Msx1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Msx1
Description: msh homeobox 1
Alias: AA675338, AI324650, Hox-7, Hox7, Hox7.1, msh, homeobox protein MSX-1, homeo box, msh-like 1, homeobox protein Hox-7, homeobox, msh-like 1, hox-7.1, msh homeobox 1-like protein, muscle-segment homeobox
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Msx homeobox gene family and craniofacial development
    Sylvia Alappat
    Division of Developmental Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Cell Res 13:429-42. 2003
  2. ncbi Bmp2 is essential for cardiac cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myocardial patterning
    Lijiang Ma
    Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, 2121 West Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Development 132:5601-11. 2005
  3. ncbi Msx1 and Dlx5 act independently in development of craniofacial skeleton, but converge on the regulation of Bmp signaling in palate formation
    Giovanni Levi
    Evolution des Regulations Endocriniennes, CNRS UMR5166, Museum national d histoire naturelle, Paris, France
    Mech Dev 123:3-16. 2006
  4. ncbi Insertional mutation of the mouse Msx1 homeobox gene by an nlacZ reporter gene
    D Houzelstein
    CNRS URA 1947, Departement de Biologie Moleculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Mech Dev 65:123-33. 1997
  5. ncbi Msx1 is required for dorsal diencephalon patterning
    Antoine Bach
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire de la Morphogenèse, Institut Pasteur, URA 2578 du CNRS, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Development 130:4025-36. 2003
  6. ncbi Threshold-specific requirements for Bmp4 in mandibular development
    Wei Liu
    Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M System Health Science Center, Houston, 77030, USA
    Dev Biol 283:282-93. 2005
  7. ncbi Multiple isoforms of heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase. Isolation, characterization, and expression of human cdnas and identification of distinct genomic loci
    N W Shworak
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:5170-84. 1999
  8. pmc Epithelial and ectomesenchymal role of the type I TGF-beta receptor ALK5 during facial morphogenesis and palatal fusion
    Marek Dudas
    Developmental Biology Program, The Saban Research Institute of Children s Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
    Dev Biol 296:298-314. 2006
  9. pmc Indirect modulation of Shh signaling by Dlx5 affects the oral-nasal patterning of palate and rescues cleft palate in Msx1-null mice
    Jun Han
    Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology School of Dentistry University of Southern California, CSA 103, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Development 136:4225-33. 2009
  10. pmc Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium
    Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy
    Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002500. 2012

Research Grants

  1. ROLES OF SOX C GENES IN SKELETOGENESIS
    VERONIQUE M LEFEBVRE; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF EARLY LIMB DEVELOPMENT
    Arend Sidow; Fiscal Year: 2004
  3. Functional Analysis of Spinal Cord Interneurons
    Martyn Goulding; Fiscal Year: 2005
  4. The ProPhylER Database and Web Resource
    Arend Sidow; Fiscal Year: 2006
  5. Specification of Dorsal Lbx1-Derived Interneurons
    Martyn Goulding; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. The Ciona savignyi Genetic Map
    Arend Sidow; Fiscal Year: 2008

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications167 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Msx homeobox gene family and craniofacial development
    Sylvia Alappat
    Division of Developmental Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Cell Res 13:429-42. 2003
    Vertebrate Msx genes are unlinked, homeobox-containing genes that bear homology to the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox gene...
  2. ncbi Bmp2 is essential for cardiac cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myocardial patterning
    Lijiang Ma
    Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, 2121 West Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Development 132:5601-11. 2005
    ..the basic helix-loop-helix factor Twist1, previously implicated in EMT in cancer metastases, and the homeobox genes Msx1 and Msx2...
  3. ncbi Msx1 and Dlx5 act independently in development of craniofacial skeleton, but converge on the regulation of Bmp signaling in palate formation
    Giovanni Levi
    Evolution des Regulations Endocriniennes, CNRS UMR5166, Museum national d histoire naturelle, Paris, France
    Mech Dev 123:3-16. 2006
    ..In this report we examine the skeletal phenotype of Msx1; Dlx5 double knock-out (DKO) mice in relationship with their expression territories during craniofacial development...
  4. ncbi Insertional mutation of the mouse Msx1 homeobox gene by an nlacZ reporter gene
    D Houzelstein
    CNRS URA 1947, Departement de Biologie Moleculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Mech Dev 65:123-33. 1997
    We have generated a null allele of the mouse Msx1 homeobox gene by insertion of an nlacZ reporter gene into its homeobox...
  5. ncbi Msx1 is required for dorsal diencephalon patterning
    Antoine Bach
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire de la Morphogenèse, Institut Pasteur, URA 2578 du CNRS, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Development 130:4025-36. 2003
    ..Msx genes are expressed at the dorsal midline, although their function at this site remains unknown. Using Msx1(nlacZ) mutant mice, we show that the normal expression domain of Msx1 is interrupted in the pretectum of mutant ..
  6. ncbi Threshold-specific requirements for Bmp4 in mandibular development
    Wei Liu
    Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M System Health Science Center, Houston, 77030, USA
    Dev Biol 283:282-93. 2005
    ..Furthermore, our data uncovered different Bmp4 thresholds for expression of the Bmp-dependent Msx1 and Msx2 genes in mandibular mesenchyme...
  7. ncbi Multiple isoforms of heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase. Isolation, characterization, and expression of human cdnas and identification of distinct genomic loci
    N W Shworak
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:5170-84. 1999
    ..Moreover, the extensive number of 3OST genes with diverse expression patterns of multiple transcripts suggests that the novel 3-OST enzymes, like 3-OST-1, regulate important biologic properties of heparan sulfate proteoglycans...
  8. pmc Epithelial and ectomesenchymal role of the type I TGF-beta receptor ALK5 during facial morphogenesis and palatal fusion
    Marek Dudas
    Developmental Biology Program, The Saban Research Institute of Children s Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
    Dev Biol 296:298-314. 2006
    ....
  9. pmc Indirect modulation of Shh signaling by Dlx5 affects the oral-nasal patterning of palate and rescues cleft palate in Msx1-null mice
    Jun Han
    Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology School of Dentistry University of Southern California, CSA 103, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Development 136:4225-33. 2009
    ..to restore palatal expansion and fusion in mice with compromised palatal mesenchymal cell proliferation, such as Msx1-null mutants...
  10. pmc Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium
    Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy
    Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002500. 2012
    The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development...
  11. ncbi Expression of Hox-7.1 in myoblasts inhibits terminal differentiation and induces cell transformation
    K Song
    Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts 02118
    Nature 360:477-81. 1992
    ..1 with proliferation, Hox-7.1-expressing cells also acquire a transformed phenotype. Forced expression of Hox-8.1, a related Hox-gene, does not affect terminal differentiation indicating that the effects of Hox-7.1 are specific...
  12. ncbi Wnt signaling mediates regional specification in the vertebrate face
    Samantha A Brugmann
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Development 134:3283-95. 2007
    ..Collectively, these data elucidate a new role for Wnt signaling in regional specification of the vertebrate face, and suggest possible mechanisms whereby species-specific facial features are generated...
  13. pmc Apc inhibition of Wnt signaling regulates supernumerary tooth formation during embryogenesis and throughout adulthood
    Xiu Ping Wang
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 136:1939-49. 2009
    ..Strikingly, Msx1, which is necessary for endogenous tooth development, is dispensable for supernumerary tooth formation...
  14. ncbi Regulation of Msx-1, Msx-2, Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 during foetal and postnatal mammary gland development
    D J Phippard
    Institute of Cancer Research, Haddow Laboratories, Sutton, Surrey, UK
    Development 122:2729-37. 1996
    ..The regulation of Msx-2 expression by oestrogen raises the possibility that hormonal regulation of mammary development is mediated through the control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions...
  15. doi Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation
    Miguel Lopes
    Institut Pasteur, Génétique Moléculaire de la Morphogenèse, CNRS URA 2578, Paris, France
    Development 138:3055-66. 2011
    ..We previously showed that, in the mouse embryo, Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) are expressed in mural cells and in a few endothelial cells...
  16. ncbi The murine homeobox gene Msx-3 shows highly restricted expression in the developing neural tube
    S M Shimeld
    Department of Craniofacial Development, UMDS, Guys Hospital, London Bridge, London, UK
    Mech Dev 55:201-10. 1996
    ..The dorsal expression of Msx-3 was seen to expand into more ventral regions of the neurectoderm in Bmp-4-treated cultures, implying that Bmp-4 may be able to mimic an in vivo signal that induces Msx-3...
  17. ncbi Multiple sites of Hox-7 expression during mouse embryogenesis: comparison with retinoic acid receptor mRNA localization
    G E Lyons
    Department of Molecular Biology, U A CNRS 1148, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Mol Reprod Dev 32:303-14. 1992
    ..Most regions that express Hox-7 are subregions of gamma-RAR expression. In the developing limb bud, expression of Hox-7 takes place in the interdigital region, where it overlaps areas of beta-RAR expression...
  18. ncbi Id genes are direct targets of bone morphogenetic protein induction in embryonic stem cells
    A Hollnagel
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, D 30625 Hannover, Germany
    J Biol Chem 274:19838-45. 1999
    ..We therefore propose that the Msx and Id genes are direct target genes of embryonic BMP4 signaling in vivo...
  19. ncbi BMP4 rescues a non-cell-autonomous function of Msx1 in tooth development
    M Bei
    Genetics Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 127:4711-8. 2000
    ..In Msx1-deficient mice, tooth development arrests at the bud stage when Msx1 is required for the expression of Bmp4 and ..
  20. pmc Fgfr1 regulates patterning of the pharyngeal region
    Nina Trokovic
    Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    Genes Dev 17:141-53. 2003
    ..Our results indicate that Fgfr1 patterns the pharyngeal region to create a permissive environment for neural crest cell migration...
  21. ncbi Msx1 disruption leads to diencephalon defects and hydrocephalus
    Casto Ramos
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Dev Dyn 230:446-60. 2004
    We have analyzed the expression of the Msx1 gene in the developing mouse brain and examined the brain phenotype in homozygotes...
  22. pmc Msx1 and Dlx5 function synergistically to regulate frontal bone development
    Il Hyuk Chung
    Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Genesis 48:645-55. 2010
    The Msx and Dlx families of homeobox proteins are important regulators for embryogenesis. Loss of Msx1 in mice results in multiple developmental defects including craniofacial malformations...
  23. ncbi Mechanisms of reduced fertility in Hoxa-10 mutant mice: uterine homeosis and loss of maternal Hoxa-10 expression
    G V Benson
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 122:2687-96. 1996
    ..These results show that Hoxa-10 is required during morphogenesis for proper patterning of the reproductive tract and in the adult uterus for peri-implantation events...
  24. ncbi Interactions between Bmp-4 and Msx-1 act to restrict gene expression to odontogenic mesenchyme
    A S Tucker
    Department of Craniofacial Development, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Dev Dyn 212:533-9. 1998
    ....
  25. ncbi FGFs and BMP4 induce both Msx1-independent and Msx1-dependent signaling pathways in early tooth development
    M Bei
    Genetics Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 125:4325-33. 1998
    ..signal, BMP4, has been shown to induce morphologic changes in dental mesenchyme and mesenchymal gene expression via Msx1, but BMP4 cannot substitute for all the inductive functions of the dental epithelium...
  26. pmc Cre-mediated gene inactivation demonstrates that FGF8 is required for cell survival and patterning of the first branchial arch
    A Trumpp
    G W Hooper Foundation, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco UCSF, San Francisco, California 94143 0552, USA
    Genes Dev 13:3136-48. 1999
    ..Because the mutant mice resemble humans with first arch syndromes that include agnathia, our results raise the possibility that some of these syndromes are caused by mutations that affect FGF8 signaling in BA1 ectoderm...
  27. ncbi Coordinate regulation and synergistic actions of BMP4, SHH and FGF8 in the rostral prosencephalon regulate morphogenesis of the telencephalic and optic vesicles
    Y Ohkubo
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Department of Psychiatry, LPPI, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus, P O Box 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Neuroscience 111:1-17. 2002
    ....
  28. ncbi Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes
    Michael J Depew
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, 401 Parnassus Avenue, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Science 298:381-5. 2002
    ..We suggest that nested Dlx expression in the arches patterns their proximodistal axes. Evolutionary acquisition and subsequent refinement of jaws may have been dependent on modification of Dlx expression...
  29. ncbi Fgf8 is required for pharyngeal arch and cardiovascular development in the mouse
    Radwan Abu-Issa
    Department of Pediatrics, Neonatal Perinatal Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Development 129:4613-25. 2002
    ..This study defines the cardiovascular defects present in Fgf8 mutants and supports a role for Fgf8 in development of all the pharyngeal arches and in NCC survival...
  30. doi Lmx1a and Lmx1b cooperate with Foxa2 to coordinate the specification of dopaminergic neurons and control of floor plate cell differentiation in the developing mesencephalon
    Tomoya Nakatani
    KAN Research Institute Inc, Kobe MI R and D Center, 6 7 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo Ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650 0047, Japan
    Dev Biol 339:101-13. 2010
    ....
  31. pmc Bmp4 is essential for the formation of the vestibular apparatus that detects angular head movements
    Weise Chang
    National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, NIH, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000050. 2008
    ..Instead, Bmp4 most likely mediates crista formation by regulating Lmo4 and Msx1 in the sensory region and Gata3, p75Ngfr, and Lmo4 in the non-sensory region of the crista, the septum cruciatum...
  32. ncbi Role of Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 genes in patterning of the murine dentition
    B L Thomas
    Department of Craniofacial Development, Guy s Hospital, London, UK
    Development 124:4811-8. 1997
    ..This is the first indication that the development of different shaped teeth at different positions in the jaws is determined by independent genetic pathways...
  33. ncbi Expression patterns of the homeobox gene, Hox-8, in the mouse embryo suggest a role in specifying tooth initiation and shape
    A Mackenzie
    Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Manchester, UK
    Development 115:403-20. 1992
    ..This reciprocity of expression suggests an interactive role between Hox-7, Hox-8 and other genes in regulating epithelial mesenchymal interactions during dental differentiation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)..
  34. ncbi The homeobox gene Hox 7.1 has specific regional and temporal expression patterns during early murine craniofacial embryogenesis, especially tooth development in vivo and in vitro
    A Mackenzie
    Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Manchester, UK
    Development 111:269-85. 1991
    b>Hox 7.1 is a murine homeobox-containing gene expressed in a range of neural-crest-derived tissues and areas of putative epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. We have examined the expression of Hox 7...
  35. pmc Transcriptional repression by Msx-1 does not require homeodomain DNA-binding sites
    K M Catron
    Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway
    Mol Cell Biol 15:861-71. 1995
    ..We speculate that the repressor function of Msx-1 is critical for its proposed role in embryogenesis as a regulator of cellular differentiation...
  36. ncbi Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are required for msx 1 and msx 2 gene expression in the developing murine molar tooth
    A K Jowett
    Department of Pedodontics and Orthodontics, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Development 117:461-70. 1993
    Duplication of the msh-like homeobox gene of Drosophila may be related to the evolution of the vertebrate head...
  37. ncbi Identification of BMP-4 as a signal mediating secondary induction between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues during early tooth development
    S Vainio
    Department of Pedodontics and Orthodontics, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Cell 75:45-58. 1993
    ..In addition, BMP-4 induced its own mesenchymal expression. These findings support the hypothesis that BMP-4 mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during early tooth development...
  38. pmc Heterodimerization of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins results in functional antagonism
    H Zhang
    Graduate Program in Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 17:2920-32. 1997
    ..Finally, we show that the expression patterns of representative Msx and Dlx genes (Msx1, Msx2, Dlx2, and Dlx5) overlap in mouse embryogenesis during limb bud and craniofacial development, consistent with ..
  39. ncbi Nkx5-1 controls semicircular canal formation in the mouse inner ear
    T Hadrys
    Technical University Braunschweig, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Germany
    Development 125:33-9. 1998
    ..Nkx5-1 is the first ear-specific molecule identified to play a crucial role in the formation of the mammalian vestibular system...
  40. ncbi Patterning of the murine dentition by homeobox genes
    B L Thomas
    Department of Craniofacial Development, UMDS, Guy s Hospital, London, UK
    Eur J Oral Sci 106:48-54. 1998
    ..We propose that expression of these genes constitutes an odontogenic homeobox code which patterns the dentition...
  41. ncbi The Shh signalling pathway in tooth development: defects in Gli2 and Gli3 mutants
    Z Hardcastle
    Department of Craniofacial Development, UMDS, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Development 125:2803-11. 1998
    ..These results show an essential role for Shh signalling in tooth development that involves functional redundancy of downstream Gli genes...
  42. ncbi Teeth. Where and how to make them
    H Peters
    GSF Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute for Mammalian Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany
    Trends Genet 15:59-65. 1999
    ..The mesenchymal transcription factors Msx1 and Pax9 are initially regulated by epithelial FGFs and BMPs, but subsequently they function upstream of these ..
  43. ncbi The homeobox gene Msx1 is expressed in a subset of somites, and in muscle progenitor cells migrating into the forelimb
    D Houzelstein
    Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire de la Morphogenèse, CNRS URA 1947, Departement de Biologie Moleculaire, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Development 126:2689-701. 1999
    In myoblast cell cultures, the Msx1 protein is able to repress myogenesis and maintain cells in an undifferentiated and proliferative state. However, there has been no evidence that Msx1 is expressed in muscle or its precursors in vivo...
  44. ncbi Manifestation of the limb prepattern: limb development in the absence of sonic hedgehog function
    C Chiang
    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    Dev Biol 236:421-35. 2001
    ..According to this model, the limb bud signaling centers, including the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) acting through Shh, are required to elaborate upon the axial information provided by the native limb field prepattern...
  45. ncbi Conditional inactivation of Tgfbr2 in cranial neural crest causes cleft palate and calvaria defects
    Yoshihiro Ito
    Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA 103, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Development 130:5269-80. 2003
    ..This study demonstrates that TGFbeta IIR plays an essential role in the development of the CNC and provides a model for the study of abnormal CNC development...
  46. ncbi Distinct functions for Bmp signaling in lip and palate fusion in mice
    Wei Liu
    Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M System Health Science Center, 2121 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Development 132:1453-61. 2005
    ..Mutations in the Bmp target gene Msx1 in families with both forms of orofacial clefting has implicated Bmp signaling in both pathways...
  47. ncbi Functional consequences of interactions between Pax9 and Msx1 genes in normal and abnormal tooth development
    Takuya Ogawa
    Department of Orthodontics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Dental Branch, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:18363-9. 2006
    Pax9 and Msx1 encode transcription factors that are known to be essential for the switch in odontogenic potential from the epithelium to the mesenchyme...
  48. ncbi Msx1 and Msx2 regulate survival of secondary heart field precursors and post-migratory proliferation of cardiac neural crest in the outflow tract
    Yi Hui Chen
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and Hospital, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Dev Biol 308:421-37. 2007
    b>Msx1 and Msx2 are highly conserved, Nk-related homeodomain transcription factors that are essential for a variety of tissue-tissue interactions during vertebrate organogenesis...
  49. pmc Concerted action of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating cranial neural crest cell differentiation during frontal bone development
    Jun Han
    Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA 103, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Mech Dev 124:729-45. 2007
    The homeobox genes Msx1 and Msx2 function as transcriptional regulators that control cellular proliferation and differentiation during embryonic development...
  50. pmc A dosage-dependent role for Spry2 in growth and patterning during palate development
    Ian C Welsh
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Mech Dev 124:746-61. 2007
    ..Expression of the FGF responsive transcription factors Etv5, Msx1, and Barx1, as well as the morphogen Shh, is restricted to specific regions of the developing palate...
  51. doi Wnt antagonism of Shh facilitates midbrain floor plate neurogenesis
    Milan Joksimovic
    Northwestern University Feinberg Medical School, Department of Neurology and Center for Genetic Medicine, 7 113 Lurie Bldg, 303 E Superior Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:125-31. 2009
    ..These findings demonstrate how the dynamic interplay of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and Shh may orchestrate floor plate neurogenesis or a lack thereof...
  52. ncbi Hox-7 expression during murine craniofacial development
    A Mackenzie
    Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Manchester, UK
    Development 113:601-11. 1991
    ..The expression pattern of Hox-7 in the dorsal midline of the neural tube further suggests that it may also be involved in the specification of the dorsal-ventral axis of the developing nervous system...
  53. ncbi A new family of mouse homeo box-containing genes: molecular structure, chromosomal location, and developmental expression of Hox-7.1
    R E Hill
    Developmental Genetics Group, MRC Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Genes Dev 3:26-37. 1989
    ..The homeo box of this new gene shows remarkable similarity to the Drosophila Msh homeo box that we designate as the prototype for this family...
  54. pmc Hox-7, a mouse homeobox gene with a novel pattern of expression during embryogenesis
    B Robert
    Departement de Biologie Moleculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    EMBO J 8:91-100. 1989
    A new mouse Hox locus, Hox-7, is defined on chromosome 5 by a gene homologous to the Drosophila gene msh, which contains a homeobox sequence distantly related to that of Antennapedia...
  55. ncbi The function and evolution of Msx genes: pointers and paradoxes
    D Davidson
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Trends Genet 11:405-11. 1995
    ..family of chromosomally unlinked homeobox-containing genes related to the Drosophila gene muscle-segment homeobox (msh)...
  56. ncbi Digit tip regeneration correlates with regions of Msx1 (Hox 7) expression in fetal and newborn mice
    A D Reginelli
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Development 121:1065-76. 1995
    We report that during mouse fetal development transcripts of Msx1 and Msx2 become progressively restricted to cells that will form more distal digit structures; the Msx2 expression domain is always more distal than Msx1...
  57. ncbi A requirement for bone morphogenetic protein-7 during development of the mammalian kidney and eye
    A T Dudley
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 9:2795-807. 1995
    ..Consequently, homozygous mutant animals exhibit renal dysplasia and anophthalmia at birth. Overall, these findings identify BMP-7 as an essential signaling molecule during mammalian kidney and eye development...
  58. ncbi MSX1 inhibits myoD expression in fibroblast x 10T1/2 cell hybrids
    P Woloshin
    Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    Cell 82:611-20. 1995
    ..fragment-containing hybrids localize the repressing activity to the region of 4p that contains the homeobox gene MSX1. MSX1 is expressed in primary human fibroblasts and in 10T1/2 cells containing human chromosome 4, while parental ..
  59. ncbi Msx1 deficient mice exhibit cleft palate and abnormalities of craniofacial and tooth development
    I Satokata
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Nat Genet 6:348-56. 1994
    The Msx1 homeobox gene is expressed at diverse sites of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during vertebrate embryogenesis, and has been implicated in signalling processes between tissue layers...
  60. ncbi Murine homeobox-containing gene, Msx-1: analysis of genomic organization, promoter structure, and potential autoregulatory cis-acting elements
    M Kuzuoka
    Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis
    Genomics 21:85-91. 1994
    ..Binding of bacterially expressed Msx-1 homeodomain polypeptide to Msx-1-specific oligonucleotide was experimentally demonstrated, raising a distinct possibility of autoregulation of this developmentally regulated gene...
  61. ncbi Msx3: a novel murine homologue of the Drosophila msh homeobox gene restricted to the dorsal embryonic central nervous system
    W Wang
    Brookdale Center for Molecular Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    Mech Dev 58:203-15. 1996
    ..Msx3 maps to the distal end of mouse chromosome 7, thus it is unlinked to either Msx1 or Msx2...
  62. ncbi Msx1 controls inductive signaling in mammalian tooth morphogenesis
    Y Chen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 122:3035-44. 1996
    ..Mice deficient for Msx1 exhibit defects in craniofacial development and a failure of tooth morphogenesis, with an arrest in molar tooth ..
  63. ncbi Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as regulators of dorsal forebrain development
    Y Furuta
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2175, USA
    Development 124:2203-12. 1997
    ..Bmp co-expression overlaps that of Msx1 and Hfh4, and is complementary to that of Bf1...
  64. ncbi Gene expression patterns associated with suppression of odontogenesis in mouse and vole diastema regions
    S V Keränen
    Developmental Biology Program, Institute of Biotechnology, Biocenter 1, University of Helsinki, P O Box 56, Helsinki, FIN 00014, Finland
    Dev Genes Evol 209:495-506. 1999
    ..germs we compared the expression patterns of several developmental regulatory genes (Bmp2, Bmp4, Fgf4, Fgf8, Lef1, Msx1, Msx2, p21, Pitx2, Pax9 and Shh) between molars and diastema buds of mice and voles...
  65. ncbi A new function of BMP4: dual role for BMP4 in regulation of Sonic hedgehog expression in the mouse tooth germ
    Y Zhang
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular and Cell Biology Graduate Program, Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Development 127:1431-43. 2000
    ..We found that the expression of Shh and Bmp2 is downregulated at E12.5 and E13.5 in the dental epithelium of the Msx1 mutant tooth germ where Bmp4 expression is significantly reduced in the dental mesenchyme...
  66. ncbi Msx2 deficiency in mice causes pleiotropic defects in bone growth and ectodermal organ formation
    I Satokata
    Genetics Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Nat Genet 24:391-5. 2000
    ..Most Msx2-mutant phenotypes, including calvarial defects, are enhanced by genetic combination with Msx1 loss of function, indicating that Msx gene dosage can modify expression of the PFM phenotype...
  67. ncbi The expression of the homeobox gene Msx1 reveals two populations of dermal progenitor cells originating from the somites
    D Houzelstein
    Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire de la Morphogenèse, CNRS URA 1947, Institut Pasteur, 75 724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Development 127:2155-64. 2000
    ..Taking advantage of an nlacZ reporter gene integrated into the mouse Msx1 locus (Msx1(nlacZ) allele), we detected segmental expression of the Msx1 gene in cells of the dorsal mesenchyme of ..
  68. ncbi Dorsal and lateral fates in the mouse neural tube require the cell-autonomous activity of the open brain gene
    J T Eggenschwiler
    Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Dev Biol 227:648-60. 2000
    ..The data indicate that opb(+) could act as either a novel component of a dorsalizing pathway or a novel intracellular negative regulator of the Shh signal transduction pathway...
  69. ncbi Transgenically ectopic expression of Bmp4 to the Msx1 mutant dental mesenchyme restores downstream gene expression but represses Shh and Bmp2 in the enamel knot of wild type tooth germ
    X Zhao
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Mech Dev 99:29-38. 2000
    Bmp4 is a downstream gene of Msx1 in early mouse tooth development...
  70. pmc Endogenous Msx1 antisense transcript: in vivo and in vitro evidences, structure, and potential involvement in skeleton development in mammals
    C Blin-Wakkach
    Laboratory of Biology Odontology, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, E 0110, Institut des Cordeliers, IFR 58, 75006 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:7336-41. 2001
    b>Msx1 is a key factor for the development of tooth and craniofacial skeleton and has been proposed to play a pivotal role in terminal cell differentiation...
  71. ncbi Dickkopf1 is required for embryonic head induction and limb morphogenesis in the mouse
    M Mukhopadhyay
    Laboratory of Mammalian Genes and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Dev Cell 1:423-34. 2001
    ....
  72. ncbi Msx2 is an immediate downstream effector of Pax3 in the development of the murine cardiac neural crest
    Stanford J Kwang
    Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089 9176, USA
    Development 129:527-38. 2002
    ..We provide evidence, moreover, that Pax3 represses Msx2 expression via a direct effect on a conserved Pax3 binding site in the Msx2 promoter. These results establish Msx2 as an effector of Pax3 in cardiac neural crest development...
  73. pmc Wnt signaling plays an essential role in neuronal specification of the dorsal spinal cord
    Yuko Muroyama
    Kondoh Differentiation Signaling Project, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation JST, Kinki Invention Center, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8305, Japan
    Genes Dev 16:548-53. 2002
    ..Thus, Wnt signaling plays a critical role in the specification of cell types for dorsal interneurons...
  74. ncbi BMP signaling is required for development of the ciliary body
    Shulei Zhao
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Development 129:4435-42. 2002
    ..These results indicate that BMP signaling is required for development of the ciliary body and may also play a role in regulation of neuronal differentiation in the developing eye...
  75. ncbi Msx1 homeogene antisense mRNA in mouse dental and bone cells
    A Berdal
    Laboratoire Biologie Orofaciale et Pathologie, INSERM EMI U 0110, Universite Paris 7, IFR 58, Institut Biomedical des Cordeliers, 7, Paris, France
    Connect Tissue Res 43:148-52. 2002
    b>Msx1 plays a key role in early dental and cranio-facial patterning. A systematic screening of Msx1 transcripts during late postnatal stages of development evidenced not only sense mRNA but also antisense mRNA in the skeleton...
  76. ncbi Malleal processus brevis is dispensable for normal hearing in mice
    Zunyi Zhang
    Division of Developmental Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    Dev Dyn 227:69-77. 2003
    ..Mice deficient in the Msx1 homeobox gene exhibit craniofacial abnormalities, including the absence of the malleal processus brevis that is ..
  77. ncbi BMP ligands act redundantly to pattern the dorsal telencephalic midline
    Jean M Hebert
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Genesis 35:214-9. 2003
    ....
  78. ncbi Gremlin is the BMP antagonist required for maintenance of Shh and Fgf signals during limb patterning
    Mustafa K Khokha
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California Berkeley, 401 Barker Hall, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Nat Genet 34:303-7. 2003
    ..Although Bmps and their antagonists have multiple roles in limb development, these experiments show that gremlin is the principal BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning...
  79. ncbi Stimulation of ectodermal organ development by Ectodysplasin-A1
    Tuija Mustonen
    Developmental Biology Program, Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Dev Biol 259:123-36. 2003
    ..We conclude that ectodysplasin-Edar signaling has several roles in ectodermal organ development controlling their initiation, as well as morphogenesis and differentiation...
  80. ncbi Cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal proliferation is regulated by Msx1-mediated p19(INK4d) expression during odontogenesis
    Jun Han
    School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA 103, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Dev Biol 261:183-96. 2003
    ..the progeny of neural crest cells, we provide in vivo evidence of a deficiency of CNC-derived dental mesenchyme in Msx1 null mutant mouse embryos...
  81. ncbi Digit regeneration is regulated by Msx1 and BMP4 in fetal mice
    Manjong Han
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, and The Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Development 130:5123-32. 2003
    ..of digit formation in the mouse and found that regenerative capability correlated with the expression domain of the Msx1 gene. Using the stage 11 (E14...
  82. ncbi FKBP8 is a negative regulator of mouse sonic hedgehog signaling in neural tissues
    Oleg V Bulgakov
    The Berman Gund Laboratory for the Study of Retinal Degenerations, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Development 131:2149-59. 2004
    ..Although it is expressed broadly, FKBP8 is required to antagonize SHH signaling primarily in neural tissues, suggesting that hedgehog signal transduction is subject to cell-type specific modulation during mammalian development...
  83. pmc Hedgehog signaling in the neural crest cells regulates the patterning and growth of facial primordia
    Juhee Jeong
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 18:937-51. 2004
    ..Further, our analysis of Shh-Fox gene regulatory interactions leads us to propose that Fox genes mediate the action of Shh in facial development...
  84. ncbi Gremlin-mediated BMP antagonism induces the epithelial-mesenchymal feedback signaling controlling metanephric kidney and limb organogenesis
    Odysse Michos
    Developmental Genetics, Dept of Clinical Biological Sciences DKBW University of Basel Medical School, c o Anatomy Institute, Pestalozzistrasse 20, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    Development 131:3401-10. 2004
    ..As a consequence, the metanephric mesenchyme is eliminated by apoptosis, in the same way as the core mesenchymal cells of the limb bud...
  85. ncbi Analysis of Msx1; Msx2 double mutants reveals multiple roles for Msx genes in limb development
    Yvan Lallemand
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire de la Morphogenèse, Institut Pasteur, URA 2578 du CNRS, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France
    Development 132:3003-14. 2005
    The homeobox-containing genes Msx1 and Msx2 are highly expressed in the limb field from the earliest stages of limb formation and, subsequently, in both the apical ectodermal ridge and underlying mesenchyme...
  86. ncbi Shox2-deficient mice exhibit a rare type of incomplete clefting of the secondary palate
    Ling Yu
    Division of Developmental Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, and Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Development 132:4397-406. 2005
    ..Furthermore, our results demonstrate that fusion of the posterior palate can occur independently of fusion in the anterior palate...
  87. ncbi Combined deficiencies of Msx1 and Msx2 cause impaired patterning and survival of the cranial neural crest
    Mamoru Ishii
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Cancer Hospital, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
    Development 132:4937-50. 2005
    ..Here, we focus on the function of Msx1 and Msx2, homeobox genes implicated in several disorders affecting craniofacial development in humans...
  88. pmc Regional regulation of palatal growth and patterning along the anterior-posterior axis in mice
    Sylvia A Hilliard
    Division of Developmental Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, and Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane University, New Orleans 70118, USA
    J Anat 207:655-67. 2005
    ..Mesenchymal heterogeneity is established early, as evident from Bmp4-mediated induction of Msx1 and cell proliferation exclusively in the anterior and Fgf8-specific induction of Pax9 in the posterior palate ..
  89. ncbi Differential expression of LIM domain-only (LMO) genes in the developing mouse inner ear
    Min Deng
    Center for Aging and Developmental Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Gene Expr Patterns 6:857-63. 2006
    ..Thus, the regionalized expression patterns of LMO1-4 are closely associated with the morphogenesis of the inner ear...
  90. ncbi Roles of organizer factors and BMP antagonism in mammalian forebrain establishment
    Yu Ping Yang
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 3709, USA
    Dev Biol 296:458-75. 2006
    ..These results lead to a model in which BMP antagonism supplied by exogenous tissues promotes forebrain establishment and maintenance in the murine ectoderm...
  91. ncbi Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes are required for specification of the mammalian vestibular apparatus
    Raymond F Robledo
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine
    Genesis 44:425-37. 2006
    ..Given their proximity to the disease locus and the observed phenotype in Dlx5/6 null mice, Dlx5/6 are likely candidates to mediate the inner ear defects observed in patients with split hand/split foot malformation...
  92. ncbi Conditional alleles of Msx1 and Msx2
    Hualin Fu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and Hospital, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Genesis 45:477-81. 2007
    The msh-related homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, have a variety functions during murine organogenesis, Msx1 in the development of the palate and teeth, Msx2 in the skull, teeth, and skin. Msx1 mutants die perinatally...
  93. ncbi Neural plate morphogenesis during mouse neurulation is regulated by antagonism of Bmp signalling
    Patricia Ybot-Gonzalez
    Neural Development Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Development 134:3203-11. 2007
    ..Our findings reveal a molecular mechanism based on antagonism of Bmp signalling that underlies the regulation of DLHP formation during mouse spinal neural tube closure...
  94. pmc Wnt/beta-catenin signaling directs multiple stages of tooth morphogenesis
    Fei Liu
    Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Dev Biol 313:210-24. 2008
    ..Conversely, expression of key morphogenetic regulators including Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 is downregulated in embryos expressing the secreted Wnt inhibitor Dkk1 which blocks signaling in ..
  95. doi Enhanced BMP signaling results in supernumerary tooth formation in USAG-1 deficient mouse
    Akiko Murashima-Suginami
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Shogoin Kawahara cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 369:1012-6. 2008
    ..BMP signaling in the rudimentary maxillary incisor, assessed by expressions of Msx1 and Dlx2 and the phosphorylation of Smad protein, was significantly enhanced...
  96. doi Generation of an Msx2-GFP conditional null allele
    Vardina Bensoussan
    Institut Pasteur, Unité de Génétique Moléculaire de la Morphogenèse, CNRS URA 2578, Paris, F 75015, France
    Genesis 46:276-82. 2008
    b>Msx1 and Msx2, two members of the Msx gene family, encode homeoprotein transcription factors and play critical roles during mouse development...
  97. doi Msx1 and Msx2 are expressed in sub-populations of vascular smooth muscle cells
    Olivier Goupille
    CNRS URA2578, Génétique Moléculaire de la Morphogenèse, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Dev Dyn 237:2187-94. 2008
    Using an nlacZ reporter gene inserted at the Msx1 and Msx2 loci, we could analyze the expression of these homeogenes in the adult mouse. We observed that Msx genes are prominently expressed in a subset of blood vessels...
  98. pmc Wnt5a regulates directional cell migration and cell proliferation via Ror2-mediated noncanonical pathway in mammalian palate development
    Fenglei He
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Development 135:3871-9. 2008
    ..Our results reveal distinct regulatory roles for Wnt5a in gene expression and cell proliferation along the AP axis of the developing palate, and an essential role for Wnt5a in the regulation of directional cell migration...
  99. pmc Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions controlling palatal outgrowth
    Yu Lan
    Center for Oral Biology and Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Development 136:1387-96. 2009
    ....
  100. doi Autoregulatory loop of Msx1 expression involving its antisense transcripts
    Stéphane Petit
    Inserm U872, Equipe 5, Laboratoire de Biologie Oro Faciale et Pathologie, Paris, France
    J Cell Physiol 220:303-10. 2009
    The Msx1 homeogene plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions leading organogenesis...
  101. doi Msx genes are important apoptosis effectors downstream of the Shh/Gli3 pathway in the limb
    Yvan Lallemand
    CNRS URA, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Dev Biol 331:189-98. 2009
    ..In this report, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 are targets and downstream effectors of Gli3R...

Research Grants6

  1. ROLES OF SOX C GENES IN SKELETOGENESIS
    VERONIQUE M LEFEBVRE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  2. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF EARLY LIMB DEVELOPMENT
    Arend Sidow; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Because Dac is likely to be the mouse ortholog of the human Split Hand/Foot Malformation 3 gene, this project may also bear direct relevance to understanding and diagnosis of congenital limb diseases. ..
  3. Functional Analysis of Spinal Cord Interneurons
    Martyn Goulding; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will provide valuable insights into the development and organization of circuits in the spinal cord that control locomotor behavior, and will lay the groundwork for strategies to treat spinal cord injury and degeneration. ..
  4. The ProPhylER Database and Web Resource
    Arend Sidow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. Specification of Dorsal Lbx1-Derived Interneurons
    Martyn Goulding; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will provide important insights into the development and organization of neural circuits in the dorsal horn that sense and relay pain. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. The Ciona savignyi Genetic Map
    Arend Sidow; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Insights into the molecular mechanisms of regulation and development using Ciona as a model are highly effective and relevant to the homologous processes in human. ..