Cryaa

Summary

Gene Symbol: Cryaa
Description: crystallin, alpha A
Alias: Acry-1, Crya-1, Crya1, DAcry-1, lop18, alpha-crystallin A chain, crystallin, alpha 1, lens opacity 18
Species: mouse
Products:     Cryaa

Top Publications

  1. Robinson M, Overbeek P. Differential expression of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin during murine ocular development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996;37:2276-84 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the alpha-crystallin genes are not identically regulated either within or outside the lens. ..
  2. Morozov V, Wawrousek E. Caspase-dependent secondary lens fiber cell disintegration in alphaA-/alphaB-crystallin double-knockout mice. Development. 2006;133:813-21 pubmed
    ....
  3. He S, Pirity M, Wang W, Wolf L, Chauhan B, Cveklova K, et al. Chromatin remodeling enzyme Brg1 is required for mouse lens fiber cell terminal differentiation and its denucleation. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2010;3:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Brg1 is directly or indirectly involved in processes that degrade lens fiber cell chromatin. The presence of nuclei and other organelles generates scattered light incompatible with the optical requirements for the lens. ..
  4. Shaham O, Smith A, Robinson M, Taketo M, Lang R, Ashery Padan R. Pax6 is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. Development. 2009;136:2567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that Pax6 is pivotal for initiation of the lens fiber differentiation program in the mammalian eye...
  5. Yang Y, Cvekl A. Tissue-specific regulation of the mouse alphaA-crystallin gene in lens via recruitment of Pax6 and c-Maf to its promoter. J Mol Biol. 2005;351:453-69 pubmed
    ..In addition, the data suggest a molecular model of temporal and spatial regulation of alphaB, alphaA and gamma-crystallin genes in mouse embryonic lens by using variants of the Pax6/Maf regulatory module. ..
  6. Hsu C, Kymes S, Petrash J. A transgenic mouse model for human autosomal dominant cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:2036-44 pubmed
    ..Low levels of R116C alphaA-crystallin subunits are sufficient to induce lens opacities and sutural defects. ..
  7. Xi J, Bai F, Gross J, Townsend R, Menko A, Andley U. Mechanism of small heat shock protein function in vivo: a knock-in mouse model demonstrates that the R49C mutation in alpha A-crystallin enhances protein insolubility and cell death. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5801-14 pubmed
    alphaA-crystallin (Cryaa/HSPB4) is a small heat shock protein and molecular chaperone that prevents nonspecific aggregation of denaturing proteins...
  8. Kannan R, Ouyang B, Wawrousek E, Kaplowitz N, Andley U. Regulation of GSH in alphaA-expressing human lens epithelial cell lines and in alphaA knockout mouse lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:409-16 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that neonatal precataractous lenses (with normal GSH and decreased GCS) may maintain their GSH level by other compensatory mechanisms such as increased GSH transport. ..
  9. Liu Y, Kawai K, Khashabi S, Deng C, Liu Y, Yiu S. Inactivation of Smad4 leads to impaired ocular development and cataract formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;400:476-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Smad4 is required for the development and maintenance of the lens in addition to the proper development of the cornea, eyelids, and retina. ..
  10. Andley U, Song Z, Wawrousek E, Bassnett S. The molecular chaperone alphaA-crystallin enhances lens epithelial cell growth and resistance to UVA stress. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:31252-61 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that alphaA has important cellular functions in the lens over and above its well characterized role in refraction. ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Robinson M, Overbeek P. Differential expression of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin during murine ocular development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996;37:2276-84 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the alpha-crystallin genes are not identically regulated either within or outside the lens. ..
  2. Morozov V, Wawrousek E. Caspase-dependent secondary lens fiber cell disintegration in alphaA-/alphaB-crystallin double-knockout mice. Development. 2006;133:813-21 pubmed
    ....
  3. He S, Pirity M, Wang W, Wolf L, Chauhan B, Cveklova K, et al. Chromatin remodeling enzyme Brg1 is required for mouse lens fiber cell terminal differentiation and its denucleation. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2010;3:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Brg1 is directly or indirectly involved in processes that degrade lens fiber cell chromatin. The presence of nuclei and other organelles generates scattered light incompatible with the optical requirements for the lens. ..
  4. Shaham O, Smith A, Robinson M, Taketo M, Lang R, Ashery Padan R. Pax6 is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. Development. 2009;136:2567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that Pax6 is pivotal for initiation of the lens fiber differentiation program in the mammalian eye...
  5. Yang Y, Cvekl A. Tissue-specific regulation of the mouse alphaA-crystallin gene in lens via recruitment of Pax6 and c-Maf to its promoter. J Mol Biol. 2005;351:453-69 pubmed
    ..In addition, the data suggest a molecular model of temporal and spatial regulation of alphaB, alphaA and gamma-crystallin genes in mouse embryonic lens by using variants of the Pax6/Maf regulatory module. ..
  6. Hsu C, Kymes S, Petrash J. A transgenic mouse model for human autosomal dominant cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:2036-44 pubmed
    ..Low levels of R116C alphaA-crystallin subunits are sufficient to induce lens opacities and sutural defects. ..
  7. Xi J, Bai F, Gross J, Townsend R, Menko A, Andley U. Mechanism of small heat shock protein function in vivo: a knock-in mouse model demonstrates that the R49C mutation in alpha A-crystallin enhances protein insolubility and cell death. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5801-14 pubmed
    alphaA-crystallin (Cryaa/HSPB4) is a small heat shock protein and molecular chaperone that prevents nonspecific aggregation of denaturing proteins...
  8. Kannan R, Ouyang B, Wawrousek E, Kaplowitz N, Andley U. Regulation of GSH in alphaA-expressing human lens epithelial cell lines and in alphaA knockout mouse lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:409-16 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that neonatal precataractous lenses (with normal GSH and decreased GCS) may maintain their GSH level by other compensatory mechanisms such as increased GSH transport. ..
  9. Liu Y, Kawai K, Khashabi S, Deng C, Liu Y, Yiu S. Inactivation of Smad4 leads to impaired ocular development and cataract formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;400:476-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Smad4 is required for the development and maintenance of the lens in addition to the proper development of the cornea, eyelids, and retina. ..
  10. Andley U, Song Z, Wawrousek E, Bassnett S. The molecular chaperone alphaA-crystallin enhances lens epithelial cell growth and resistance to UVA stress. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:31252-61 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that alphaA has important cellular functions in the lens over and above its well characterized role in refraction. ..
  11. Hettmann T, Barton K, Leiden J. Microphthalmia due to p53-mediated apoptosis of anterior lens epithelial cells in mice lacking the CREB-2 transcription factor. Dev Biol. 2000;222:110-23 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results identify CREB-2 as an important regulator of mammalian lens development. ..
  12. Yaung J, Kannan R, Wawrousek E, Spee C, Sreekumar P, Hinton D. Exacerbation of retinal degeneration in the absence of alpha crystallins in an in vivo model of chemically induced hypoxia. Exp Eye Res. 2008;86:355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that lack of alpha-crystallins accentuates retinal degeneration in chemically induced hypoxia in vivo. ..
  13. Graw J, Loster J, Soewarto D, Fuchs H, Meyer B, Reis A, et al. Characterization of a new, dominant V124E mutation in the mouse alphaA-crystallin-encoding gene. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:2909-15 pubmed
    ..This position made the alphaA-crystallin-encoding gene (Cryaa) an excellent candidate gene...
  14. Yaung J, Jin M, Barron E, Spee C, Wawrousek E, Kannan R, et al. alpha-Crystallin distribution in retinal pigment epithelium and effect of gene knockouts on sensitivity to oxidative stress. Mol Vis. 2007;13:566-77 pubmed
    ..Lack of alpha-crystallins renders RPE cells more susceptible to apoptosis from oxidative stress. Mitochondrial alpha-crystallins may play an important role in the protection from increased susceptibility of RPE in oxidative stress. ..
  15. Xi J, Bai F, Andley U. Reduced survival of lens epithelial cells in the alphaA-crystallin-knockout mouse. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:1073-85 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that alphaA expression in vivo protects against cell death during mitosis in the lens epithelium, and the smaller size of the alphaA(-/-) lens may be due to a decrease in the net production of epithelial cells. ..
  16. Xia C, Liu H, Chang B, Cheng C, Cheung D, Wang M, et al. Arginine 54 and Tyrosine 118 residues of {alpha}A-crystallin are crucial for lens formation and transparency. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:3004-10 pubmed
    ..These two mutant mouse lines provide useful animal models for further investigating the multiple roles of alphaA-crystallin in the lens. ..
  17. Yoshimoto A, Saigou Y, Higashi Y, Kondoh H. Regulation of ocular lens development by Smad-interacting protein 1 involving Foxe3 activation. Development. 2005;132:4437-48 pubmed
    ..26 kb promoter, and are separate from lens-specific regulation. This is the first demonstration of the significance of Smad interaction in modulating Sip1 activity. ..
  18. Blixt A, Mahlapuu M, Aitola M, Pelto Huikko M, Enerback S, Carlsson P. A forkhead gene, FoxE3, is essential for lens epithelial proliferation and closure of the lens vesicle. Genes Dev. 2000;14:245-54 pubmed
    ..This implies that FoxE3 is essential for closure of the lens vesicle and is a factor that promotes survival and proliferation, while preventing differentiation, in the lens epithelium. ..
  19. Rao N, Saraswathy S, Wu G, Katselis G, Wawrousek E, Bhat S. Elevated retina-specific expression of the small heat shock protein, alphaA-crystallin, is associated with photoreceptor protection in experimental uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:1161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, in early EAU, the photoreceptors preferentially use alphaA-crystallin to suppress mitochondrial oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. ..
  20. Wigle J, Chowdhury K, Gruss P, Oliver G. Prox1 function is crucial for mouse lens-fibre elongation. Nat Genet. 1999;21:318-22 pubmed
    ..Our data provide evidence that the progression of terminal fibre differentiation and elongation is dependent on Prox1 activity during lens development. ..
  21. Xie Q, Cvekl A. The orchestration of mammalian tissue morphogenesis through a series of coherent feed-forward loops. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43259-71 pubmed publisher
    ....
  22. Morgenbesser S, Williams B, Jacks T, DePinho R. p53-dependent apoptosis produced by Rb-deficiency in the developing mouse lens. Nature. 1994;371:72-4 pubmed
    ..This developmental system provides a framework for understanding the consequences of the frequent mutation of both RB and p53 in human cancer. ..
  23. Huang Q, Ding L, Phan K, Cheng C, Xia C, Gong X, et al. Mechanism of cataract formation in alphaA-crystallin Y118D mutation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2919-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the dominant nuclear cataract is associated with a significant decrease in the amount of alphaA-crystallin, leading to a reduction in total chaperone capacity needed for maintaining lens transparency. ..
  24. Garcia C, Huang J, Madakashira B, Liu Y, Rajagopal R, Dattilo L, et al. The function of FGF signaling in the lens placode. Dev Biol. 2011;351:176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the expression of proteins required for lens formation was not altered in the knockout placode cells, we can conclude that FGF signaling from the optic vesicle is not required for lens induction. ..
  25. Bai F, Xi J, Andley U. Up-regulation of tau, a brain microtubule-associated protein, in lens cortical fractions of aged alphaA-, alphaB-, and alphaA/B-crystallin knockout mice. Mol Vis. 2007;13:1589-600 pubmed
    ..In the present study we examined the expression of the brain microtubule associated protein tau in lenses of alpha-crystallin gene knockout mice...
  26. Andley U, Hamilton P, Ravi N. Mechanism of insolubilization by a single-point mutation in alphaA-crystallin linked with hereditary human cataracts. Biochemistry. 2008;47:9697-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study further shows that analysis of mutant proteins from the mouse model is an effective way to understand the mechanism of protein insolubilization in hereditary cataracts. ..
  27. Xi J, Bai F, McGaha R, Andley U. Alpha-crystallin expression affects microtubule assembly and prevents their aggregation. FASEB J. 2006;20:846-57 pubmed
    ..SDS-PAGE analysis showed that alpha-crystallin prevented heat-induced aggregation of tubulin, suggesting that alpha-crystallin may affect microtubule assembly by maintaining the pool of unassembled tubulin. ..
  28. Wang W, Li Q, Xu J, Cvekl A. Lens fiber cell differentiation and denucleation are disrupted through expression of the N-terminal nuclear receptor box of NCOA6 and result in p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2453-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate a cell-autonomous role of Ncoa6 in lens fiber cell differentiation and suggest novel insights into the process of lens fiber cell denucleation and apoptosis. ..
  29. Andley U. AlphaA-crystallin R49Cneo mutation influences the architecture of lens fiber cell membranes and causes posterior and nuclear cataracts in mice. BMC Ophthalmol. 2009;9:4 pubmed publisher
    AlphaA-crystallin (CRYAA/HSPB4), a major component of all vertebrate eye lenses, is a small heat shock protein responsible for maintaining lens transparency...
  30. Machon O, Kreslova J, Ruzickova J, Vacik T, Klimova L, Fujimura N, et al. Lens morphogenesis is dependent on Pax6-mediated inhibition of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the lens surface ectoderm. Genesis. 2010;48:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Pax6 is required for down-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling in the presumptive lens ectoderm...
  31. Andley U, Reilly M. In vivo lens deficiency of the R49C alphaA-crystallin mutant. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:699-702 pubmed publisher
    ..The death of fiber cells caused by this mutation may ultimately lead to loss of retinal integrity and blindness. ..
  32. Fujimoto M, Izu H, Seki K, Fukuda K, Nishida T, Yamada S, et al. HSF4 is required for normal cell growth and differentiation during mouse lens development. EMBO J. 2004;23:4297-306 pubmed
    ....
  33. Kim S, Cheong C, Sohn Y, Goo Y, Oh W, Park J, et al. Multiple developmental defects derived from impaired recruitment of ASC-2 to nuclear receptors in mice: implication for posterior lenticonus with cataract. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8409-14 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a novel insight into the molecular and histopathological mechanism of posterior lenticonus with cataract and attest to the importance of ASC-2 as a pivotal transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors in vivo...
  34. Ring B, Cordes S, Overbeek P, Barsh G. Regulation of mouse lens fiber cell development and differentiation by the Maf gene. Development. 2000;127:307-17 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Maf directly activates many if not all of the (beta)-crystallin genes, and suggest a model for coordinating cell cycle withdrawal with terminal differentiation. ..
  35. Brady J, Garland D, Duglas Tabor Y, Robison W, Groome A, Wawrousek E. Targeted disruption of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene induces cataract and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies containing the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:884-9 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that alpha A is essential for maintaining lens transparency, possibly by ensuring that alpha B or proteins closely associated with this small heat shock protein remain soluble. ..
  36. Hu W, Gong L, Cao Z, Ma H, Ji W, Deng M, et al. αA- and αB-crystallins interact with caspase-3 and Bax to guard mouse lens development. Curr Mol Med. 2012;12:177-87 pubmed
    ..Together, our results further confirm that αA and αB regulate caspase-3 and Bax in vitro and in vivo to regulate lens differentiation. ..
  37. Yang Y, Stopka T, Golestaneh N, Wang Y, Wu K, Li A, et al. Regulation of alphaA-crystallin via Pax6, c-Maf, CREB and a broad domain of lens-specific chromatin. EMBO J. 2006;25:2107-18 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate a novel mechanism of Pax6, c-Maf and CREB function, through regulation of chromatin-remodeling enzymes, and suggest a multistage model for the activation of alphaA-crystallin during lens differentiation. ..
  38. Yamada R, Mizutani Koseki Y, Hasegawa T, Osumi N, Koseki H, Takahashi N. Cell-autonomous involvement of Mab21l1 is essential for lens placode development. Development. 2003;130:1759-70 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Mab21l1 expression dependent on PAX6 is essential for lens placode growth and for formation of the lens vesicle; lack of Mab21l1 expression causes reduced expression of Foxe3 in a cell-autonomous manner. ..
  39. Yang Y, Wolf L, Cvekl A. Distinct embryonic expression and localization of CBP and p300 histone acetyltransferases at the mouse alphaA-crystallin locus in lens. J Mol Biol. 2007;369:917-26 pubmed
    ..However, the lens-specific chromatin domain contains both promoter localized CBP on the "background" of locus-spread presence of CBP and p300. ..
  40. Sandilands A, Hutcheson A, Long H, Prescott A, Vrensen G, Löster J, et al. Altered aggregation properties of mutant gamma-crystallins cause inherited cataract. EMBO J. 2002;21:6005-14 pubmed
    ..The mutant gamma-crystallins initially disrupt nuclear function, but then this progresses to a full cataract phenotype. ..
  41. Ashery Padan R, Marquardt T, Zhou X, Gruss P. Pax6 activity in the lens primordium is required for lens formation and for correct placement of a single retina in the eye. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2701-11 pubmed
    ....
  42. Kawauchi S, Takahashi S, Nakajima O, Ogino H, Morita M, Nishizawa M, et al. Regulation of lens fiber cell differentiation by transcription factor c-Maf. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19254-60 pubmed
    ..The expression of crystallin genes was severely impaired in the c-maf-null mutant mouse lens. These results demonstrate that c-Maf is an indispensable regulator of lens differentiation during murine development. ..
  43. Barton K, Hsu C, Petrash J. Interactions between small heat shock protein alpha-crystallin and galectin-related interfiber protein (GRIFIN) in the ocular lens. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3956-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding interaction between alpha-crystallin and GRIFIN is enhanced up to 5-fold in the presence of 3 mM ATP. These binding data support the hypothesis that GRIFIN is a novel binding partner of alpha-crystallin in the lens. ..
  44. Andley U, Malone J, Hamilton P, Ravi N, Townsend R. Comparative proteomic analysis identifies age-dependent increases in the abundance of specific proteins after deletion of the small heat shock proteins αA- and αB-crystallin. Biochemistry. 2013;52:2933-48 pubmed publisher
    ....
  45. Shaham O, Gueta K, Mor E, Oren Giladi P, Grinberg D, Xie Q, et al. Pax6 regulates gene expression in the vertebrate lens through miR-204. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003357 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this study identifies a novel evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which Pax6 controls the down-regulation of multiple genes through direct up-regulation of miR-204. ..
  46. Andley U, Malone J, Townsend R. In vivo substrates of the lens molecular chaperones αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95507 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies offer a novel insight into the putative in vivo substrates of αA- and αB-crystallin. ..
  47. Stubbs L, Kraus J, Lehrach H. The alpha-A-crystallin and cystathionine beta-synthase genes are physically very closely linked in proximal mouse chromosome 17. Genomics. 1990;7:284-8 pubmed
    ....
  48. Widau R, Zheng Y, Sung C, Zelivianskaia A, Roach L, Bachmeyer K, et al. p19Arf represses platelet-derived growth factor receptor β by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:4270-82 pubmed publisher
    ....
  49. Sreekumar P, Spee C, Ryan S, Cole S, Kannan R, Hinton D. Mechanism of RPE cell death in α-crystallin deficient mice: a novel and critical role for MRP1-mediated GSH efflux. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33420 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that MRP1 and α crystallin are potential therapeutic targets in pathological retinal degenerative disorders linked to oxidative stress. ..
  50. Vincek V, Figueroa F, Gill T, Cortese Hassett A, Klein J. Mapping in the mouse of the region homologous to the rat growth and reproduction complex (grc). Immunogenetics. 1990;32:293-5 pubmed
  51. Zhang B, Chang J, Fu M, Huang J, Kashyap R, Salavaggione E, et al. Dosage effects of cohesin regulatory factor PDS5 on mammalian development: implications for cohesinopathies. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5232 pubmed publisher
    ....
  52. Swindell E, Liu C, Shah R, Smith A, Lang R, Jamrich M. Eye formation in the absence of retina. Dev Biol. 2008;322:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..One involved in the formation of the eyeball and the second involved in the formation of the auxiliary eye structures. ..
  53. Hirano M, Yamamoto A, Yoshimura N, Tokunaga T, Motohashi T, Ishizaki K, et al. Generation of structures formed by lens and retinal cells differentiating from embryonic stem cells. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:664-71 pubmed
    ..The present culture system opens up the possibility of examining early stages of eye development and also of producing cells for use in cellular therapy for various diseases of the eye. ..
  54. Chow R, Roux G, Roghani M, Palmer M, Rifkin D, Moscatelli D, et al. FGF suppresses apoptosis and induces differentiation of fibre cells in the mouse lens. Development. 1995;121:4383-93 pubmed
    ..These results show that lens fibre cells are dependent on FGF for their survival and differentiation, and demonstrate that growth factor deprivation in vivo can lead to apoptosis. ..
  55. Sax C, Cvekl A, Kantorow M, Sommer B, Chepelinsky A, Piatigorsky J. Identification of negative-acting and protein-binding elements in the mouse alpha A-crystallin -1556/-1165 region. Gene. 1994;144:163-9 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the chicken delta 1-cry intron repressor binds similar nuclear proteins in chicken embryonic lens cells and mouse alpha TN4-1 lens cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  56. Cvekl A, Kashanchi F, Sax C, Brady J, Piatigorsky J. Transcriptional regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: activation dependent on a cyclic AMP-responsive element (DE1/CRE) and a Pax-6-binding site. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:653-60 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence for a synergistic role of Pax-6 and CREB-like proteins for high expression of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene in the lens. ..
  57. Skow L, Nadeau J, Ahn J, Shin H, Artzt K, Bennett D. Polymorphism and linkage of the alpha A-crystallin gene in t-haplotypes of the mouse. Genetics. 1987;116:107-11 pubmed
    ....
  58. Hammer M, Schimenti J, Silver L. Evolution of mouse chromosome 17 and the origin of inversions associated with t haplotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:3261-5 pubmed
    ..domesticus and M. abbotti, and that the other three inversions occurred on the separate lineage leading to present-day t haplotypes. Alternative models for the evolution of t haplotypes are discussed in light of these findings. ..
  59. Kaye N, Lalley P, Petrash J, Church R. Regional assignment of the mouse alpha A2-crystallin gene (Crya-1) to chromosome 17A3----B by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1990;53:95-6 pubmed
    ..In man, however, the homologous gene (CRYA1) is located on human chromosome 21, indicating that internal rearrangements can occur within highly conserved ..
  60. Sertic J, Zaleska Rutczynska Z, Vincek V, Nadeau J, Figueroa F, Klein J. Mapping of six DNA markers on mouse chromosome 17. Mamm Genome. 1992;2:138-42 pubmed
  61. Graw J, Löster J, Puk O, Münster D, Haubst N, Soewarto D, et al. Three novel Pax6 alleles in the mouse leading to the same small-eye phenotype caused by different consequences at target promoters. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:4671-83 pubmed
    ....
  62. Antosova B, Smolikova J, Klimova L, Lachova J, Bendova M, Kozmikova I, et al. The Gene Regulatory Network of Lens Induction Is Wired through Meis-Dependent Shadow Enhancers of Pax6. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006441 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they reveal an apparent robustness in the gene regulatory mechanism whereby two independent "shadow enhancers" maintain critical levels of a dosage-sensitive gene, Pax6, during lens induction. ..