Cd28

Summary

Gene Symbol: Cd28
Description: CD28 antigen
Alias: T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28
Species: mouse
Products:     Cd28

Top Publications

  1. Gross J, Callas E, Allison J. Identification and distribution of the costimulatory receptor CD28 in the mouse. J Immunol. 1992;149:380-8 pubmed
    ..On human T cells, it has been shown that antibodies to the Ag CD28 can provide a potent amplification signal for cytokine production and proliferation...
  2. Wu Y, Zhou Q, Zheng P, Liu Y. CD28-independent induction of T helper cells and immunoglobulin class switches requires costimulation by the heat-stable antigen. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1151-6 pubmed
    It is well established that B7-CD28/CTLA4 interactions play an important role in the induction of T helper cells for T-dependent antibody responses...
  3. Burr J, Kimzey S, Randolph D, Green J. CD28 and CTLA4 coordinately regulate airway inflammatory cell recruitment and T-helper cell differentiation after inhaled allergen. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;24:563-8 pubmed
    ..We examined how the balance of signals derived through the CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA) 4 receptors modulate the outcome of inhaled antigen exposure in a murine ..
  4. Howland K, Ausubel L, London C, Abbas A. The roles of CD28 and CD40 ligand in T cell activation and tolerance. J Immunol. 2000;164:4465-70 pubmed
    Costimulation of T cell activation involves both the B7:CD28 as well as the CD40 ligand (CD40L):CD40 pathway...
  5. Shedlock D, Whitmire J, Tan J, MacDonald A, Ahmed R, Shen H. Role of CD4 T cell help and costimulation in CD8 T cell responses during Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2003;170:2053-63 pubmed
    ..The CD8 T cell response to L. monocytogenes was normal in CD40L(-/-) mice but defective in CD28(-/-) and CD137L(-/-) mice...
  6. Moran A, Holzapfel K, Xing Y, Cunningham N, Maltzman J, Punt J, et al. T cell receptor signal strength in Treg and iNKT cell development demonstrated by a novel fluorescent reporter mouse. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..However, although T(reg) cells continued to perceive strong TCR signals in the periphery, iNKT cells did not. Finally, we show that T(reg) cell progenitors compete for recognition of rare stimulatory TCR self-ligands. ..
  7. Vang K, Yang J, Pagán A, Li L, Wang J, Green J, et al. Cutting edge: CD28 and c-Rel-dependent pathways initiate regulatory T cell development. J Immunol. 2010;184:4074-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The costimulatory molecule CD28 is required for efficient Treg development...
  8. Gause W, Chen S, Greenwald R, Halvorson M, Lu P, Zhou X, et al. CD28 dependence of T cell differentiation to IL-4 production varies with the particular type 2 immune response. J Immunol. 1997;158:4082-7 pubmed
    ..The T cell surface molecule, CD28, is widely considered to be the principal costimulatory molecule involved in T cell differentiation to effector ..
  9. Dautigny N, Le Campion A, Lucas B. Timing and casting for actors of thymic negative selection. J Immunol. 1999;162:1294-302 pubmed
    ..We confirm a role for CD40/CD40L interaction, and the absence of involvement of CD28 costimulation, in thymic deletion in vivo...
  10. Beyersdorf N, Ding X, Blank G, Dennehy K, Kerkau T, Hunig T. Protection from graft-versus-host disease with a novel B7 binding site-specific mouse anti-mouse CD28 monoclonal antibody. Blood. 2008;112:4328-36 pubmed publisher
    We studied the role of CD28 in T-cell biology and T cell-mediated pathology using a novel mouse anti-mouse CD28 antibody, E18, which recognizes an epitope close to the B7 binding site...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Gross J, Callas E, Allison J. Identification and distribution of the costimulatory receptor CD28 in the mouse. J Immunol. 1992;149:380-8 pubmed
    ..On human T cells, it has been shown that antibodies to the Ag CD28 can provide a potent amplification signal for cytokine production and proliferation...
  2. Wu Y, Zhou Q, Zheng P, Liu Y. CD28-independent induction of T helper cells and immunoglobulin class switches requires costimulation by the heat-stable antigen. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1151-6 pubmed
    It is well established that B7-CD28/CTLA4 interactions play an important role in the induction of T helper cells for T-dependent antibody responses...
  3. Burr J, Kimzey S, Randolph D, Green J. CD28 and CTLA4 coordinately regulate airway inflammatory cell recruitment and T-helper cell differentiation after inhaled allergen. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;24:563-8 pubmed
    ..We examined how the balance of signals derived through the CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA) 4 receptors modulate the outcome of inhaled antigen exposure in a murine ..
  4. Howland K, Ausubel L, London C, Abbas A. The roles of CD28 and CD40 ligand in T cell activation and tolerance. J Immunol. 2000;164:4465-70 pubmed
    Costimulation of T cell activation involves both the B7:CD28 as well as the CD40 ligand (CD40L):CD40 pathway...
  5. Shedlock D, Whitmire J, Tan J, MacDonald A, Ahmed R, Shen H. Role of CD4 T cell help and costimulation in CD8 T cell responses during Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2003;170:2053-63 pubmed
    ..The CD8 T cell response to L. monocytogenes was normal in CD40L(-/-) mice but defective in CD28(-/-) and CD137L(-/-) mice...
  6. Moran A, Holzapfel K, Xing Y, Cunningham N, Maltzman J, Punt J, et al. T cell receptor signal strength in Treg and iNKT cell development demonstrated by a novel fluorescent reporter mouse. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..However, although T(reg) cells continued to perceive strong TCR signals in the periphery, iNKT cells did not. Finally, we show that T(reg) cell progenitors compete for recognition of rare stimulatory TCR self-ligands. ..
  7. Vang K, Yang J, Pagán A, Li L, Wang J, Green J, et al. Cutting edge: CD28 and c-Rel-dependent pathways initiate regulatory T cell development. J Immunol. 2010;184:4074-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The costimulatory molecule CD28 is required for efficient Treg development...
  8. Gause W, Chen S, Greenwald R, Halvorson M, Lu P, Zhou X, et al. CD28 dependence of T cell differentiation to IL-4 production varies with the particular type 2 immune response. J Immunol. 1997;158:4082-7 pubmed
    ..The T cell surface molecule, CD28, is widely considered to be the principal costimulatory molecule involved in T cell differentiation to effector ..
  9. Dautigny N, Le Campion A, Lucas B. Timing and casting for actors of thymic negative selection. J Immunol. 1999;162:1294-302 pubmed
    ..We confirm a role for CD40/CD40L interaction, and the absence of involvement of CD28 costimulation, in thymic deletion in vivo...
  10. Beyersdorf N, Ding X, Blank G, Dennehy K, Kerkau T, Hunig T. Protection from graft-versus-host disease with a novel B7 binding site-specific mouse anti-mouse CD28 monoclonal antibody. Blood. 2008;112:4328-36 pubmed publisher
    We studied the role of CD28 in T-cell biology and T cell-mediated pathology using a novel mouse anti-mouse CD28 antibody, E18, which recognizes an epitope close to the B7 binding site...
  11. Zheng X, Zhang H, Yin L, Wang C, Liu Y, Zheng P. Modulation of NKT cell development by B7-CD28 interaction: an expanding horizon for costimulation. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2703 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that in mice with targeted mutations of B7-1/2 and CD28, the TCRbeta(+)alpha-Galcer/CD1d(+) (iValpha14 NKT) subset is significantly reduced in the thymus, spleen and liver...
  12. Fuse S, Zhang W, Usherwood E. Control of memory CD8+ T cell differentiation by CD80/CD86-CD28 costimulation and restoration by IL-2 during the recall response. J Immunol. 2008;180:1148-57 pubmed
    Memory CD8+ T cell responses have been considered to be independent of CD80/CD86-CD28 costimulation. However, recall responses are often severely blunted in CD28-/- mice...
  13. Ferguson S, Han S, Kelsoe G, Thompson C. CD28 is required for germinal center formation. J Immunol. 1996;156:4576-81 pubmed
    Previous studies have demonstrated that the T cell costimulatory molecule, CD28, is important in the development of humoral immunity...
  14. Noel P, Boise L, Green J, Thompson C. CD28 costimulation prevents cell death during primary T cell activation. J Immunol. 1996;157:636-42 pubmed
    b>CD28 has been demonstrated to play an important role in augmenting T cell proliferation and effector function. Costimulation through CD28 has also been reported to enhance human T cell survival...
  15. Lenschow D, Herold K, Rhee L, Patel B, Koons A, Qin H, et al. CD28/B7 regulation of Th1 and Th2 subsets in the development of autoimmune diabetes. Immunity. 1996;5:285-93 pubmed
    b>CD28 ligation delivers a costimulatory signal important in T cell activation...
  16. Kondo S, Kooshesh F, Wang B, Fujisawa H, Sauder D. Contribution of the CD28 molecule to allergic and irritant-induced skin reactions in CD28 -/- mice. J Immunol. 1996;157:4822-9 pubmed
    The CD28 molecule is thought to be essential for the costimulatory signals and is required for mitogenic activation of T cells...
  17. Mittrucker H, Kursar M, Kohler A, Hurwitz R, Kaufmann S. Role of CD28 for the generation and expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes during infection with Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol. 2001;167:5620-7 pubmed
    ..We used CD28-deficient mice to characterize the function of CD28 during Listeria infection, with a main emphasis on Listeria-..
  18. Walunas T, Lenschow D, Bakker C, Linsley P, Freeman G, Green J, et al. CTLA-4 can function as a negative regulator of T cell activation. Immunity. 1994;1:405-13 pubmed
    b>CD28 and CTLA-4 are related glycoproteins found on T cells. Ligation of CD28 following antigen receptor engagement provides a costimulatory signal required for T cell activation...
  19. Bertram E, Dawicki W, Sedgmen B, Bramson J, Lynch D, Watts T. A switch in costimulation from CD28 to 4-1BB during primary versus secondary CD8 T cell response to influenza in vivo. J Immunol. 2004;172:981-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, CD28(-/-) mice are defective in initial CD8 T cell expansion...
  20. Reiter R, Pfeffer K. Impaired germinal centre formation and humoral immune response in the absence of CD28 and interleukin-4. Immunology. 2002;106:222-8 pubmed
    ..dependent one via the T cell receptor, the second one is a costimulatory signal which can be delivered by the CD28 molecule after binding to CD80 (B7.1) or CD86 (B7.2)...
  21. Andres P, Howland K, Nirula A, Kane L, Barron L, Dresnek D, et al. Distinct regions in the CD28 cytoplasmic domain are required for T helper type 2 differentiation. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:435-42 pubmed
    b>CD28 costimulation is essential for CD4(+) T cell proliferation, survival, interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and T helper type 2 development...
  22. Noel P, Alegre M, Reiner S, Thompson C. Impaired negative selection in CD28-deficient mice. Cell Immunol. 1998;187:131-8 pubmed
    ..In peripheral T cells, the CD28 receptor plays an important role in enhancing the survival and expansion of T cells activated by TCR engagement...
  23. Huang J, Lo P, Zal T, Gascoigne N, Smith B, Levin S, et al. CD28 plays a critical role in the segregation of PKC theta within the immunologic synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9369-73 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the functional involvement of CD28 costimulation in the T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated immunologic synapse formation with respect to protein kinase C (..
  24. Friend L, Shah D, Deppong C, Lin J, Bricker T, Juehne T, et al. A dose-dependent requirement for the proline motif of CD28 in cellular and humoral immunity revealed by a targeted knockin mutant. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2121-33 pubmed
    Activation of naive T cells requires the integration of signals through the antigen receptor and CD28. Although there is agreement on the importance of CD28, there remains controversy on the mechanism by which CD28 regulates T cell ..
  25. Chang T, Jabs C, Sobel R, Kuchroo V, Sharpe A. Studies in B7-deficient mice reveal a critical role for B7 costimulation in both induction and effector phases of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med. 1999;190:733-40 pubmed
    ..In this study, the role of B7-CD28 costimulation and the relative importance of B7 costimulators for the induction and effector phases of experimental ..
  26. Kimzey S, Liu P, Green J. Requirement for CD28 in the effector phase of allergic airway inflammation. J Immunol. 2004;173:632-40 pubmed
    ..This process requires the participation of the CD28 costimulatory receptor...
  27. Mirenda V, Jarmin S, David R, Dyson J, Scott D, Gu Y, et al. Physiologic and aberrant regulation of memory T-cell trafficking by the costimulatory molecule CD28. Blood. 2007;109:2968-77 pubmed
    ..The costimulatory molecule CD28 plays an essential role in the initiation of T-cell-mediated immunity...
  28. Williams J, Lumsden J, Yu X, Feigenbaum L, Zhang J, Steinberg S, et al. Regulation of thymic NKT cell development by the B7-CD28 costimulatory pathway. J Immunol. 2008;181:907-17 pubmed
    ..further the requirements for thymic iNKT cell development and find that these cells are highly sensitive to B7-CD28 costimulatory interactions, as evidenced by the substantially decreased numbers of thymic iNKT cells in CD28 and in ..
  29. Abe R, Vandenberghe P, Craighead N, Smoot D, Lee K, June C. Distinct signal transduction in mouse CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T cells after CD28 receptor ligation. J Immunol. 1995;154:985-97 pubmed
    ..In the present report, using a newly generated mAb specific for CD28, signal transduction by the CD28 receptor has been studied in mouse splenic T cells...
  30. Ribot J, deBarros A, Mancio Silva L, Pamplona A, Silva Santos B. B7-CD28 costimulatory signals control the survival and proliferation of murine and human γδ T cells via IL-2 production. J Immunol. 2012;189:1202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report in this article that the Ig superfamily receptor CD28 (but not its related protein ICOS) is expressed on freshly isolated lymphoid γδ T cells and synergizes with the ..
  31. Zheng X, Gao J, Chang X, Wang Y, Liu Y, Wen J, et al. B7-CD28 interaction promotes proliferation and survival but suppresses differentiation of CD4-CD8- T cells in the thymus. J Immunol. 2004;173:2253-61 pubmed
    ..Qualitatively similar, but quantitatively less striking effects were observed in mice with a targeted mutation of CD28, but not CTLA4...
  32. Bertram E, Lau P, Watts T. Temporal segregation of 4-1BB versus CD28-mediated costimulation: 4-1BB ligand influences T cell numbers late in the primary response and regulates the size of the T cell memory response following influenza infection. J Immunol. 2002;168:3777-85 pubmed
    In this report, we demonstrate that CD28(-/-) mice are severely impaired in the initial expansion of D(b)/NP366-374-specific CD8 T cells in response to influenza virus infection, whereas 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL)(-/-) mice show no defect in ..
  33. Kawai K, Shahinian A, Mak T, Ohashi P. Skin allograft rejection in CD28-deficient mice. Transplantation. 1996;61:352-5 pubmed
    Costimulatory interactions between CD28 and the B7 family have been shown to augment T cell responses in general...
  34. Yu X, Fournier S, Allison J, Sharpe A, Hodes R. The role of B7 costimulation in CD4/CD8 T cell homeostasis. J Immunol. 2000;164:3543-53 pubmed
    ..B7-induced T cell expansion was dependent on both CD28 and TCR expression...
  35. Park S, Schulze Luehrman J, Hayden M, Hashimoto N, Ogawa W, Kasuga M, et al. The kinase PDK1 integrates T cell antigen receptor and CD28 coreceptor signaling to induce NF-kappaB and activate T cells. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:158-66 pubmed publisher
    In addition to ligation of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR), activation of the CD28 coreceptor by the costimulatory molecule B7 is required for induction of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and robust T cell activation, although the ..
  36. Matsuda J, Gapin L, Baron J, Sidobre S, Stetson D, Mohrs M, et al. Mouse V alpha 14i natural killer T cells are resistant to cytokine polarization in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8395-400 pubmed
    ....
  37. Tang Q, Henriksen K, Boden E, Tooley A, Ye J, Subudhi S, et al. Cutting edge: CD28 controls peripheral homeostasis of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2003;171:3348-52 pubmed
    b>CD28/B7 blockade leads to exacerbated autoimmune disease in the nonobese diabetic mouse strain as a result of a marked reduction in the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
  38. Delogu A, Schebesta A, Sun Q, Aschenbrenner K, Perlot T, Busslinger M. Gene repression by Pax5 in B cells is essential for blood cell homeostasis and is reversed in plasma cells. Immunity. 2006;24:269-81 pubmed
    ..Pax5-repressed genes are also reexpressed in plasma cells, which depend for normal function on Cd28 and Ccr2 reactivation...
  39. Jacobs S, Herman C, Maciver N, Wofford J, Wieman H, Hammen J, et al. Glucose uptake is limiting in T cell activation and requires CD28-mediated Akt-dependent and independent pathways. J Immunol. 2008;180:4476-86 pubmed
    ..We show that glucose uptake is limiting in T cell activation and that CD28 costimulation is required to allow maximal glucose uptake following TCR stimulation by up-regulating expression and ..
  40. Green J, Noel P, Sperling A, Walunas T, Gray G, Bluestone J, et al. Absence of B7-dependent responses in CD28-deficient mice. Immunity. 1994;1:501-8 pubmed
    Costimulation of T cell proliferation can occur through the CD28 signal transduction pathway...
  41. Watanabe M, Nakajima S, Ohnuki K, Ogawa S, Yamashita M, Nakayama T, et al. AP-1 is involved in ICOS gene expression downstream of TCR/CD28 and cytokine receptor signaling. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:1850-62 pubmed publisher
    ..site (AP1-RE) within the ICOS promoter region and demonstrated AP-1 actually binds to AP1-RE upon TCR/CD28 stimulation...
  42. Rogers P, Song J, Gramaglia I, Killeen N, Croft M. OX40 promotes Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 expression and is essential for long-term survival of CD4 T cells. Immunity. 2001;15:445-55 pubmed
    ..We show that OX40 (CD134) is required with CD28 for the survival of CD4 T cells following antigen-driven expansion...
  43. Saha B, Harlan D, Lee K, June C, Abe R. Protection against lethal toxic shock by targeted disruption of the CD28 gene. J Exp Med. 1996;183:2675-80 pubmed
    ..Here we report that CD28-deficient mice (CD28-/-) are completely resistant to TSST-1-induced lethal TSS while CD28 (+/-) littermate mice ..
  44. Ostrov D, Shi W, Schwartz J, Almo S, Nathenson S. Structure of murine CTLA-4 and its role in modulating T cell responsiveness. Science. 2000;290:816-9 pubmed
    ..of T cell responses is dependent on opposing signals transmitted through two related cell-surface receptors, CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)...
  45. Rulifson I, Sperling A, Fields P, Fitch F, Bluestone J. CD28 costimulation promotes the production of Th2 cytokines. J Immunol. 1997;158:658-65 pubmed
    b>CD28 ligation augments TCR-mediated proliferation, IL-2 production, and T cell survival. However, the role of CD28 costimulation in T cell differentiation remains controversial...
  46. DeBenedette M, Wen T, Bachmann M, Ohashi P, Barber B, Stocking K, et al. Analysis of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL)-deficient mice and of mice lacking both 4-1BBL and CD28 reveals a role for 4-1BBL in skin allograft rejection and in the cytotoxic T cell response to influenza virus. J Immunol. 1999;163:4833-41 pubmed
    ..to 4-1BB (CD137) on activated CD4 and CD8 T cells and in conjunction with strong signals through the TCR provides a CD28-independent costimulatory signal leading to high level IL-2 production by primary resting T cells...
  47. Shahinian A, Pfeffer K, Lee K, Kundig T, Kishihara K, Wakeham A, et al. Differential T cell costimulatory requirements in CD28-deficient mice. Science. 1993;261:609-12 pubmed
    ..It is thought that engagement of the CD28 molecule with its ligand B7 provides an essential costimulatory signal without which full activation of T cells ..
  48. Arad G, Levy R, Nasie I, Hillman D, Rotfogel Z, Barash U, et al. Binding of superantigen toxins into the CD28 homodimer interface is essential for induction of cytokine genes that mediate lethal shock. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001149 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CD28 is a homodimer expressed on T cells that functions as the principal costimulatory ligand in the immune response ..
  49. Lenschow D, Walunas T, Bluestone J. CD28/B7 system of T cell costimulation. Annu Rev Immunol. 1996;14:233-58 pubmed
    ..The CD28/B7 receptor/ligand system is one of the dominant costimulatory pathways...
  50. Salomon B, Lenschow D, Rhee L, Ashourian N, Singh B, Sharpe A, et al. B7/CD28 costimulation is essential for the homeostasis of the CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells that control autoimmune diabetes. Immunity. 2000;12:431-40 pubmed
    b>CD28/B7 costimulation has been implicated in the induction and progression of autoimmune diseases...
  51. Borowski A, Boesteanu A, Mueller Y, Carafides C, Topham D, Altman J, et al. Memory CD8+ T cells require CD28 costimulation. J Immunol. 2007;179:6494-503 pubmed
    ..A current paradigm in immunology is that naive CD8(+) T cells require CD28 costimulation, whereas memory CD8(+) T cells do not...
  52. Girvin A, Dal Canto M, Rhee L, Salomon B, Sharpe A, Bluestone J, et al. A critical role for B7/CD28 costimulation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a comparative study using costimulatory molecule-deficient mice and monoclonal antibody blockade. J Immunol. 2000;164:136-43 pubmed
    The B7/CD28 pathway provides critical costimulatory signals required for complete T cell activation and has served as a potential target for immunotherapeutic strategies designed to regulate autoimmune diseases...
  53. Fallarino F, Fields P, Gajewski T. B7-1 engagement of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 inhibits T cell activation in the absence of CD28. J Exp Med. 1998;188:205-10 pubmed
    ..mechanisms have been proposed to explain the inhibitory activity of CTLA4: competition for B7-1 and B7-2 binding by CD28; sequestration of signaling molecules away from CD28 via endocytosis; delivery of a signal that antagonizes a CD28 ..
  54. Akiba H, Takeda K, Kojima Y, Usui Y, Harada N, Yamazaki T, et al. The role of ICOS in the CXCR5+ follicular B helper T cell maintenance in vivo. J Immunol. 2005;175:2340-8 pubmed
    ICOS is a new member of the CD28 family of costimulatory molecules that is expressed on activated T cells. Its ligand B7RP-1 is constitutively expressed on B cells...
  55. Sanchez Lockhart M, Marin E, Graf B, Abe R, Harada Y, Sedwick C, et al. Cutting edge: CD28-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of IL-2 expression are controlled through different signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2004;173:7120-4 pubmed
    Despite the clear functional importance of CD28 costimulation, the signaling pathways transduced through CD28 have remained controversial...
  56. Iliopoulou B, Alroy J, Huber B. CD28 deficiency exacerbates joint inflammation upon Borrelia burgdorferi infection, resulting in the development of chronic Lyme arthritis. J Immunol. 2007;179:8076-82 pubmed
    ..In this study, we report that the majority of Bb-infected CD28-/- mice develop chronic Lyme arthritis...
  57. Takahashi T, Tagami T, Yamazaki S, Uede T, Shimizu J, Sakaguchi N, et al. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells constitutively expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4. J Exp Med. 2000;192:303-10 pubmed
    ..b>CD28-deficient CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells can also suppress normal T cells, indicating that CD28 is dispensable for ..
  58. Friedline R, Brown D, Nguyen H, Kornfeld H, Lee J, Zhang Y, et al. CD4+ regulatory T cells require CTLA-4 for the maintenance of systemic tolerance. J Exp Med. 2009;206:421-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that CTLA-4 is absolutely required for FOXP3(+) regulatory T cell function in vivo. ..
  59. Sperling A, Green J, Mosley R, Smith P, DiPaolo R, Klein J, et al. CD43 is a murine T cell costimulatory receptor that functions independently of CD28. J Exp Med. 1995;182:139-46 pubmed
    Costimulation mediated by the CD28 receptor has been shown to play an important role in the development of a vigorous T cell immune response. Nevertheless, CD28-deficient mice can mount effective T cell-dependent immune responses...
  60. Mandelbrot D, Oosterwegel M, Shimizu K, Yamada A, Freeman G, Mitchell R, et al. B7-dependent T-cell costimulation in mice lacking CD28 and CTLA4. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:881-7 pubmed
    To examine whether B7 costimulation can be mediated by a molecule on T cells that is neither CD28 nor CTLA4, we generated mice lacking both of these receptors...
  61. Mittrucker H, Shahinian A, Bouchard D, Kundig T, Mak T. Induction of unresponsiveness and impaired T cell expansion by staphylococcal enterotoxin B in CD28-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1996;183:2481-8 pubmed
    We used CD28-deficient mice to analyze the importance of CD28 costimulation for the response against Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in vivo. CD28 was necessary for the strong expansion of V beta 8+ T cells, but not for deletion...
  62. Okkenhaug K, Wu L, Garza K, La Rose J, Khoo W, Odermatt B, et al. A point mutation in CD28 distinguishes proliferative signals from survival signals. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:325-32 pubmed
    Upon interaction with its ligand, B7, CD28 becomes phosphorylated on tyrosines. One tyrosine in particular (Y170 in mouse CD28, Y173 in human CD28) has received much attention...