Mir21

Summary

Gene Symbol: Mir21
Description: microRNA 21
Alias: Mirn21, mmu-mir-21
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. pmc MicroRNA-10A* and MicroRNA-21 modulate endothelial progenitor cell senescence via suppressing high-mobility group A2
    Shoukang Zhu
    Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Circ Res 112:152-64. 2013
  2. pmc MicroRNA-21 limits in vivo immune response-mediated activation of the IL-12/IFN-gamma pathway, Th1 polarization, and the severity of delayed-type hypersensitivity
    Thomas X Lu
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Immunol 187:3362-73. 2011
  3. pmc Smad3-mediated upregulation of miR-21 promotes renal fibrosis
    Xiang Zhong
    Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    J Am Soc Nephrol 22:1668-81. 2011
  4. pmc p38/MKP-1-regulated AKT coordinates macrophage transitions and resolution of inflammation during tissue repair
    Eusebio Perdiguero
    Cell Biology Group, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    J Cell Biol 195:307-22. 2011
  5. pmc Loss of the miR-21 allele elevates the expression of its target genes and reduces tumorigenesis
    Xiaodong Ma
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:10144-9. 2011
  6. pmc MiR-21 plays an important role in radiation induced carcinogenesis in BALB/c mice by directly targeting the tumor suppressor gene Big-h3
    Cong Liu
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Xiangyin Road, Shanghai 200433, PR China
    Int J Biol Sci 7:347-63. 2011
  7. pmc Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality
    Yaoqian Pan
    Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, United States
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 408:369-74. 2011
  8. pmc MicroRNA-21 exhibits antiangiogenic function by targeting RhoB expression in endothelial cells
    Céline Sabatel
    Unit of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, GIGA Research, University of Liege, Sart Tilman, Liege, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 6:e16979. 2011
  9. pmc miR-21 regulates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling
    Shanzhong Yang
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 302:L521-9. 2012
  10. pmc Stress-dependent cardiac remodeling occurs in the absence of microRNA-21 in mice
    David M Patrick
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9148, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:3912-6. 2010

Scientific Experts

  • T Sugatani
  • Krisztina Juhász
  • Wataru Aoi
  • Pengchao Wang
  • Jun Feng
  • Hiroshi Kubo
  • Oneil G Bhalala
  • K S Radha
  • Gang Liu
  • Thomas X Lu
  • Xiaodong Ma
  • Hao Wu
  • Kevin White
  • Lars Maegdefessel
  • Shanzhong Yang
  • Stuart H Orkin
  • Eusebio Perdiguero
  • Eva van Rooij
  • Mark E Hatley
  • Junming Yue
  • Marc E Rothenberg
  • Sashwati Roy
  • Qingguo Ruan
  • David M Patrick
  • Thomas Thum
  • Amin Isanejad
  • Chunyu Bai
  • Rebecca Elise Barnett
  • Yejing Ge
  • Ping Jia
  • Xing He
  • Diptadip Dattaroy
  • Eleni Anastasiadou
  • Dong Wang
  • Xiaoxiao Hu
  • Yuan Yuan Shang
  • Ricardo José Soares
  • Clara McClure
  • Yonatan Feuermann
  • Jin yang Wang
  • Gayle M Gordillo
  • Qingmin Wang
  • Adèle Richart
  • Philip S Tsao
  • Joshua M Spin
  • Yan Li Liu
  • Gen Sobue
  • Heather J Kolpa
  • Deepali V Sawant
  • Francois Glowacki
  • Jin He
  • Scott H Olejniczak
  • Xiu Li Jin
  • Hirokazu Okayama
  • Tamás Kaucsár
  • Zhengping Zhang
  • A Bhandari
  • Shoukang Zhu
  • Tushar D Bhagat
  • Bruce J Aronow
  • Tao Wang
  • Esther Ardite
  • R Madhyastha
  • Yong Li
  • Haihai Liang
  • Raymond Ng
  • Jelena Polajeva
  • Zixuan Chen
  • Marcin P Mycko
  • Melissa K Mingler
  • Tingting Yao
  • Zhongwen Wu
  • Olga Bornachea
  • Saibyasachi N Choudhury
  • Yingchuan Zhou
  • Eun Jin Lim
  • Victoria N Parikh
  • B Nelson Chau
  • Chandan K Sen
  • Jochen Hartner
  • Louisa Balazs
  • Savita Khanna
  • Edward Abraham
  • Lawrence M Pfeffer
  • Pura Munoz-Canoves
  • Antonio L Serrano
  • Gabor Tigyi
  • Céline Sabatel
  • Iain T Strickland
  • Barry G Garchow

Detail Information

Publications98

  1. pmc MicroRNA-10A* and MicroRNA-21 modulate endothelial progenitor cell senescence via suppressing high-mobility group A2
    Shoukang Zhu
    Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Circ Res 112:152-64. 2013
    ..The mechanisms underlying EPC senescence are unknown. Increasing evidence supports the role of microRNAs in regulating cellular senescence...
  2. pmc MicroRNA-21 limits in vivo immune response-mediated activation of the IL-12/IFN-gamma pathway, Th1 polarization, and the severity of delayed-type hypersensitivity
    Thomas X Lu
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Immunol 187:3362-73. 2011
    ..Thus, our results define miR-21 as a major regulator of Th1 versus Th2 responses, defining a new mechanism for regulating polarized immunoinflammatory responses...
  3. pmc Smad3-mediated upregulation of miR-21 promotes renal fibrosis
    Xiang Zhong
    Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    J Am Soc Nephrol 22:1668-81. 2011
    ..In conclusion, these data demonstrate that Smad3, but not Smad2, signaling increases expression of miR-21, which promotes renal fibrosis. Inhibition of miR-21 may be a therapeutic approach to suppress renal fibrosis...
  4. pmc p38/MKP-1-regulated AKT coordinates macrophage transitions and resolution of inflammation during tissue repair
    Eusebio Perdiguero
    Cell Biology Group, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    J Cell Biol 195:307-22. 2011
    ..This novel regulatory mechanism involving the appropriate balance of p38, MKP-1, miR-21, and AKT activities may have implications in chronic inflammatory degenerative diseases...
  5. pmc Loss of the miR-21 allele elevates the expression of its target genes and reduces tumorigenesis
    Xiaodong Ma
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:10144-9. 2011
    ..These results provide in vivo evidence that miR-21 exerts its oncogenic function through negatively regulating its target genes...
  6. pmc MiR-21 plays an important role in radiation induced carcinogenesis in BALB/c mice by directly targeting the tumor suppressor gene Big-h3
    Cong Liu
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Xiangyin Road, Shanghai 200433, PR China
    Int J Biol Sci 7:347-63. 2011
    ..We conclude that miR-21 participates in radiation induced carcinogenesis and it regulates TGFβ signaling...
  7. pmc Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality
    Yaoqian Pan
    Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, United States
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 408:369-74. 2011
    ..5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation...
  8. pmc MicroRNA-21 exhibits antiangiogenic function by targeting RhoB expression in endothelial cells
    Céline Sabatel
    Unit of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, GIGA Research, University of Liege, Sart Tilman, Liege, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 6:e16979. 2011
    ..Whereas miRNA-21 has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in endothelial cells, the potential function of this miRNA in angiogenesis has never been investigated...
  9. pmc miR-21 regulates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling
    Shanzhong Yang
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 302:L521-9. 2012
    ....
  10. pmc Stress-dependent cardiac remodeling occurs in the absence of microRNA-21 in mice
    David M Patrick
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9148, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:3912-6. 2010
    ..We therefore conclude that miR-21 is not essential for pathological cardiac remodeling...
  11. pmc Loss of microRNAs in neural crest leads to cardiovascular syndromes resembling human congenital heart defects
    Zhan Peng Huang
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, McAllister Heart Institute, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30:2575-86. 2010
    ..The goal of this study was to investigate the function of microRNA (miRNA) in NCCs and the cardiovascular system...
  12. pmc Modulation of K-Ras-dependent lung tumorigenesis by MicroRNA-21
    Mark E Hatley
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9148, USA
    Cancer Cell 18:282-93. 2010
    ..MiR-21 drives tumorigenesis through inhibition of negative regulators of the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway and inhibition of apoptosis...
  13. pmc A microRNA-21 surge facilitates rapid cyclin D1 translation and cell cycle progression in mouse liver regeneration
    Raymond Ng
    Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:1097-108. 2012
    ..Our findings reveal that miR-21 enables rapid hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration by accelerating cyclin D1 translation...
  14. doi OncomiR addiction in an in vivo model of microRNA-21-induced pre-B-cell lymphoma
    Pedro P Medina
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, PO Box 208103, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 467:86-90. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate that tumours can become addicted to oncomiRs and support efforts to treat human cancers through pharmacological inactivation of miRNAs such as miR-21...
  15. pmc miR-21 mediates fibrogenic activation of pulmonary fibroblasts and lung fibrosis
    Gang Liu
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Exp Med 207:1589-97. 2010
    ..These experiments demonstrate an important role for miR-21 in fibrotic lung diseases and also suggest a novel approach using miRNA therapeutics in treating clinically refractory fibrotic diseases, such as IPF...
  16. pmc MicroRNAs are necessary for vascular smooth muscle growth, differentiation, and function
    Sebastian Albinsson
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30:1118-26. 2010
    ..Here, we investigated the role of miRNAs in VSM by deleting the rate-limiting enzyme in miRNA synthesis, Dicer...
  17. doi Inductive microRNA-21 impairs anti-mycobacterial responses by targeting IL-12 and Bcl-2
    Zhongwen Wu
    State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, China
    FEBS Lett 586:2459-67. 2012
    ..Additionally, miR-21 also promoted dendritic cell (DC) apoptosis by targeting Bcl-2. Therefore, miR-21 may potentially be involved in fine-tuning of the anti-mycobacterial Th1 response and in regulating the efficacy of BCG vaccination...
  18. pmc MicroRNA-21 is upregulated during the proliferative phase of liver regeneration, targets Pellino-1, and inhibits NF-kappaB signaling
    Rebecca T Marquez
    University of Iowa School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 298:G535-41. 2010
    ..In conclusion, miR-21 expression was upregulated during early stages of liver regeneration. Targeting of Peli1 by miR-21 could potentially provide the basis for a negative feedback cycle regulating NF-kappaB signaling...
  19. doi Negative regulation of TLR4 via targeting of the proinflammatory tumor suppressor PDCD4 by the microRNA miR-21
    Frederick J Sheedy
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
    Nat Immunol 11:141-7. 2010
    ..Thus, miR-21 regulates PDCD4 expression after LPS stimulation...
  20. pmc miR-145 and miR-143 regulate smooth muscle cell fate and plasticity
    Kimberly R Cordes
    Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 460:705-10. 2009
    ..These findings demonstrate that miR-145 can direct the smooth muscle fate and that miR-145 and miR-143 function to regulate the quiescent versus proliferative phenotype of smooth muscle cells...
  21. pmc MicroRNA-21 is up-regulated in allergic airway inflammation and regulates IL-12p35 expression
    Thomas X Lu
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Immunol 182:4994-5002. 2009
    ..In summary, we have identified a miRNA signature in allergic airway inflammation, which includes miR-21 that modulates IL-12, a molecule germane to Th cell polarization...
  22. pmc MicroRNA expression in response to murine myocardial infarction: miR-21 regulates fibroblast metalloprotease-2 via phosphatase and tensin homologue
    Sashwati Roy
    Department of Surgery, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Medical Center, 473 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 82:21-9. 2009
    ..For the first time, we sought to test how myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) changes miR expression...
  23. doi MicroRNA-21 contributes to myocardial disease by stimulating MAP kinase signalling in fibroblasts
    Thomas Thum
    Department of Medicine I, Interdisziplinares Zentrum fur Klinische Forschung IZKF, University of Wuerzburg, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
    Nature 456:980-4. 2008
    ..Here we show that microRNA-21 (miR-21, also known as Mirn21) regulates the ERK-MAP kinase signalling pathway in cardiac fibroblasts, which has impacts on global cardiac ..
  24. pmc DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein-mediated microRNA biogenesis is essential for vascular smooth muscle cell development in mice
    Zixuan Chen
    Department of Physiology, Campbell Clinic, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:19018-28. 2012
    ..Our results indicate that the DGCR8 gene is required for vascular development through the regulation of VSMC proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation...
  25. pmc MicroRNA-21 targets Sprouty2 and promotes cellular outgrowths
    Danish Sayed
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 19:3272-82. 2008
    ..Thus, we propose that an increase in miR-21 enhances the formation of various types of cellular protrusions through directly targeting and down-regulating SPRY2...
  26. doi MicroRNA-21 promotes cell transformation by targeting the programmed cell death 4 gene
    Z Lu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Oncogene 27:4373-9. 2008
    ..The demonstration that miR-21 promotes cell transformation supports the concept that mir-21 functions as an oncogene by a mechanism that involves translational repression of the tumor suppressor Pdcd4...
  27. pmc C66 ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in mice by both upregulating NRF2 function via increase in miR-200a and inhibiting miR-21
    Hao Wu
    Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, 218 Ziqiang St, Changchun, Jilin, 130041, People s Republic of China
    Diabetologia 59:1558-68. 2016
    ..The present study aimed to define the mechanism by which C66 ameliorates diabetic nephropathy...
  28. pmc MicroRNA 21 (miR-21) and miR-181b couple with NFI-A to generate myeloid-derived suppressor cells and promote immunosuppression in late sepsis
    Clara McClure
    Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University College of Medicine, Johnson City, Tennessee, USA
    Infect Immun 82:3816-25. 2014
    ....
  29. doi miR-21 overexpression enhances TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by target smad7 and aggravates renal damage in diabetic nephropathy
    Jin yang Wang
    Metabolic Disease Center, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Department of Endocrine and Metabolism, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing 100730, China
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 392:163-72. 2014
    ....
  30. pmc MiR-21 is under control of STAT5 but is dispensable for mammary development and lactation
    Yonatan Feuermann
    Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e85123. 2014
    ..Our study demonstrated that although expression of miR-21 is under prolactin control through the transcription factors STAT5A/B its presence is dispensable for mammary development and lactation. ..
  31. pmc MicroRNA-301a regulation of a T-helper 17 immune response controls autoimmune demyelination
    Marcin P Mycko
    Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Lodz, 90 153, Lodz, Poland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E1248-57. 2012
    ..Thus, we have identified a role of miR-301a in regulating the function of myelin-reactive T-helper type 17 cells, supporting a role for miR-301a and PIAS3 as candidates for therapeutic targets for controlling of autoimmune demyelination...
  32. pmc Dicer knockdown inhibits endothelial cell tumor growth via microRNA 21a-3p targeting of Nox-4
    Gayle M Gordillo
    From the Departments of Plastic Surgery and
    J Biol Chem 289:9027-38. 2014
    ..These findings provide the first evidence establishing the significance of dicer and microRNA in promoting endothelial cell tumor growth in vivo. ..
  33. pmc Activation of the miR-17 family and miR-21 during murine kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Tamás Kaucsár
    Institute of Pathophysiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
    Nucleic Acid Ther 23:344-54. 2013
    ..We investigated renal microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles and the time course of changes in selected miRNA expressions after renal I/R to characterize the miRNA network activated during development and recovery from AKI...
  34. ncbi [MicroRNA in neurodegenerative disorders]
    Gen Sobue
    Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku 53:942-4. 2013
    ..Introduction of miRNA appears to be a novel therapeutic strategy for devastating neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  35. pmc The autoregulatory feedback loop of microRNA-21/programmed cell death protein 4/activation protein-1 (MiR-21/PDCD4/AP-1) as a driving force for hepatic fibrosis development
    Zhengping Zhang
    From the State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China and
    J Biol Chem 288:37082-93. 2013
    ..Targeting this aberrantly activated feedback loop may provide a new therapeutic strategy and facilitate drug discovery against hepatic fibrosis. ..
  36. doi MicroRNA-206, let-7a and microRNA-21 pathways involved in the anti-angiogenesis effects of the interval exercise training and hormone therapy in breast cancer
    Amin Isanejad
    Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran Physical Education Department, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
    Life Sci 151:30-40. 2016
    ..For example, miR-21 and miR-206 can effect on the tumor angiogenesis as an oncomir and a tumor suppressor, respectively...
  37. doi Multiomic analysis of mice epilepsy models suggest that miR-21a expression modulates mRNA and protein levels related to seizure deterioration
    Xiaoxiao Hu
    BGI Education Center, University of Chinese Academy of Science, BeiShan Industrial Zone, Yantian District, Shenzhen 518083, China
    Genet Res (Camb) 97:e22. 2015
    ..We also identified three miRNAs targeting SNCA, out of which mmu-miR-21a-3p demonstrated a seven-fold change in expression between control and epileptic mice. ..
  38. pmc Micro-RNA 21 inhibition of SMAD7 enhances fibrogenesis via leptin-mediated NADPH oxidase in experimental and human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
    Diptadip Dattaroy
    Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 308:G298-312. 2015
    ..the role of leptin-mediated upregulation of NADPH oxidase and its subsequent induction of micro-RNA 21 (miR21) in fibrogenesis...
  39. pmc Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated inhibition of microRNA-21 protects mice against the lethal schistosome infection by repressing both IL-13 and transforming growth factor beta 1 pathways
    Xing He
    Department of Tropical Infectious Diseases, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
    Hepatology 61:2008-17. 2015
    ..Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-21 in HSCs reversed HF by enhancing SMAD7 expression, thus repressing TGF-β1/Smad and IL-13/Smad pathways...
  40. doi Anti-inflammatory effects of miR-21 in the macrophage response to peritonitis
    Rebecca Elise Barnett
    Hiram C Polk, Jr, MD, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA and Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 99:361-71. 2016
    ....
  41. pmc Local MicroRNA Modulation Using a Novel Anti-miR-21-Eluting Stent Effectively Prevents Experimental In-Stent Restenosis
    Dong Wang
    From the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, TSI Laboratory D W, T D, M S, S S and Department of Cardiovascular Surgery T D, H R, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Research Center Hamburg CVRC and DZHK German Center for Cardiovascular Research, partner site Hamburg Kiel Luebeck, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany D W, T D, M S, S S Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, CMM L8 03, Stockholm, Sweden E C, S M E, H J, Y L, A B, L M Unit of Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Experimental Endocrinology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria R G E Department of Cardiology Asklepios Clinic St Georg, Hamburg, Germany C H H Translumina GmbH, Hechingen, Germany B B Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 35:1945-53. 2015
    ..Despite advances in stent technology for vascular interventions, in-stent restenosis (ISR) because of myointimal hyperplasia remains a major complication...
  42. doi MicroRNA-21, induced by high glucose, modulates macrophage apoptosis via programmed cell death 4
    Yuan Yuan Shang
    Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Ji Nan, Shandong 250012, P R China
    Mol Med Rep 12:463-9. 2015
    ..In conclusion, miR-21 is sensitive to high-concentration glucose treatment in macrophages, and appears to have a protective effect in macrophage apoptosis induced by high concentrations of glucose via PDCD4...
  43. pmc Xenon Protects Against Septic Acute Kidney Injury via miR-21 Target Signaling Pathway
    Ping Jia
    1Division of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China 2Kidney and Dialysis Institute of Shanghai, Shanghai, China 3Kidney and Blood Purification Laboratory of Shanghai, Shanghai, China 4Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI
    Crit Care Med 43:e250-9. 2015
    ..Here, we studied the effects of xenon preconditioning on septic acute kidney injury and its mechanism...
  44. doi MicroRNA-21 coordinates human multipotent cardiovascular progenitors therapeutic potential
    Adèle Richart
    INSERM UMRS 970, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France
    Stem Cells 32:2908-22. 2014
    ....
  45. doi Role of microRNA-21 in the formation of insulin-producing cells from pancreatic progenitor cells
    Chunyu Bai
    Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1859:280-93. 2016
    ..These results suggest that endogenous miRNAs involved in the formation of IPCs from PPCs should be considered in the development of an effective cell transplant therapy for diabetes. ..
  46. pmc Strand-specific in vivo screen of cancer-associated miRNAs unveils a role for miR-21(∗) in SCC progression
    Yejing Ge
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 18:111-21. 2016
    ..Through in vivo physiological miR screens, our findings add an interesting twist to an increasingly important oncomiR locus. ..
  47. doi Endothelial apoptosis in pulmonary hypertension is controlled by a microRNA/programmed cell death 4/caspase-3 axis
    Kevin White
    From the Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom K W, Y D, P C, E W, R A M, H S, M R M, A H B Solid Tumor Division, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN M E H MiRagen Therapeutics, Boulder, CO E V R and Division of Respiratory Medicine, Addenbrooke s Hospital, University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom N W M
    Hypertension 64:185-94. 2014
    ..Broadly, these findings support the existence of a microRNA-21-responsive PDCD4/caspase-3 pathway in the pulmonary tissues that when active serves to promote endothelial apoptosis in vitro and PH in vivo. ..
  48. doi Epstein-Barr virus infection induces miR-21 in terminally differentiated malignant B cells
    Eleni Anastasiadou
    Department of Experimental Medicine, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
    Int J Cancer 137:1491-7. 2015
    ....
  49. pmc Involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of muscle wasting during catabolic conditions
    Ricardo José Soares
    From the Dulbecco Telethon Institute, Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, 35129 Padova, Italy, the Ph D Programme in Experimental Biology and Biomedicine, Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004 517 Coimbra, Portugal
    J Biol Chem 289:21909-25. 2014
    ..Thus miRNAs are important for fine-tuning the atrophy program and their modulation can be a novel potential therapeutic approach to counteract muscle loss and weakness in catabolic conditions. ..
  50. pmc MPT64 protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits apoptosis of macrophages through NF-kB-miRNA21-Bcl-2 pathway
    Qingmin Wang
    Division of Aviation Medicine, Naval Medical Research Institute, Shanghai, China
    PLoS ONE 9:e100949. 2014
    ..Finally, NF-κB was identified as the transcription factor for miRNA-21 using a ChIP assay. It can be concluded from our study that MPT64 could inhibit the apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages through the NF-κB-miRNA21-Bcl-2 pathway. ..
  51. doi microRNA 21-mediated suppression of Sprouty1 by Pokemon affects liver cancer cell growth and proliferation
    Xiu Li Jin
    The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, the Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, P R China
    J Cell Biochem 114:1625-33. 2013
    ..This study recognized miR-21 and Sprouty1 as novel targets of the Pokemon regulatory network...
  52. ncbi MiR-21 confers resistance against CVB3-induced myocarditis by inhibiting PDCD4-mediated apoptosis
    Jin He
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, PR China
    Clin Invest Med 36:E103-11. 2013
    ..In this study, the key myocardial miRNA, miR-21, was identified in the murine coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis model and its contribution to disease progression was explored...
  53. doi MicroRNA-21 and -146b are involved in the pathogenesis of murine viral myocarditis by regulating TH-17 differentiation
    Yan Li Liu
    Guangxi Cardiovascular Institute, Shuang Yong Road 6, Nanning, 530021, People s Republic of China
    Arch Virol 158:1953-63. 2013
    ..Inhibition of miRNA-21 and -146b might ameliorate myocardium inflammation by mediating downregulation of RORγt expression, indicating that these miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of murine VMC. ..
  54. pmc NOS2 enhances KRAS-induced lung carcinogenesis, inflammation and microRNA-21 expression
    Hirokazu Okayama
    Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Int J Cancer 132:9-18. 2013
    ..Inhibition of NOS2 may have a therapeutic value in lung cancers with oncogenic KRAS mutations...
  55. pmc Silencing of microRNA-21 in vivo ameliorates autoimmune splenomegaly in lupus mice
    Barry G Garchow
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA
    EMBO Mol Med 3:605-15. 2011
    ..Our study shows that tiny LNAs can be used to efficiently antagonize endogenous miRNAs in peripheral lymphocytes in vivo and in primary lymphocytes cultured ex vivo and can alter the course of a spontaneous genetic disease in mice...
  56. pmc Interaction of the oncogenic miR-21 microRNA and the p53 tumor suppressor pathway
    Xiaodong Ma
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Carcinogenesis 34:1216-23. 2013
    ..These data suggest that inhibition of miR-21 would be beneficial in apoptosis-inducing cancer therapies directed against p53-deficient tumors...
  57. pmc miR-21 represses Pdcd4 during cardiac valvulogenesis
    Heather J Kolpa
    Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Development 140:2172-80. 2013
    ..PDCD4 knockdown alone was sufficient to enhance endothelial cell migration. These results demonstrate that miR-21 plays a necessary role in cardiac valvulogenesis, in large part due to an obligatory downregulation of PDCD4...
  58. pmc Targeted ablation of miR-21 decreases murine eosinophil progenitor cell growth
    Thomas X Lu
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e59397. 2013
    ..These results demonstrate that miR-21 can regulate the development of eosinophils by influencing eosinophil progenitor cell growth. Our findings have identified one of the first miRNAs with a role in regulating eosinophil development...
  59. pmc Increased circulating miR-21 levels are associated with kidney fibrosis
    Francois Glowacki
    EA4483, Département de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, Faculté de Médecine H Warembourg, Pole Recherche, Lille, France
    PLoS ONE 8:e58014. 2013
    ..398, p = 0.006). Altogether, these data suggest miR-21 has a key pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis and may represent a novel, predictive and reliable blood marker of kidney fibrosis...
  60. doi MicroRNA-21 blocks abdominal aortic aneurysm development and nicotine-augmented expansion
    Lars Maegdefessel
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Sci Transl Med 4:122ra22. 2012
    ..Modulation of miR-21 expression shows potential as a new therapeutic option to limit AAA expansion and vascular disease progression...
  61. pmc The Bcl6 target gene microRNA-21 promotes Th2 differentiation by a T cell intrinsic pathway
    Deepali V Sawant
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Mol Immunol 54:435-42. 2013
    ..MiR-21 could thus help promote the Th2 bias of Bcl6-deficient conventional T cells and Treg cells. MiR21 expression is increased in Th2-type inflammation, and our results define miR-21 as a critical target of Bcl6, thus ..
  62. pmc miR-21 mediates hematopoietic suppression in MDS by activating TGF-β signaling
    Tushar D Bhagat
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
    Blood 121:2875-81. 2013
    ..Taken together, these studies demonstrate the role of miR-21 in regulating overactivated TGF-β signaling in MDS...
  63. ncbi Very early effect of DMBA and MNU on microRNA expression
    Krisztina Juhász
    Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs, 12 Szigeti Str, 7624 Hungary
    In Vivo 27:113-7. 2013
    ..microRNA expression profile analysis provides evaluation of the early stages of carcinogenesis. This study focuses on early alteration of miRNA expression after treatment with different carcinogens...
  64. pmc Identification of a microRNA signature in renal fibrosis: role of miR-21
    Abolfazl Zarjou
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 301:F793-801. 2011
    ..Our data suggest that targeting specific miRNAs could be a novel therapeutic approach to treat renal fibrosis...
  65. doi MiR-21 is involved in cervical squamous cell tumorigenesis and regulates CCL20
    Tingting Yao
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Sun Yat Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat Sen University, 107 Yan Jiang West Road, Guangzhou 510120, People s Republic of China
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1822:248-60. 2012
    ..By luciferase reporter assays, we confirmed that CCL20 is one of its target genes, which is related to the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes. Our results suggest that miR-21 may be involved in cervical squamous cell tumorigenesis...
  66. doi MicroRNA signature in diabetic wound healing: promotive role of miR-21 in fibroblast migration
    R Madhyastha
    Department of Applied Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan
    Int Wound J 9:355-61. 2012
    ..Using gain-of and loss-of function approaches, we show that miR-21 is involved in fibroblast migration. Our preliminary studies implicate an important role for miRNAs in the pathogenesis of diabetic wounds...
  67. pmc Signaling by the matrix proteoglycan decorin controls inflammation and cancer through PDCD4 and MicroRNA-21
    Rosetta Merline
    1Pharmazentrum Frankfurt, Institut fur Allgemeine Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Klinikum der Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Sci Signal 4:ra75. 2011
    ..Thus, by stimulating proinflammatory PDCD4 and decreasing the abundance of miR-21, decorin signaling boosts inflammatory activity in sepsis and suppresses tumor growth...
  68. pmc Epigenetics and genetics. MicroRNAs en route to the clinic: progress in validating and targeting microRNAs for cancer therapy
    Andrea L Kasinski
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 11:849-64. 2011
    ..Here we discuss progress in using mouse models to understand the roles of miRNAs in cancer and the potential for manipulating miRNAs for cancer therapy as these molecules make their way towards clinical trials...
  69. ncbi DMBA induces deregulation of miRNA expression of let-7, miR-21 and miR-146a in CBA/CA mice
    Krisztina Juhász
    Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs, 12 Szigeti Str, 7624 Hungary
    In Vivo 26:113-7. 2012
    ..7,12-Dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) is a carcinogen capable of inducing various types of tumors...
  70. pmc PAI-1-regulated miR-21 defines a novel age-associated fibrogenic pathway in muscular dystrophy
    Esther Ardite
    Cell Biology Group, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    J Cell Biol 196:163-75. 2012
    ..The PAI-1-miR-21 fibrogenic axis also appeared dysregulated in muscle of DMD patients, providing a basis for effectively targeting fibrosis and muscular dystrophies in currently untreatable individuals...
  71. pmc MicroRNA-21 promotes fibrosis of the kidney by silencing metabolic pathways
    B Nelson Chau
    Regulus Therapeutics, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Sci Transl Med 4:121ra18. 2012
    ..These studies demonstrate that miR-21 contributes to fibrogenesis and epithelial injury in the kidney in two mouse models and is a candidate target for antifibrotic therapies...
  72. pmc MicroRNA-21 integrates pathogenic signaling to control pulmonary hypertension: results of a network bioinformatics approach
    Victoria N Parikh
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, New Research Building, 77 Ave Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Circulation 125:1520-32. 2012
    ..Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is driven by diverse pathogenic etiologies. Owing to their pleiotropic actions, microRNA molecules are potential candidates for coordinated regulation of these disease stimuli...
  73. doi miR-21 expression is related to particle-induced osteolysis pathogenesis
    Yingchuan Zhou
    Department of Orthopedics, Wuxi People s Hospital, Wuxi, China
    J Orthop Res 30:1837-42. 2012
    ....
  74. pmc The Grainyhead transcription factor Grhl3/Get1 suppresses miR-21 expression and tumorigenesis in skin: modulation of the miR-21 target MSH2 by RNA-binding protein DND1
    A Bhandari
    Department of Medicine, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 4030, USA
    Oncogene 32:1497-507. 2013
    ..These findings indicate that decreased Grhl3 expression contributes to tumor progression and upregulation of the oncomir miR-21 in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin...
  75. pmc EMT and induction of miR-21 mediate metastasis development in Trp53-deficient tumours
    Olga Bornachea
    Molecular Oncology Unit, CIEMAT, Ave Complutense 40, E 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Sci Rep 2:434. 2012
    ..Collectively these data identify novel molecular mechanisms leading to metastasis in vivo originated by p53 loss in epithelia...
  76. pmc miRNA-21 is developmentally regulated in mouse brain and is co-expressed with SOX2 in glioma
    Jelena Polajeva
    Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, SE 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
    BMC Cancer 12:378. 2012
    ..We decided to investigate the expression of the oncogenic miR-21 during normal mouse development and glioma, focusing on PDGF signaling as a potential regulator of miR-21...
  77. doi A novel reciprocal loop between microRNA-21 and TGFβRIII is involved in cardiac fibrosis
    Haihai Liang
    Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, PR China
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 44:2152-60. 2012
    ....
  78. doi miR-21 regulates skin wound healing by targeting multiple aspects of the healing process
    Tao Wang
    Institute of Combined Injury, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China
    Am J Pathol 181:1911-20. 2012
    ..These results suggest that miR-21 may be a new medical target in skin wound manipulation...
  79. pmc Long-lived microRNA-Argonaute complexes in quiescent cells can be activated to regulate mitogenic responses
    Scott H Olejniczak
    Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:157-62. 2013
    ..Therefore, mature microRNAs may represent a previously unappreciated form of cellular memory that allows cells to retain posttranscriptional regulatory information over extended periods of cellular quiescence...
  80. ncbi DEAD-box RNA helicase subunits of the Drosha complex are required for processing of rRNA and a subset of microRNAs
    Toru Fukuda
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1 1 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    Nat Cell Biol 9:604-11. 2007
    ..8S rRNA in vitro. Thus, we suggest that DEAD-box RNA helicase subunits are required for recognition of a subset of primary miRNAs in mDrosha-mediated processing...
  81. pmc Extensive post-transcriptional regulation of microRNAs and its implications for cancer
    J Michael Thomson
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Genes Dev 20:2202-7. 2006
    ..These data uncover a novel regulatory step in miRNA function and provide a mechanism for miRNA down-regulation in cancer...
  82. pmc Competing interactions between micro-RNAs determine neural progenitor survival and proliferation after ethanol exposure: evidence from an ex vivo model of the fetal cerebral cortical neuroepithelium
    Pratheesh Sathyan
    Department Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Texas 77843 1114, USA
    J Neurosci 27:8546-57. 2007
    ....
  83. doi MicroRNA expression and regulation in mouse uterus during embryo implantation
    Shi Jun Hu
    Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, College of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
    J Biol Chem 283:23473-84. 2008
    ..Furthermore, we showed that Reck was the target gene of miR-21. Our data suggest that miR-21 may play a key role during embryo implantation...
  84. doi A large ribonucleoprotein particle induced by cytoplasmic PrP shares striking similarities with the chromatoid body, an RNA granule predicted to function in posttranscriptional gene regulation
    Simon Beaudoin
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, 3001 12 ème avenue nord, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1793:335-45. 2009
    ....
  85. doi MicroRNA-21 protects from mesangial cell proliferation induced by diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice
    Zheng Zhang
    Department of Cell Biology and Medical Genetics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    FEBS Lett 583:2009-14. 2009
    ..We also found PI3K and p-Akt increased in miR-21 treated mesangial cells and db/db mice. Overall, these studies for the first time provide evidence for the potential role of miR-21 in early DN...
  86. pmc MicroRNA 21 blocks apoptosis in mouse periovulatory granulosa cells
    Martha Z Carletti
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
    Biol Reprod 83:286-95. 2010
    ..MicroRNA 21 (miR-21, official symbol Mir21) is one of three highly LH-induced miRNAs in murine granulosa cells, and here we examine the function and temporal ..
  87. pmc Identification of a microRNA signature of renal ischemia reperfusion injury
    Jonathan G Godwin
    Transplantation Research Center, Renal Division, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14339-44. 2010
    ..However, overexpression of miR-21 alone was not sufficient to prevent TEC death following ischemia. Our findings therefore define a molecular fingerprint of renal injury and suggest miR-21 may play a role in protecting TEC from death...
  88. pmc A microRNA expression signature of osteoclastogenesis
    Toshifumi Sugatani
    Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Blood 117:3648-57. 2011
    ..Thus, our studies provide a new molecular mechanism, including a positive feedback loop of c-Fos/miR-21/PDCD4, regulating osteoclastogenesis...
  89. doi Mesenchymal miR-21 regulates branching morphogenesis in murine submandibular gland in vitro
    Toru Hayashi
    Department of Pharmacology, Asahi University School of Dentistry, 1851 Hozumi, Mizuho, Gifu 501 0296, Japan
    Dev Biol 352:299-307. 2011
    ..These results suggest that branching morphogenesis is regulated by miR-21 through gene expression related to ECM degradation in the mesenchyme...
  90. pmc MicroRNA-21 orchestrates high glucose-induced signals to TOR complex 1, resulting in renal cell pathology in diabetes
    Nirmalya Dey
    Veterans Affairs Research, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:25586-603. 2011
    ..Thus, our results identify a previously unrecognized function of miR-21 that is the reciprocal regulation of PTEN levels and Akt/TORC1 activity that mediate critical pathologic features of diabetic kidney disease...
  91. pmc The microRNA-21-PDCD4 axis prevents type 1 diabetes by blocking pancreatic beta cell death
    Qingguo Ruan
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12030-5. 2011
    ..In pancreatic β cells, c-Rel and p65 of the NF-κB family activated the mir21 gene promoter and increased miR-21 RNA levels; miR-21 in turn decreased the level of PDCD4, which is able to ..
  92. pmc MicroRNA-21 regulates the self-renewal of mouse spermatogonial stem cells
    Zhiyv Niu
    Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, and Penn Bioinformatics Core, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12740-5. 2011
    ..Moreover, we show that in SSC-enriched germ cell cultures, miR-21 is regulated by the transcription factor ETV5, known to be critical for SSC self-renewal...
  93. pmc Axotomy-induced miR-21 promotes axon growth in adult dorsal root ganglion neurons
    Iain T Strickland
    School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e23423. 2011
    ..Our data show that miR-21 is an axotomy-induced miRNA that enhances axon growth, and suggest that miRNAs are important players in regulating growth pathways following peripheral nerve injury...
  94. pmc MicroRNA miR-21 regulates the metastatic behavior of B16 melanoma cells
    Chuan He Yang
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:39172-8. 2011
    ....