Mx1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Mx1
Description: MX dynamin-like GTPase 1
Alias: AI893580, Mx-1, interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx1, myxoma resistance protein 1, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1, myxovirus (influenza) resistance 1 polypeptide
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. pmc Natural, genetically determined resistance toward influenza virus in hemopoietic mouse chimeras. Role of mononuclear phagocytes
    O Haller
    J Exp Med 150:117-26. 1979
  2. ncbi Mouse chromosome-specific markers generated by PCR and their mapping through interspecific backcrosses
    N G Irving
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, St Mary s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Genomics 11:679-86. 1991
  3. ncbi INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO INFLUENZA VIRUS IN MICE
    J Lindenmann
    Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 116:506-9. 1964
  4. pmc Protective role of beta interferon in host defense against influenza A virus
    Iris Koerner
    Department of Virology, University of Freiburg, Hermann Herder Strasse 11, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 81:2025-30. 2007
  5. pmc Interferon induces a unique protein in mouse cells bearing a gene for resistance to influenza virus
    M A Horisberger
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80:1910-4. 1983
  6. pmc The Mx1 gene protects mice against the pandemic 1918 and highly lethal human H5N1 influenza viruses
    Terrence M Tumpey
    Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Virol 81:10818-21. 2007
  7. pmc Influenza virus-susceptible mice carry Mx genes with a large deletion or a nonsense mutation
    P Staeheli
    Department of Molecular Biology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California 92037
    Mol Cell Biol 8:4518-23. 1988
  8. ncbi Characterization and expression of the Mx1 gene in wild mouse species
    H K Jin
    Laboratory of Experimental Animal Science, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Biochem Genet 36:311-22. 1998
  9. pmc Tick-borne thogoto virus infection in mice is inhibited by the orthomyxovirus resistance gene product Mx1
    O Haller
    Abteilung Virologie, Universitat Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 69:2596-601. 1995
  10. pmc Influenza Virus Susceptibility of Wild-Derived CAST/EiJ Mice Results from Two Amino Acid Changes in the MX1 Restriction Factor
    Cindy Nürnberger
    Institute of Virology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 90:10682-10692. 2016

Scientific Experts

  • Martin T Ferris
  • Timo Frensing
  • Terrence M Tumpey
  • O G Engelhardt
  • Georg Kochs
  • Peter Staeheli
  • Cindy Nürnberger
  • Otto Haller
  • Iris Koerner
  • Petra Zimmermann
  • Akiko Iwasaki
  • Padmini S Pillai
  • Laura J Yockey
  • Michael J Ciancanelli
  • V Martin
  • O Haller
  • Judith Verhelst
  • Dai Lun Shin
  • Michael Frese
  • Min Suk Song
  • Cristian Cilloniz
  • Nicole R Hodgson
  • Christian Wisskirchen
  • R H Reeves
  • Kanako Moritoh
  • M M Garigliany
  • Kiyokazu Kakugawa
  • Thierry Rolling
  • Markus Mordstein
  • Andrea L Radtke
  • Daniel Grimm
  • Rachelle Salomon
  • P Staeheli
  • Andreas Pichlmair
  • Kadir Turan
  • D E Cabin
  • A Alejo
  • Denisa D Wagner
  • Iris K Pang
  • Brett D Lindenbach
  • Vanessa Zimmermann
  • Klara Szigeti-Buck
  • Susan L Fink
  • Subhasis Mohanty
  • N Sevilla
  • Huiping Dong
  • Anthony van den Pol
  • Laurent Abel
  • Bernardo Stutz
  • Piotr Bielecki
  • Luis Varela
  • Melanie Gerhardt
  • Robert J Homer
  • A de Molina
  • Ruth R Montgomery
  • Angel G Solis
  • Shen Ying Zhang
  • William Khoury-Hanold
  • Tasfia Rakib
  • Kimberly Martinod
  • Ryan D Molony
  • Albert C Shaw
  • E Pascual
  • Richard A Flavell
  • Tamas L Horvath
  • Jean Laurent Casanova
  • G Rangel
  • Michal C Tal
  • M Avia
  • Mark Trentalange
  • Tatiana Nedelko
  • Dorien De Vlieger
  • Jan Spitaels
  • Tine Ysenbaert
  • Walter Fiers
  • Klaus Schughart
  • Bastian Hatesuer
  • Silke Bergmann
  • Xavier Saelens
  • Alexander Khromykh
  • J Wei
  • Mario Lobigs
  • Seung Hwan Lee
  • Maximilian Larena
  • Ian Ramshaw
  • Eva Lee
  • Pek Siew Lim
  • Klaus I Matthaei
  • Sudha Rao
  • Young Hun Cho

Detail Information

Publications77

  1. pmc Natural, genetically determined resistance toward influenza virus in hemopoietic mouse chimeras. Role of mononuclear phagocytes
    O Haller
    J Exp Med 150:117-26. 1979
    ..However, susceptibility or resistance in vivo was according to the genotype of the host. Thus, inborn resistance of radiation chimeras was found to be independent of Mx-gene expression in cells of the hemopoietic system...
  2. ncbi Mouse chromosome-specific markers generated by PCR and their mapping through interspecific backcrosses
    N G Irving
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, St Mary s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Genomics 11:679-86. 1991
    ..Furthermore, both the 250- and 580-bp markers have been genetically mapped in detail to mouse chromosome 16 by direct hybridization to inter-repeat PCR products of progeny DNAs from Mus domesticus/Mus spretus interspecific backcrosses...
  3. ncbi INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO INFLUENZA VIRUS IN MICE
    J Lindenmann
    Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 116:506-9. 1964
  4. pmc Protective role of beta interferon in host defense against influenza A virus
    Iris Koerner
    Department of Virology, University of Freiburg, Hermann Herder Strasse 11, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 81:2025-30. 2007
    ..In mice, type I IFN is effective against influenza viruses only if the IFN-induced resistance factor Mx1 is present, though most inbred mouse strains, including the recently developed IFN-beta-deficient mice, bear only ..
  5. pmc Interferon induces a unique protein in mouse cells bearing a gene for resistance to influenza virus
    M A Horisberger
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80:1910-4. 1983
    ..The results suggest that this protein induced by the interaction of interferon with Mx plays a role in the selective antiviral state against influenza viruses that is observed in interferon-treated Mx-bearing cells...
  6. pmc The Mx1 gene protects mice against the pandemic 1918 and highly lethal human H5N1 influenza viruses
    Terrence M Tumpey
    Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Virol 81:10818-21. 2007
    Mice carrying a wild-type Mx1 gene (Mx1+/+) differ from standard laboratory mice (Mx1-/-) in being highly resistant to infection with common laboratory strains of influenza A virus...
  7. pmc Influenza virus-susceptible mice carry Mx genes with a large deletion or a nonsense mutation
    P Staeheli
    Department of Molecular Biology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California 92037
    Mol Cell Biol 8:4518-23. 1988
    ..We further show that the Mx mRNA levels in interferon-treated BALB/c and CBA/J cells are about 15-fold lower than in similarly treated Mx+ cells. This is probably due to decreased metabolic stabilities of the mutant mRNAs...
  8. ncbi Characterization and expression of the Mx1 gene in wild mouse species
    H K Jin
    Laboratory of Experimental Animal Science, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Biochem Genet 36:311-22. 1998
    The mouse Mx1 gene encodes an interferon (IFN)-inducible nuclear protein and confers resistance to influenza virus infection. The standard laboratory mouse strains all carry the Mx1- allele and are susceptible to influenza virus...
  9. pmc Tick-borne thogoto virus infection in mice is inhibited by the orthomyxovirus resistance gene product Mx1
    O Haller
    Abteilung Virologie, Universitat Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 69:2596-601. 1995
    We show that tick-transmitted Thogoto virus is sensitive to interferon-induced nuclear Mx1 protein, which is known for its specific antiviral action against orthomyxoviruses...
  10. pmc Influenza Virus Susceptibility of Wild-Derived CAST/EiJ Mice Results from Two Amino Acid Changes in the MX1 Restriction Factor
    Cindy Nürnberger
    Institute of Virology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 90:10682-10692. 2016
    The interferon-regulated Mx1 gene of the A2G mouse strain confers a high degree of resistance against influenza A and Thogoto viruses...
  11. pmc Vaginal Exposure to Zika Virus during Pregnancy Leads to Fetal Brain Infection
    Laura J Yockey
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520 USA
    Cell 166:1247-1256.e4. 2016
    ..This was exacerbated in mice deficient in IFN pathways, leading to abortion. Our study highlights the vaginal tract as a highly susceptible site of ZIKV replication and illustrates the dire disease consequences during pregnancy. ..
  12. doi Mx1 reveals innate pathways to antiviral resistance and lethal influenza disease
    Padmini S Pillai
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Science 352:463-6. 2016
    ..In Mx1-intact mice with weakened resistance due to deficiencies in Mavs and Tlr7, we found an elevated respiratory ..
  13. pmc Host genetics of severe influenza: from mouse Mx1 to human IRF7
    Michael J Ciancanelli
    St Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA Electronic address
    Curr Opin Immunol 38:109-20. 2016
    ..first demonstrated by forward genetics in inbred mice, with the identification of interferon (IFN)-α/β-inducible Mx1 as a canonical influenza susceptibility gene...
  14. pmc A Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ovine Interferon Tau Prevents Influenza Virus-Induced Lethality in Mice
    V Martin
    Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, Valdeolmos, Madrid, Spain
    J Virol 90:3783-8. 2016
    ..Using the B6.A2G-Mx1 mouse model, we showed that single-dose intranasal administration of recombinant Ad5-IFN-τ can effectively prevent ..
  15. pmc Functional Comparison of Mx1 from Two Different Mouse Species Reveals the Involvement of Loop L4 in the Antiviral Activity against Influenza A Viruses
    Judith Verhelst
    Medical Biotechnology Center, VIB, Ghent, Belgium Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    J Virol 89:10879-90. 2015
    The interferon-induced Mx1 gene is an important part of the mammalian defense against influenza viruses...
  16. pmc Protection from Severe Influenza Virus Infections in Mice Carrying the Mx1 Influenza Virus Resistance Gene Strongly Depends on Genetic Background
    Dai Lun Shin
    Department of Infection Genetics, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany
    J Virol 89:9998-10009. 2015
    ..Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determine the severity of influenza. The MX dynamin-like GTPase 1 (Mx1) gene has been shown to confer strong resistance to influenza A virus infections in mice...
  17. pmc Internal ribosome entry site-based attenuation of a flavivirus candidate vaccine and evaluation of the effect of beta interferon coexpression on vaccine properties
    Michael Frese
    John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
    J Virol 88:2056-70. 2014
    ..Our findings may aid in the rational design of a new class of well-tolerated and safe vaccines. ..
  18. ncbi Interferon-induced antiviral Mx1 GTPase is associated with components of the SUMO-1 system and promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies
    O G Engelhardt
    Abteilung Virologie, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Freiburg, D 79008, Germany
    Exp Cell Res 271:286-95. 2001
    ..The murine Mx1 protein accumulates in the nucleus of interferon-treated cells and is active against members of the ..
  19. doi Efficient influenza B virus propagation due to deficient interferon-induced antiviral activity in MDCK cells
    Timo Frensing
    Bioprocess Engineering, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems Magdeburg, Sandtorstr 1, D 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
    Vaccine 29:7125-9. 2011
    ..proteins showed no antiviral activity in an influenza B virus-specific minireplicon assay in contrast to the murine Mx1 protein...
  20. pmc Influenza virus pathophysiology and brain invasion in mice with functional and dysfunctional Mx1 genes
    Nicole R Hodgson
    Sleep and Performance Research Center, WWAMI Medical Education Program, Washington State University, Spokane, WA 99210 1495, United States
    Brain Behav Immun 26:83-9. 2012
    ..To determine if the presence of a functional Mx1 (fMx1) gene would influence this brain viral localization and/or disease, we infected mature C57BL/6 dMx1 and fMx1 ..
  21. pmc Molecular signatures associated with Mx1-mediated resistance to highly pathogenic influenza virus infection: mechanisms of survival
    Cristian Cilloniz
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Virol 86:2437-46. 2012
    ..One such factor is encoded by the Mx1 gene, which confers resistance to influenza virus infection...
  22. doi Early regulation of viral infection reduces inflammation and rescues mx-positive mice from lethal avian influenza infection
    Min Suk Song
    Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea
    Am J Pathol 182:1308-21. 2013
    ..The role of Mx protein during lethal avian influenza (AI) virus infection was examined using Mx1-deficient C57BL/6 (B6-Mx1(-/-)) and congenic Mx1-expressing (B6-Mx1(+/+)) mice infected with a virulent, mouse-..
  23. pmc Physical and comparative mapping of distal mouse chromosome 16. 5 p5
    D E Cabin
    Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 USA
    Genome Res 8:940-50. 1998
    ..Comparison of this physical map with that of the corresponding region on Chr. 21 shows conservation not only of gene order but of size in the 3 Mb from Cbr1 to Ets2; distal to Ets2, the human map is expanded...
  24. ncbi Molecular genetic characterization and comparative mapping of the human PCP4 gene
    D E Cabin
    Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Somat Cell Mol Genet 22:167-75. 1996
    ..However, mapping in the mouse was reassessed, and Pcp4 and a linked marker, D16Mit71, were both moved distal to Ets2, corresponding to the position of PCP4 on Chr 21...
  25. ncbi Interferon action in triply deficient mice reveals the existence of alternative antiviral pathways
    A Zhou
    The Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Virology 258:435-40. 1999
    ..To determine whether alternative antiviral pathways exist, RNase L-/- mice and PKR-/- mice were crossed onto an Mx1(-/-) background to generate a strain of triply deficient (TD) mice...
  26. ncbi Integration of cytogenetic with recombinational and physical maps of mouse chromosome 16
    C S Moore
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Genomics 59:1-5. 1999
    ..A direct application of these probes is demonstrated by identifying mice trisomic for distal Chr 16 using FISH analysis of interphase nuclei...
  27. ncbi Dymple, a novel dynamin-like high molecular weight GTPase lacking a proline-rich carboxyl-terminal domain in mammalian cells
    T Kamimoto
    Department of Anatomy, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Showa Ku, Nagoya, Japan
    J Biol Chem 273:1044-51. 1998
    ..Our findings suggest that dymple may be the first example of such a subfamily in mammalian cells other than dynamin itself, although its precise role and membrane localization remain to be resolved...
  28. ncbi Functional diversity of Mx proteins: variations on a theme of host resistance to infection
    Seung Hwan Lee
    Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H 8M5, Canada
    Genome Res 12:527-30. 2002
  29. ncbi Expression patterns of two murine homologs of Drosophila single-minded suggest possible roles in embryonic patterning and in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome
    C M Fan
    Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0452, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 7:1-16. 1996
    ..Our data suggest that the Sim genes play roles in directing the regionalization of tissues where they are expressed. Moreover, the expression pattern documented for Sim2 may provide insights into its potential roles in Down syndrome...
  30. pmc Nuclear MxA proteins form a complex with influenza virus NP and inhibit the transcription of the engineered influenza virus genome
    Kadir Turan
    University of Marmara, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Haydarpasa, Kadikoy, Istanbul 34668, Turkey
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:643-52. 2004
    ..Earlier studies show that nuclear mouse Mx1 and human MxA designed to be localized in the nucleus inhibit the transcription step of the influenza virus genome...
  31. pmc Thogoto virus lacking interferon-antagonistic protein ML is strongly attenuated in newborn Mx1-positive but not Mx1-negative mice
    Andreas Pichlmair
    Department of Virology, University of Freiburg, Hermann Herder Strasse 11, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 78:11422-4. 2004
    ..It was strongly attenuated, however, in mice carrying the interferon-responsive Mx1 gene found in wild mice, demonstrating that enhanced interferon synthesis is protective only if appropriate ..
  32. pmc TBK1 protects vacuolar integrity during intracellular bacterial infection
    Andrea L Radtke
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e29. 2007
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate a requirement for TBK1 in control of bacterial infection distinct from its established role in antiviral immunity...
  33. pmc Replication fitness determines high virulence of influenza A virus in mice carrying functional Mx1 resistance gene
    Daniel Grimm
    Department of Virology, University of Freiburg, Hermann Herder Strasse 11, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6806-11. 2007
    The IFN-induced resistance factor Mx1 is a critical component of innate immunity against influenza A viruses (FLUAV) in mice...
  34. ncbi Mx1 gene protects mice against the highly lethal human H5N1 influenza virus
    Rachelle Salomon
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 2794, USA
    Cell Cycle 6:2417-21. 2007
    We investigated the importance of the host Mx1 gene in protection against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus...
  35. pmc Interferon-lambda contributes to innate immunity of mice against influenza A virus but not against hepatotropic viruses
    Markus Mordstein
    Department of Virology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000151. 2008
    ..influenza A virus infections of mice which carry functional alleles of the influenza virus resistance gene Mx1 and which, therefore, develop a more complete innate immune response to influenza viruses than standard laboratory ..
  36. doi Modulating mouse innate immunity to RNA viruses by expressing the Bos taurus Mx system
    M M Garigliany
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Transgenic Res 18:719-32. 2009
    ....
  37. pmc Adaptive mutations resulting in enhanced polymerase activity contribute to high virulence of influenza A virus in mice
    Thierry Rolling
    Department of Virology, University of Freiburg, Hermann Herder Strasse 11, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 83:6673-80. 2009
    High virulence of influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 in mice carrying the Mx1 resistance gene was recently shown to be determined by the viral surface proteins and the viral polymerase...
  38. pmc A novel gene essential for the development of single positive thymocytes
    Kiyokazu Kakugawa
    Laboratory for Lymphocyte Development, RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    Mol Cell Biol 29:5128-35. 2009
    ..We generated E430004N04Rik-deficient mice, and their phenotype was virtually identical to that of the ENU mutant mice, thereby confirming that this gene is essential for the development of SP thymocytes...
  39. ncbi Generation of congenic mouse strains by introducing the virus-resistant genes, Mx1 and Oas1b, of feral mouse-derived inbred strain MSM/Ms into the common strain C57BL/6J
    Kanako Moritoh
    Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Jpn J Vet Res 57:89-99. 2009
    b>Mx1 (Myxovirus resistance protein) and Oaslb (Oligoadenylate synthetase-1), induced by type 1 interferon (IFN), play a role in early antiviral innate immunity by inhibiting the replication of viruses...
  40. pmc The viral nucleoprotein determines Mx sensitivity of influenza A viruses
    Petra Zimmermann
    Department of Virology, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 85:8133-40. 2011
    ..avian H5N1 isolate [strain A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/04] for their relative sensitivities to human MxA and murine Mx1. The H5N1 virus was highly sensitive to both Mx GTPases, whereas the pandemic H1N1 virus was almost insensitive...
  41. pmc Interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA interacts with the cellular RNA helicases UAP56 and URH49
    Christian Wisskirchen
    Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 286:34743-51. 2011
    ..Although the antiviral activities of mouse Mx1 and human MxA have been studied extensively, the molecular mechanism of action remains largely unsolved...
  42. ncbi Dense incisors (din): a new mouse mutation on chromosome 16 affecting tooth eruption and body size
    H O Sweet
    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
    J Hered 87:162-7. 1996
    ..The din mutation was mapped to Chr 16 near the pituitary transcription factor gene Pit1, but din is not a mutation in Pit1...
  43. ncbi Mx protein: constitutive expression in 3T3 cells transformed with cloned Mx cDNA confers selective resistance to influenza virus
    P Staeheli
    Cell 44:147-58. 1986
    ..Thus, specific resistance to influenza virus in vivo may be attributed to Mx protein expression and is independent of other IFN-mediated effects...
  44. pmc Organization of the murine Mx gene and characterization of its interferon- and virus-inducible promoter
    H Hug
    Institut für Molekularbiologie I, Universitat Zurich, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 8:3065-79. 1988
    ..This region contains five elements of the type GAAANN, which occurs in all IFN- and virus-inducible promoters. The consensus sequence purine-GAAAN(N/-)GAAA(C/G)-pyrimidine is found in all IFN-inducible promoters...
  45. pmc Genetic mapping of the Mx influenza virus resistance gene within the region of mouse chromosome 16 that is homologous to human chromosome 21
    R H Reeves
    Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Virol 62:4372-5. 1988
    ..This result suggests that Mx will be found in the region of HSA 21 which has been implicated in Down syndrome when inherited in three copies...
  46. ncbi The mouse neurological mutant weaver maps within the region of chromosome 16 that is homologous to human chromosome 21
    R H Reeves
    Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    Genomics 5:522-6. 1989
    ..We therefore predict that the normal human homolog of wv will be located on HSA 21 and would be in dosage imbalance in individuals with Down syndrome...
  47. pmc Identification of a second interferon-regulated murine Mx gene
    P Staeheli
    Department of Molecular Biology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California 92037
    Mol Cell Biol 8:4524-8. 1988
    ..Mx2 mRNA is more than 90% identical to Mx1 mRNA in the region corresponding to the amino termini of the encoded proteins...
  48. pmc Interferon-regulated influenza virus resistance gene Mx is localized on mouse chromosome 16
    P Staeheli
    J Virol 58:967-9. 1986
    ..In appropriate backcross mice, no linkage was observed between Mx and md, a marker previously mapped close to the centromere of chromosome 16, suggesting a more distal localization of Mx...
  49. pmc Inhibition of influenza viral mRNA synthesis in cells expressing the interferon-induced Mx gene product
    R M Krug
    J Virol 56:201-6. 1985
    ..No Mx-specific effect acting directly on viral protein synthesis in the cytoplasm was observed...
  50. ncbi Sex, strain, and species differences affect recombination across an evolutionarily conserved segment of mouse chromosome 16
    R H Reeves
    Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 2196
    Genomics 8:141-8. 1990
    ..RFs on this cross were nearly fivefold higher than those reported previously for an interspecific cross between C57BL/6 and Mus spretus...
  51. ncbi Interferon-induced protein Mx accumulates in nuclei of mouse cells expressing resistance to influenza viruses
    P Dreiding
    Virology 140:192-6. 1985
    ....
  52. ncbi The multipoint genetic mapping of mouse chromosome 16
    N G Irving
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, St Mary s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Genomics 9:386-9. 1991
    ..The map position of Gap43 indicates the presence, on mouse chromosome 16, of a significant-size conserved linkage group with human chromosome 3...
  53. ncbi Interferon-inducible mouse Mx1 protein that confers resistance to influenza virus is GTPase
    M Nakayama
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan
    J Biol Chem 266:21404-8. 1991
    The murine Mx1 protein is an interferon-inducible nuclear protein and confers resistance to influenza virus infection even though the resistance mechanism is yet unclear...
  54. ncbi Mx genes show weaker primary response to virus than other interferon-regulated genes
    L Bazzigher
    Institut für Immunologie und Virologie, Universitat Zurich, Switzerland
    Virology 186:154-60. 1992
    ..Similarly, direct activation of the mouse Mx1 gene by NDV or influenza virus was not significant in mouse embryo cells or explanted peritoneal macrophages...
  55. pmc Nuclear localization of mouse Mx1 protein is necessary for inhibition of influenza virus
    T Zurcher
    Institute for Immunology and Virology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    J Virol 66:5059-66. 1992
    The interferon-induced Mx1 protein of mice confers selective resistance to influenza virus. It inhibits viral mRNA synthesis in the nucleus of influenza virus-infected cells...
  56. ncbi Mouse Mx2 protein inhibits vesicular stomatitis virus but not influenza virus
    T Zurcher
    Institut für Immunologie und Virologie, Universitat Zurich, Switzerland
    Virology 187:796-800. 1992
    ..The mouse genome contains two related interferon-regulated genes, designated Mx1 and Mx2...
  57. ncbi Pathology of influenza hepatitis in susceptible and genetically resistant mice
    H Arnheiter
    Exp Cell Biol 44:95-107. 1976
    ..They were infiltrated by cells morphologically resembling liver macrophages (Kupffer cells), and they regressed from the 4th day after infection. Barriers to virus spread appeared to be present at all stages of the disease...
  58. pmc Inborn resistance of mice to myxoviruses: macrophages express phenotype in vitro
    J Lindenmann
    J Exp Med 147:531-40. 1978
    ..Macrophages from 28 mice were classified as resistant, and 26 mice survived challenge. We conclude that resistance of macrophages and resistance of the whole animal are two facets of the same phenomenon...
  59. pmc Genetically determined resistance to infection by hepatotropic influenza A virus in mice: effect of immunosuppression
    O Haller
    Infect Immun 13:844-54. 1976
    ..Silica and thorium dioxide, thought to inhibit macrophage function, likewise failed to abolish resistance. Regenerating liver tissue did not support more extensive virus replication than did intact adult liver...
  60. ncbi Athymic (nude) mice express gene for myxovirus resistance
    O Haller
    Nature 250:679-80. 1974
  61. ncbi Inborn resistance of ice to orthomyxoviruses
    O Haller
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 92:25-52. 1981
  62. ncbi Mx-dependent resistance to influenza viruses is induced by mouse interferons alpha and beta but not gamma
    P Staeheli
    Virology 132:456-61. 1984
    ..A2G-Mx and BALB/c cells against the rhabdovirus VSV. These results demonstrate that different types of interferons differentially regulate the expression of the Mx gene and thereby induce distinct antiviral states...
  63. ncbi Host gene influences sensitivity to interferon action selectively for influenza virus
    O Haller
    Nature 283:660-2. 1980
  64. ncbi A mouse model for Down syndrome exhibits learning and behaviour deficits
    R H Reeves
    Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nat Genet 11:177-84. 1995
    ..The corresponding dosage imbalance for the human homologues of these genes may contribute to cognitive deficits in DS...
  65. ncbi Mx1 but not MxA confers resistance against tick-borne Dhori virus in mice
    R Thimme
    Abteilung Virologie, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitat Freiburg, Germany
    Virology 211:296-301. 1995
    The interferon-induced nuclear Mx1 protein is responsible for innate resistance of mice to influenza virus...
  66. pmc Enhanced virus resistance of transgenic mice expressing the human MxA protein
    J Pavlovic
    Institut fur Medizinische Virologie, Universitat Zurich, Switzerland
    J Virol 69:4506-10. 1995
    ..These results demonstrate that MxA is a powerful antiviral agent in vivo, indicating that it may protect humans from the deleterious effects of infections with certain viral pathogens...
  67. ncbi Mutational analysis of murine Mx1 protein: GTP binding core domain is essential for anti-influenza A activity
    K Melen
    Molecular Biology Programme, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Virology 205:269-79. 1994
    Interferon-induced resistance to influenza virus in murine cells is mediated by the Mx1 protein, which inhibits viral mRNA synthesis in the nucleus...
  68. ncbi Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to the interferon-inducible protein Mx of influenza virus-resistant mice
    P Staeheli
    J Biol Chem 260:1821-5. 1985
    ..One discrete in vitro translation product of relevant mRNA reacted with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and was indistinguishable from in vivo synthesized protein Mx...
  69. pmc PEBP2 alpha B/mouse AML1 consists of multiple isoforms that possess differential transactivation potentials
    S C Bae
    Department of Viral Oncology, Kyoto University
    Mol Cell Biol 14:3242-52. 1994
    ..These results suggest that previously described chimeric gene products, AML1/MTG8(ETO) and AML1-EAP generated by t(8;21) and t(3;21), respectively, lack the transactivation domain of AML1...
  70. ncbi Function of the mouse Mx1 protein is inhibited by overexpression of the PB2 protein of influenza virus
    A M Stranden
    Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Virology 197:642-51. 1993
    The interferon-induced murine Mx1 protein possesses an intrinsic antiviral activity with selectivity for influenza viruses...
  71. ncbi Structure of mouse Mx1 protein. Molecular assembly and GTP-dependent conformational change
    M Nakayama
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan
    J Biol Chem 268:15033-8. 1993
    Mouse Mx1 protein is an interferon-inducible nuclear protein and confers resistance to influenza virus infection...
  72. ncbi Mutations in murine Mx1: effects on localization and antiviral activity
    E A Garber
    Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey 07065
    Virology 194:715-23. 1993
    Murine Mx1 is a nuclear localized protein of 631 amino acids with antiviral activity against influenza virus...
  73. ncbi Genetic mapping of the gene for the mouse interferon-gamma receptor signaling subunit to the distal end of chromosome 16
    T M Mariano
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 5635, USA
    Mamm Genome 7:321-2. 1996
  74. ncbi Direct cDNA selection with DNA microdissected from mouse chromosome 16: isolation of novel clones and construction of a partial transcription map of the C3-C4 region
    J Wei
    Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    Genome Res 6:678-87. 1996
    ..This selected cDNA library should be a useful reagent for further molecular neurobiological studies...
  75. ncbi Linkage mapping of microdissected clones from distal mouse chromosome 16
    J Wei
    Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202 5251, USA
    Somat Cell Mol Genet 22:227-32. 1996
    ..This map on distal mouse chromosome 16 should be a useful tool for the mouse genome project and for studies of genes in the region...
  76. ncbi Genetic mapping of the murine gene and 14 related sequences encoding chromosomal protein HMG-14
    K R Johnson
    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609
    Mamm Genome 3:625-32. 1992
    ..Thus, the Hmg14 multigene family is well suited to serve as genetic markers for other linkage studies in mice...