Nkx2-2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Nkx2-2
Description: NK2 homeobox 2
Alias: Nkx-2.2, Nkx2.2, tinman, homeobox protein Nkx-2.2, Drosophila NK2 transcription factor related, locus 2, NK2 transcription factor related, locus 2, glycoprotein GP330, renal, homeobox protein NK-2 homolog B, homeobox protein Nkx2-2
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A homeodomain protein code specifies progenitor cell identity and neuronal fate in the ventral neural tube
    J Briscoe
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 101:435-45. 2000
  2. pmc Ghrelin cells replace insulin-producing beta cells in two mouse models of pancreas development
    Catherine L Prado
    Department of Pediatrics, Barbara Davis Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:2924-9. 2004
  3. pmc Nkx2.2 activates the ghrelin promoter in pancreatic islet cells
    Jonathon T Hill
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 24:381-90. 2010
  4. pmc THM1 negatively modulates mouse sonic hedgehog signal transduction and affects retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia
    Pamela V Tran
    Genetics Division, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, New Research Building, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 40:403-10. 2008
  5. ncbi Rab23 is an essential negative regulator of the mouse Sonic hedgehog signalling pathway
    J T Eggenschwiler
    Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 412:194-8. 2001
  6. ncbi All mouse ventral spinal cord patterning by hedgehog is Gli dependent and involves an activator function of Gli3
    C Brian Bai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Dev Cell 6:103-15. 2004
  7. ncbi Hedgehog signalling in the mouse requires intraflagellar transport proteins
    Danwei Huangfu
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 426:83-7. 2003
  8. ncbi The simultaneous loss of Arx and Pax4 genes promotes a somatostatin-producing cell fate specification at the expense of the alpha- and beta-cell lineages in the mouse endocrine pancreas
    Patrick Collombat
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Am Fassberg, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Development 132:2969-80. 2005
  9. pmc Multiple roles of beta-catenin in controlling the neurogenic niche for midbrain dopamine neurons
    Mianzhi Tang
    VA Medical Center and Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Development 136:2027-38. 2009
  10. pmc SOX9 is required for maintenance of the pancreatic progenitor cell pool
    Philip A Seymour
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 2300, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1865-70. 2007

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications151 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A homeodomain protein code specifies progenitor cell identity and neuronal fate in the ventral neural tube
    J Briscoe
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 101:435-45. 2000
    ..The combinatorial expression of three of these proteins--Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2, and Irx3--specifies the identity of three classes of neurons generated in the ventral third of the neural tube...
  2. pmc Ghrelin cells replace insulin-producing beta cells in two mouse models of pancreas development
    Catherine L Prado
    Department of Pediatrics, Barbara Davis Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:2924-9. 2004
    ..2 and Pax4 are required to specify or maintain differentiation of the beta cell fate. This finding also suggests that there is a genetic component underlying the balance between insulin and ghrelin in regulating glucose metabolism...
  3. pmc Nkx2.2 activates the ghrelin promoter in pancreatic islet cells
    Jonathon T Hill
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 24:381-90. 2010
    ..2-null mice is not due to loss of repression of the ghrelin promoter in the nonghrelin islet populations. Furthermore, Nkx2.2 may contribute to the activation of ghrelin in mature islet epsilon-cells...
  4. pmc THM1 negatively modulates mouse sonic hedgehog signal transduction and affects retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia
    Pamela V Tran
    Genetics Division, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, New Research Building, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 40:403-10. 2008
    ..Specifically, the aln mutation uncouples the roles of anterograde and retrograde transport in SHH signaling, suggesting that anterograde IFT is required for GLI activation and that retrograde IFT modulates this event...
  5. ncbi Rab23 is an essential negative regulator of the mouse Sonic hedgehog signalling pathway
    J T Eggenschwiler
    Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 412:194-8. 2001
    ..The data indicate that dorsalizing signals activate transcription of Rab23 in order to silence the Shh pathway in dorsal neural cells...
  6. ncbi All mouse ventral spinal cord patterning by hedgehog is Gli dependent and involves an activator function of Gli3
    C Brian Bai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Dev Cell 6:103-15. 2004
    ..Therefore, in the spinal cord all Hh signaling is Gli dependent. Furthermore, a combination of Gli2 and Gli3 is required to regulate motor neuron development and spatial patterning of ventral spinal cord progenitors...
  7. ncbi Hedgehog signalling in the mouse requires intraflagellar transport proteins
    Danwei Huangfu
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 426:83-7. 2003
    ..Our data show that IFT machinery has an essential and vertebrate-specific role in Hedgehog signal transduction...
  8. ncbi The simultaneous loss of Arx and Pax4 genes promotes a somatostatin-producing cell fate specification at the expense of the alpha- and beta-cell lineages in the mouse endocrine pancreas
    Patrick Collombat
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Am Fassberg, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Development 132:2969-80. 2005
    ..Finally, our data provide evidence that both Arx and Pax4 act as transcriptional repressors that control the expression level of one another, thereby mediating proper endocrine fate allocation...
  9. pmc Multiple roles of beta-catenin in controlling the neurogenic niche for midbrain dopamine neurons
    Mianzhi Tang
    VA Medical Center and Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Development 136:2027-38. 2009
    ..They also suggest that beta-catenin-mediated signaling pathways can be targeted to promote and expand DA neurons in cell-based therapeutic strategies...
  10. pmc SOX9 is required for maintenance of the pancreatic progenitor cell pool
    Philip A Seymour
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 2300, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1865-70. 2007
    ..These findings will be of major significance for the development of in vitro protocols for cell replacement therapies...
  11. ncbi Common developmental requirement for Olig function indicates a motor neuron/oligodendrocyte connection
    Q Richard Lu
    Department of Cancer Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 109:75-86. 2002
    ..Neither Olig gene is required for astrocytes. These findings, together with fate mapping analysis of Olig-expressing cells, indicate that oligodendrocytes are derived from Olig-specified progenitors that give rise also to neurons...
  12. ncbi Gata2 specifies serotonergic neurons downstream of sonic hedgehog
    Sarah E Craven
    Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Development 131:1165-73. 2004
    ..Our findings reveal that the identity of closely related 5-HT subclasses occurs through distinct responses of adjacent rostrocaudal progenitor domains to broad ventral inducers...
  13. pmc Defective ciliogenesis, embryonic lethality and severe impairment of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway caused by inactivation of the mouse complex A intraflagellar transport gene Ift122/Wdr10, partially overlapping with the DNA repair gene Med1/Mbd4
    Salvatore Cortellino
    Human Genetics Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    Dev Biol 325:225-37. 2009
    ..We conclude that complex A and complex B factors play similar but distinct roles in ciliogenesis and Shh/Gli3 signaling...
  14. pmc Motor neurons with axial muscle projections specified by Wnt4/5 signaling
    Dritan Agalliu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kavli Institute for Brain Science, Departments of Neuroscience and Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 61:708-20. 2009
    ..Thus, two dorsoventral signaling pathways, mediated by Shh and Wnt4/5, are required to establish an early binary divergence in motor neuron columnar identity...
  15. ncbi Expression of neurogenin3 reveals an islet cell precursor population in the pancreas
    V M Schwitzgebel
    Hormone Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, and Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Development 127:3533-42. 2000
    ....
  16. pmc Genetic identification of a novel NeuroD1 function in the early differentiation of islet alpha, PP and epsilon cells
    CHRISTINA S CHAO
    University of Colorado at Denver and Health Science Center, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Department, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Dev Biol 312:523-32. 2007
    ..Furthermore, this study reveals a previously unappreciated early function of NeuroD1 in regulating the specification of alpha, PP and epsilon cells...
  17. pmc Islet-1 is required for the maturation, proliferation, and survival of the endocrine pancreas
    Aiping Du
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Diabetes 58:2059-69. 2009
    ....
  18. pmc Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans
    Stuart B Smith
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nature 463:775-80. 2010
    ..These studies demonstrate a unique position for Rfx6 in the hierarchy of factors that coordinate pancreatic islet development in both mice and humans. Rfx6 could prove useful in efforts to generate beta-cells for patients with diabetes...
  19. doi Distinct requirements for Ascl1 in subpopulations of midbrain GABAergic neurons
    Paula Peltopuro
    Institute of Biotechnology, P O Box 56, Viikinkaari 9, FIN00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Dev Biol 343:63-70. 2010
    ..Also, our results have implications on understanding the origins of the various midbrain GABAergic neuron groups in the embryonic neuroepithelium...
  20. doi A homeodomain feedback circuit underlies step-function interpretation of a Shh morphogen gradient during ventral neural patterning
    Madelen Lek
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Development 137:4051-60. 2010
    ..These data establish that dynamic, non-graded changes in responding cells are essential for Shh morphogen interpretation, and provide a rationale to explain mechanistically the phenomenon of cellular memory of morphogen exposure...
  21. pmc Phosphorylation regulates OLIG2 cofactor choice and the motor neuron-oligodendrocyte fate switch
    HuiLiang Li
    Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, London, UK
    Neuron 69:918-29. 2011
    ..Wild-type OLIG2 forms stable homodimers, whereas mutant (unphosphorylated) OLIG2(S147A) prefers to form heterodimers with Neurogenin 2 or other bHLH partners, suggesting a molecular basis for the switch...
  22. ncbi Homeobox gene Nkx6.1 lies downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell formation in the pancreas
    M Sander
    Hormone Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0534, USA
    Development 127:5533-40. 2000
    ..Together, these experiments reveal two independently controlled pathways for beta-cell differentiation, and place Nkx6.1 downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell differentiation...
  23. doi Shh dependent and independent maintenance of basal midbrain
    Ariadna Perez-Balaguer
    Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante, CSIC and Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Sant Joan d Alacant, Spain
    Mech Dev 126:301-13. 2009
    ..Based on our results and recently published data, we suggest the existence of a specific genetic pathway for the specification of the mesencephalic red nucleus. Foxa2 could be the candidate gene that might control this genetic pathway...
  24. ncbi Intragenic deletion of Tgif causes defectsin brain development
    Chenzhong Kuang
    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine and the Walther Cancer Institute, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 15:3508-19. 2006
    ..The intragenic Tgif deletion mouse, therefore, would serve as a useful model that can be used to unravel the genetic complexity implicated in the pathogenesis of HPE...
  25. ncbi Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate multiple phases of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development in a dosage-dependent manner
    Anna L M Ferri
    Division of Developmental Neurobiology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 134:2761-9. 2007
    ..Altogether, our results demonstrate that Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate multiple phases of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development in a dosage-dependent manner...
  26. ncbi Requirement for the homeobox gene Hb9 in the consolidation of motor neuron identity
    S Arber
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Neuron 23:659-74. 1999
    ..These findings show that HB9 has an essential function in consolidating the identity of postmitotic MNs...
  27. ncbi Boc is a receptor for sonic hedgehog in the guidance of commissural axons
    Ami Okada
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 444:369-73. 2006
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that Boc is essential as a receptor for Shh in commissural axon guidance...
  28. ncbi Region-specific and stage-dependent regulation of Olig gene expression and oligodendrogenesis by Nkx6.1 homeodomain transcription factor
    Rugao Liu
    Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Development 130:6221-31. 2003
    ..In the hindbrain, unlike in the spinal cord, Olig1 and Olig2 can be expressed both inside and outside the Nkx6.1-expressing domains and oligodendrogenesis in this region is not dependent on Nkx6.1 activity...
  29. pmc Dynamic regulation of Pdx1 enhancers by Foxa1 and Foxa2 is essential for pancreas development
    Nan Gao
    Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Genes Dev 22:3435-48. 2008
    ..Thus, the regulation of Pdx1 expression by Foxa1 and Foxa2 is a key early event controlling the expansion and differentiation of the pancreatic primordia...
  30. ncbi Requirement for LIM homeobox gene Isl1 in motor neuron generation reveals a motor neuron-dependent step in interneuron differentiation
    S L Pfaff
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecule Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 84:309-20. 1996
    ..These results show that ISL1 is required for the generation of motor neurons and suggest that motor neuron generation is required for the subsequent differentiation of certain interneurons...
  31. ncbi Olig bHLH proteins interact with homeodomain proteins to regulate cell fate acquisition in progenitors of the ventral neural tube
    T Sun
    Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Curr Biol 11:1413-20. 2001
    ..One of these, Nkx2.2, is necessary and sufficient for the development of V3 interneurons...
  32. ncbi Gli2, but not Gli1, is required for initial Shh signaling and ectopic activation of the Shh pathway
    C Brian Bai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 129:4753-61. 2002
    ..Our studies demonstrate that, in mammals, Gli1 is not required for Shh signaling and that Gli2 mediates inappropriate activation of the pathway due to loss of the negative regulator Ptc...
  33. pmc Dorsal-ventral patterning of the spinal cord requires Gli3 transcriptional repressor activity
    Madelen Persson
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Medical Nobel Institute, Karolinska Institute, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Genes Dev 16:2865-78. 2002
    ..Together these data raise the possibility that Gli proteins act as common mediators integrating Shh signals, and other sources of positional information, to control patterning throughout the ventral neural tube...
  34. ncbi The role of Brn4/Pou3f4 and Pax6 in forming the pancreatic glucagon cell identity
    R Scott Heller
    Department of Developmental Biology, Hagedorn Research Institute, DK 2820 Gentofte, Denmark
    Dev Biol 268:123-34. 2004
    ..2 cells. The pancreatic phenotype of the pax6 mutants can be rescued with a YAC clone containing the human Pax6 gene...
  35. ncbi FKBP8 is a negative regulator of mouse sonic hedgehog signaling in neural tissues
    Oleg V Bulgakov
    The Berman Gund Laboratory for the Study of Retinal Degenerations, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Development 131:2149-59. 2004
    ..Although it is expressed broadly, FKBP8 is required to antagonize SHH signaling primarily in neural tissues, suggesting that hedgehog signal transduction is subject to cell-type specific modulation during mammalian development...
  36. ncbi Severe defects in dorsal thalamic development in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-6 mutants
    Cheng Ji Zhou
    Department of Neurology, Program in Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0435, USA
    J Neurosci 24:7632-9. 2004
    ..This study provides compelling in vivo evidence that thalamic development requires normal activity of the LRP6-mediated canonical Wnt signaling pathway...
  37. ncbi Growth and pattern of the mammalian neural tube are governed by partially overlapping feedback activities of the hedgehog antagonists patched 1 and Hhip1
    Juhee Jeong
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 132:143-54. 2005
    ..Furthermore, this feedback mechanism is crucial in generating a neural tube that contains appropriate numbers of all ventral and intermediate neuronal cell types...
  38. ncbi Mouse intraflagellar transport proteins regulate both the activator and repressor functions of Gli transcription factors
    Aimin Liu
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Mailstop 8322, Box 6511, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Development 132:3103-11. 2005
    ..In summary, our results indicate that IFT function is crucial in the control of both the positive and negative transcriptional activities of Gli proteins, and essential for Hh ligand-induced signaling cascade...
  39. ncbi Cardiac and CNS defects in a mouse with targeted disruption of suppressor of fused
    Ayanna F Cooper
    Yale University School of Medicine, Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520 8005, USA
    Development 132:4407-17. 2005
    ..The resemblance of Sufu homozygotes to Ptch1 homozygotes is consistent with mouse Sufu being a conserved negative modulator of Hh signaling...
  40. ncbi Oral-facial-digital type I protein is required for primary cilia formation and left-right axis specification
    Maria Immacolata Ferrante
    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Via P Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy
    Nat Genet 38:112-7. 2006
    ....
  41. pmc FoxA2, Nkx2.2, and PDX-1 regulate islet beta-cell-specific mafA expression through conserved sequences located between base pairs -8118 and -7750 upstream from the transcription start site
    Jeffrey C Raum
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medical Center, 723 Light Hall, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 26:5735-43. 2006
    ..2 null animals. These results suggest that beta-cell-type-specific mafA transcription is principally controlled by region 3-acting transcription factors that are essential in the formation of functional beta cells...
  42. pmc Nkx2.2-repressor activity is sufficient to specify alpha-cells and a small number of beta-cells in the pancreatic islet
    Michelle J Doyle
    Program in Molecular Biology, University of Colorado at Denver Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Development 134:515-23. 2007
    ..Furthermore, we show that Grg3 physically interacts with Nkx2.2 through its TN domain. These studies suggest that Nkx2.2 functions predominantly as a transcriptional repressor during specification of endocrine cell types in the pancreas...
  43. ncbi Pax6 controls progenitor cell identity and neuronal fate in response to graded Shh signaling
    J Ericson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 90:169-80. 1997
    ..2. Pax6 establishes distinct ventral progenitor cell populations and controls the identity of motor neurons and ventral interneurons, mediating graded Shh signaling in the ventral spinal cord and hindbrain...
  44. ncbi Pax6 influences the time and site of origin of glial precursors in the ventral neural tube
    T Sun
    Department of Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT
    Mol Cell Neurosci 12:228-39. 1998
    ..OLs developed normally in explants of Isl1(-/-) spinal cords, which lack MNs, arguing against feedback control and suggesting that the neuron-glia switch is an intrinsic developmental program in a specific subset of neural precursors...
  45. ncbi Sonic hedgehog--regulated oligodendrocyte lineage genes encoding bHLH proteins in the mammalian central nervous system
    Q R Lu
    Department of Cancer Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Neuron 25:317-29. 2000
    ..Gain- and loss-of-function analyses in transgenic mice demonstrate that Shh is both necessary and sufficient for Olg gene expression in vivo...
  46. ncbi Mouse Gli1 mutants are viable but have defects in SHH signaling in combination with a Gli2 mutation
    H L Park
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, Department of Cell Biology and Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University Medical School, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 127:1593-605. 2000
    ..Furthermore, Gli1 and Gli2, but not Gli1 and Gli3, have extensive overlapping functions that are likely downstream of SHH signaling...
  47. ncbi Dorsal and lateral fates in the mouse neural tube require the cell-autonomous activity of the open brain gene
    J T Eggenschwiler
    Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Dev Biol 227:648-60. 2000
    ..The data indicate that opb(+) could act as either a novel component of a dorsalizing pathway or a novel intracellular negative regulator of the Shh signal transduction pathway...
  48. ncbi Control of interneuron fate in the developing spinal cord by the progenitor homeodomain protein Dbx1
    A Pierani
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and, Molecular Biophysics, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 29:367-84. 2001
    ..Thus, a single progenitor homeodomain transcription factor coordinates many of the differentiated properties of one class of interneurons generated in the ventral spinal cord...
  49. ncbi Crossregulation between Neurogenin2 and pathways specifying neuronal identity in the spinal cord
    R Scardigli
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM Universite Louis Pasteur, B P 163, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, C U, de Strasbourg, France
    Neuron 31:203-17. 2001
    ..Thus, neuronal differentiation involves crossregulatory interactions between a bHLH-driven program of neurogenesis and genetic pathways specifying progenitor and neuronal identity in the spinal cord...
  50. ncbi Control of oligodendrocyte differentiation by the Nkx2.2 homeodomain transcription factor
    Y Qi
    Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Development 128:2723-33. 2001
    ..Consistent with this suggestion, overproduction of Nkx2.2 protein in fibroblast cells can induce gene expression from the proteolipid protein promoter...
  51. ncbi Coordinate regulation of motor neuron subtype identity and pan-neuronal properties by the bHLH repressor Olig2
    B G Novitch
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, 701 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 31:773-89. 2001
    ..Together, these studies show that Olig2 has a critical role in integrating diverse features of motor neuron differentiation in the developing spinal cord...
  52. ncbi Gli1 can rescue the in vivo function of Gli2
    C B Bai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 128:5161-72. 2001
    ..We show that the defects are enhanced when Gli3 function is reduced, demonstrating that an important difference between Gli1 and Gli2 is the ability of Gli1 to antagonize Gli3 function...
  53. ncbi Protein kinase A deficiency causes axially localized neural tube defects in mice
    Yongzhao Huang
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:19889-96. 2002
    ..The regional sensitivity to changes in PKA activity indicates that downstream signaling pathways differ along the anterior-posterior axis and suggests a functional role for PKA activation in neural tube development...
  54. ncbi Non-overlapping expression of Olig3 and Olig2 in the embryonic neural tube
    Hirohide Takebayashi
    Department of Pathology and Tumor Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    Mech Dev 113:169-74. 2002
    ..5. Olig3 is specifically and transiently expressed in different types of progenitors of embryonic central nervous system and then disappears in the course of development...
  55. pmc A direct requirement for Hedgehog signaling for normal specification of all ventral progenitor domains in the presumptive mammalian spinal cord
    Mark Wijgerde
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 16:2849-64. 2002
    ..Thus, Hh signaling is essential for organizing ventral cell pattern, possibly through the control of differential cell affinities...
  56. ncbi Cross-repressive interaction of the Olig2 and Nkx2.2 transcription factors in developing neural tube associated with formation of a specific physical complex
    Tao Sun
    Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 23:9547-56. 2003
    ..2 that helps to establish the pMN-p3 boundary in the developing spinal cord...
  57. ncbi Lmx1b, Pet-1, and Nkx2.2 coordinately specify serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype
    Leping Cheng
    The Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 23:9961-7. 2003
    ..2, drives 5-HT differentiation in the dorsal spinal cord. Our studies therefore define a molecular pathway necessary and sufficient to specify the serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype...
  58. ncbi Multiple dorsoventral origins of oligodendrocyte generation in the spinal cord and hindbrain
    Anna Vallstedt
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuron 45:55-67. 2005
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that oligodendrocytes derive from several distinct positional origins and that the activation of Olig1/2 at different positions is controlled by distinct genetic programs...
  59. pmc Neuronatin, a downstream target of BETA2/NeuroD1 in the pancreas, is involved in glucose-mediated insulin secretion
    Khoi Chu
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Diabetes 54:1064-73. 2005
    ..These results suggest for the first time an important role for NNAT in insulin secretion and for proper beta-cell function...
  60. pmc Cilia and Hedgehog responsiveness in the mouse
    Danwei Huangfu
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11325-30. 2005
    ....
  61. ncbi Expression and functional analysis of Tgif during mouse midline development
    Jiu Zhen Jin
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Craniofacial Biology and Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292, USA
    Dev Dyn 235:547-53. 2006
    ..One interpretation of these results is that the loss of TGIF function is compensated by other TGF-beta antagonists such as c-Ski and SnoN during vertebrate anterior neural development...
  62. ncbi Mouse Rab23 regulates hedgehog signaling from smoothened to Gli proteins
    Jonathan T Eggenschwiler
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Dev Biol 290:1-12. 2006
    ..Instead, Rab23 appears to regulate subcellular localization of essential components of the Hedgehog pathway that act downstream of Smoothened and upstream of Gli proteins...
  63. ncbi Genetic elimination of Suppressor of fused reveals an essential repressor function in the mammalian Hedgehog signaling pathway
    Jessica Svärd
    Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, SE 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
    Dev Cell 10:187-97. 2006
    ..Our data demonstrate that, in striking contrast to Drosophila, in mammals, Sufu has a central role, and its loss of function leads to potent ligand-independent activation of the Hh pathway...
  64. ncbi Sonic hedgehog regulates Gli activator and repressor functions with spatial and temporal precision in the mid/hindbrain region
    Sandra Blaess
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 133:1799-809. 2006
    ..Thus, the precise spatial and temporal regulation of Gli2A and Gli3R by Shh is instrumental in coordinating mid/hindbrain development in three dimensions...
  65. pmc Gata6 is an important regulator of mouse pancreas development
    Kimberly Decker
    Program in Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado at Denver Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Dev Biol 298:415-29. 2006
    ..Conversely, the majority of transgenic Gata4-Engrailed embryos do not have a pancreatic phenotype. This study suggests that Gata6 is an important regulator of pancreas specification...
  66. ncbi Wnt signaling inhibitors regulate the transcriptional response to morphogenetic Shh-Gli signaling in the neural tube
    Qiubo Lei
    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, 08854, USA
    Dev Cell 11:325-37. 2006
    ..These results identify a transcriptional mechanism that integrates graded Shh and Wnt signaling to define progenitor gene expression domains and cell fates in the neural tube...
  67. ncbi Induction of oligodendrocyte differentiation by Olig2 and Sox10: evidence for reciprocal interactions and dosage-dependent mechanisms
    Zijing Liu
    Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Dev Biol 302:683-93. 2007
    ..In addition, we presented evidence that the control of oligodendrocyte differentiation by Olig2, Sox10 and Nkx2.2 is a dosage-dependent developmental process and can be affected by both haploinsufficiency and over-dosage...
  68. pmc MafB is required for islet beta cell maturation
    Isabella Artner
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 723 Light Hall, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:3853-8. 2007
    ..These results demonstrate that MafB plays a previously uncharacterized role by regulating transcription of key factors during development that are required for the production of mature alpha and beta cells...
  69. ncbi Genomic characterization of Gli-activator targets in sonic hedgehog-mediated neural patterning
    Steven A Vokes
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 134:1977-89. 2007
    ..Together, these approaches provide significant new insights into both tissue-specific and general transcriptional targets in a crucial Shh-mediated patterning process...
  70. pmc Nkx2.2 regulates beta-cell function in the mature islet
    Michelle J Doyle
    Program in Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado, USA
    Diabetes 56:1999-2007. 2007
    ..2-repressor transgenic mice is associated with disrupted islet architecture. These studies indicate a previously undiscovered role for Nkx2.2 in the maintenance of mature beta-cell function and the formation of normal islet structure...
  71. ncbi The graded response to Sonic Hedgehog depends on cilia architecture
    Tamara Caspary
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Dev Cell 12:767-78. 2007
    ..Thus, normal structure of the ciliary axoneme is required for the cell to translate different levels of Shh ligand into differential regulation of the Gli transcription factors that implement Hedgehog signals...
  72. ncbi Ftm is a novel basal body protein of cilia involved in Shh signalling
    Jeanette Vierkotten
    Institut für Entwicklungs und Molekularbiologie der Tiere EMT, Heinrich Heine Universitat, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Development 134:2569-77. 2007
    ..Furthermore, the absence of Ftm in arthropods underlines the divergence between vertebrate and Drosophila Hh pathways...
  73. ncbi Helt determines GABAergic over glutamatergic neuronal fate by repressing Ngn genes in the developing mesencephalon
    Tomoya Nakatani
    KAN Research Institute Inc, KobeMI R and D Center, 6 7 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo Ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650 0047, Japan
    Development 134:2783-93. 2007
    ....
  74. pmc Preferential reduction of beta cells derived from Pax6-MafB pathway in MafB deficient mice
    Wataru Nishimura
    Section of Islet Transplantation and Cell Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, USA
    Dev Biol 314:443-56. 2008
    ..Thus, Pax6 acts upstream of MafB, which in turn may trigger the expression of insulin and regulate the PDX-1 and MafA expression required for beta-cell maturation...
  75. pmc Insm1 (IA-1) is an essential component of the regulatory network that specifies monoaminergic neuronal phenotypes in the vertebrate hindbrain
    John Jacob
    MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 136:2477-85. 2009
    ..Thus, Insm1 regulates the synthesis of distinct monoaminergic neurotransmitters by acting combinatorially with, or independently of, Ascl1 in specific monoaminergic populations...
  76. doi The mammalian Cos2 homolog Kif7 plays an essential role in modulating Hh signal transduction during development
    Setsu Endoh-Yamagami
    Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech, Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Curr Biol 19:1320-6. 2009
    ..These results suggest a role for Kif7 in coordinating Hh signal transduction at the tip of cilia and preventing Gli3 cleavage into a repressor form in the presence of Hh...
  77. pmc Cooperative transcriptional regulation of the essential pancreatic islet gene NeuroD1 (beta2) by Nkx2.2 and neurogenin 3
    Keith R Anderson
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, Colorado 80045, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:31236-48. 2009
    ..Collectively, these findings further define the conserved regulatory networks involved in islet beta cell formation and function...
  78. pmc A mouse model for Meckel syndrome reveals Mks1 is required for ciliogenesis and Hedgehog signaling
    Scott D Weatherbee
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 18:4565-75. 2009
    ..Thus the disruption of Hh signaling can explain many, but not all, of the defects caused by loss of Mks1...
  79. pmc Spatiotemporally separable Shh domains in the midbrain define distinct dopaminergic progenitor pools
    Milan Joksimovic
    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurology and Center for Genetic Medicine, 7 113 Lurie Building, 303 East Superior Street, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19185-90. 2009
    ..This refined ontogenetic definition will expand understanding of dopamine neuron biology and selective susceptibility, and will impact stem cell-derived therapies and models for PD...
  80. pmc Dynamic assignment and maintenance of positional identity in the ventral neural tube by the morphogen sonic hedgehog
    Eric Dessaud
    Developmental Neurobiology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000382. 2010
    ..This suggests an alternative to conventional models of morphogen action that rely solely on the level of signalling...
  81. pmc Interactions of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and sonic hedgehog regulate the neurogenesis of ventral midbrain dopamine neurons
    Mianzhi Tang
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco and Pathology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Neurosci 30:9280-91. 2010
    ..Persistent activation of beta-catenin in early progenitors perturbs their cell cycle progression and antagonizes Shh expression, whereas activation of beta-catenin in midline progenitors promotes the generation of dopamine neurons...
  82. doi Foxa1 and Foxa2 positively and negatively regulate Shh signalling to specify ventral midbrain progenitor identity
    Yannis E Mavromatakis
    Division of Developmental Neurobiology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Mech Dev 128:90-103. 2011
    ..Altogether, these data indicate that Foxa1 and Foxa2 contribute to the specification of ventral midbrain progenitor identity by regulating Shh signalling in a positive and negative manner...
  83. pmc Tcf/Lef repressors differentially regulate Shh-Gli target gene activation thresholds to generate progenitor patterning in the developing CNS
    Hui Wang
    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Development 138:3711-21. 2011
    ..Together, our data reveal a Shh-Gli-independent transcriptional input that is required to shape the precise spatial and temporal response to extracellular morphogen signaling information during lineage segregation in the CNS...
  84. pmc Nkx2.2 and Arx genetically interact to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell development and endocrine hormone expression
    Teresa L Mastracci
    Department of Genetics and Development, Russ Berrie Medical Pavilion, Columbia University, 1150 St Nicholas Ave, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Dev Biol 359:1-11. 2011
    ..Together, these experiments identify novel genetic interactions between Nkx2.2 and Arx within the endocrine progenitor cells that ensure the correct specification and regulation of endocrine hormone-producing cells...
  85. pmc Protein kinase A acts at the basal body of the primary cilium to prevent Gli2 activation and ventralization of the mouse neural tube
    Miquel Tuson
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Development 138:4921-30. 2011
    ....
  86. pmc Nkx2.2 repressor complex regulates islet β-cell specification and prevents β-to-α-cell reprogramming
    James B Papizan
    Department of Genetics and Development, Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, New York 10032, USA
    Genes Dev 25:2291-305. 2011
    ..Mutation of the endogenous Nkx2.2 tinman (TN) domain in mice abolishes the interaction between Nkx2.2 and Grg3 and disrupts β-cell specification...
  87. doi Dual function of suppressor of fused in Hh pathway activation and mouse spinal cord patterning
    Jinling Liu
    Department of Biology, Eberly College of Science, Center for Cellular Dynamics, Huck Institute of Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Dev Biol 362:141-53. 2012
    ..Finally, by altering the level of Gli3 repressor on a background of reduced Gli activator activities, we reveal an important contribution of Gli3 repressor activity to the Hh pathway activation and the D/V patterning of the spinal cord...
  88. pmc Gene regulatory logic for reading the Sonic Hedgehog signaling gradient in the vertebrate neural tube
    Nikolaos Balaskas
    Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Cell 148:273-84. 2012
    ..Our findings reveal that morphogen interpretation is an emergent property of the architecture of a transcriptional network that provides robustness and reliability to tissue patterning...
  89. ncbi Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells
    L Sussel
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Development 125:2213-21. 1998
    ..1. We propose that Nkx2.2 is required for the final differentiation of pancreatic beta cells, and in its absence, beta cells are trapped in an incompletely differentiated state...
  90. ncbi Diminished Sonic hedgehog signaling and lack of floor plate differentiation in Gli2 mutant mice
    Q Ding
    Program in Developmental Biology and Division of Endocrinology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Development 125:2533-43. 1998
    ..Our results imply that Gli2 is required to mediate high level but not low level Shh activity and show that the development of motor neurons can occur in the absence of floor plate induction...
  91. ncbi Gli2 is required for induction of floor plate and adjacent cells, but not most ventral neurons in the mouse central nervous system
    M P Matise
    Developmental Genetics Program and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Cell Biology and Physiology and Neuroscience, NYU Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 125:2759-70. 1998
    ....
  92. ncbi Homeobox gene Nkx2.2 and specification of neuronal identity by graded Sonic hedgehog signalling
    J Briscoe
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 398:622-7. 1999
    ..Thus, Nkx2.2 has an essential role in interpreting graded Shh signals and selecting neuronal identity...
  93. ncbi Transcription factor occupancy of the insulin gene in vivo. Evidence for direct regulation by Nkx2.2
    Michelle A Cissell
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical School, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:751-6. 2003
    ..These studies reveal the broad application of the Pdx-1, BETA-2, Pax6, and Nkx2.2 transcription factors in regulating expression of genes selectively expressed in islet beta cells...
  94. pmc Coordinated temporal and spatial control of motor neuron and serotonergic neuron generation from a common pool of CNS progenitors
    Alexandre Pattyn
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Genes Dev 17:729-37. 2003
    ..These findings assign new roles for Nkx, Hox, and Phox2 proteins in the control of temporal neuronal fate determination, and link spatial and temporal patterning of CNS neuronal fates...
  95. ncbi The concerted activities of Pax4 and Nkx2.2 are essential to initiate pancreatic beta-cell differentiation
    Junfeng Wang
    Department of Genetics and Tumor Cell Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Dev Biol 266:178-89. 2004
    ..This role of Pax4 appears to be accomplished via its genetic interaction with another homeobox gene, Nkx2.2...
  96. ncbi The cell surface membrane proteins Cdo and Boc are components and targets of the Hedgehog signaling pathway and feedback network in mice
    Toyoaki Tenzen
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Dev Cell 10:647-56. 2006
    ..Cdo and Boc bind Shh through a high-affinity interaction with a specific fibronectin repeat that is essential for activity. We propose a model where Cdo and Boc enhance Shh signaling within its target field...
  97. doi Notochord-derived Shh concentrates in close association with the apically positioned basal body in neural target cells and forms a dynamic gradient during neural patterning
    Chester E Chamberlain
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 135:1097-106. 2008
    ..This study, in which we directly observe, measure, localize and modify notochord-derived Shh ligand in the context of neural patterning, provides several new insights into mechanisms of Shh morphogen action...
  98. pmc The transcription factors Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9 play a novel role in floor plate development and commissural axon guidance
    Andreas Holz
    Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Braunschweig, Spielmannstrasse 7, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
    Development 137:4249-60. 2010
    ..As both factors affect floor plate development, control of commissural axon trajectories might be the underlying mechanism...
  99. pmc GABAergic and glutamatergic identities of developing midbrain Pitx2 neurons
    M R Waite
    Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Dev Dyn 240:333-46. 2011
    ..Our data suggest that PITX2 is present in regionally restricted subpopulations of midbrain neurons and may have unique functions that promote GABAergic and glutamatergic differentiation...
  100. pmc Mapping the NPHP-JBTS-MKS protein network reveals ciliopathy disease genes and pathways
    Liyun Sang
    Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Cell 145:513-28. 2011
    ..Our study further illustrates the power of linking proteomic networks and human genetics to uncover critical disease pathways...
  101. pmc Arx and Nkx2.2 compound deficiency redirects pancreatic alpha- and beta-cell differentiation to a somatostatin/ghrelin co-expressing cell lineage
    Simon Kordowich
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, Gottingen, Germany
    BMC Dev Biol 11:52. 2011
    ..2-deficient pancreata. Hence in order to precise the functional link between both factors we performed a comparative analysis of Nkx2.2/Arx single- and double-mutants but also of Pax6-deficient animals...

Research Grants5

  1. PIONEER AXON GUIDANCE IN THE EMBRYONIC FOREBRAIN
    GRANT MASTICK; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In addition, the mechanisms of axon growth during development may give insight into how regeneration of the nervous system may be stimulated following trauma or disease. ..
  2. INVESTIGATING THE ROLE OF CDO IN BRAIN DEVELOPMENT
    Ami Okada; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These experiments should also contribute to the overall understanding of the signals that are important in the assembly of the nervous system. ..
  3. MECHANISMS OF NEURAL PATTERNING IN MAMMALIAN FOREBRAIN
    Gordon Fishell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. REGIONAL PATTERNING IN THE VENTRAL TELENCEPHALON
    GORDON J FISHELL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..If we can understand how this population is generated, we will take the first step towards assessing whether we can use gene or cell therapies to ameliorate the devasting consequences associated with cortical interneuron dysfunction. ..
  5. Longitudinal axon guidance by long range cues in the embryonic brain
    GRANT STEPHEN MASTICK; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ....