine Strain
    David Evans; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Macaques immunized with single-cycle viruses will be challenged with wild type SIV by mucosal routes to assess protection. ..
  7. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF HIV DNA INTEGRATION
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. Molecular Mechanisms of HIV Disease Pathogenesis
    Kathleen L Collins; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This proposal is relevant to the mission of NIH in that it seeks to understand basic mechanisms of how HIV establishes a chronic infection. This work has the potential to have a significant impact on public health. ..
  9. SHIV ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALOPATHY
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..to use a pathogenic, molecular clone of simian- human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV/KU-2MC4) containing the tat,rev, vpu and env from HIV-1 in a genetic background of SIV/mac239 as a model to study aspects of HIV neuropathogenesis which ..
  10. Effect of Alcohol on SHIV Neuroinvasion
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results of these studies should provide direct evidence on the effect of ethanol on primate lentivirus neuroinvasion and neuropathogenesis. ..
  11. Role of Targeted Mutations in ViF on SHIV Pathogenesis
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Pathogenic molecular clones of simian human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) containing the tat rev, vpu and env genes of HTV-1 in a genetic background of SIVmac239 have been derived that replicate to high levels, cause ..
  12. A New DNA Vaccine Against HIV Disease in Macaques
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Vaccine boosts will continue after drug therapy had been withdrawn. These studies will be applicable to HIV infected persons under HAART. ..