Tbx5

Summary

Gene Symbol: Tbx5
Description: T-box 5
Alias: T-box transcription factor TBX5, T-box protein 5
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Tbx2 is essential for patterning the atrioventricular canal and for morphogenesis of the outflow tract during heart development
    Zachary Harrelson
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Development 131:5041-52. 2004
  2. ncbi Mutations in human TBX5 [corrected] cause limb and cardiac malformation in Holt-Oram syndrome
    C T Basson
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 15:30-5. 1997
  3. pmc Vax genes ventralize the embryonic eye
    Stina H Mui
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Genes Dev 19:1249-59. 2005
  4. ncbi Cardiac T-box factor Tbx20 directly interacts with Nkx2-5, GATA4, and GATA5 in regulation of gene expression in the developing heart
    Fiona A Stennard
    Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, 2010, Sydney, Australia
    Dev Biol 262:206-24. 2003
  5. pmc Cooperative action of Tbx2 and Nkx2.5 inhibits ANF expression in the atrioventricular canal: implications for cardiac chamber formation
    Petra E M H Habets
    Experimental and Molecular Cardiology Group, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Genes Dev 16:1234-46. 2002
  6. pmc Regulatory variation in a TBX5 enhancer leads to isolated congenital heart disease
    Scott Smemo
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 21:3255-63. 2012
  7. pmc Odd-skipped related 1 (Odd 1) is an essential regulator of heart and urogenital development
    Qingru Wang
    Center for Oral Biology and Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 611, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Dev Biol 288:582-94. 2005
  8. ncbi Evidence of a role for T-box genes in the evolution of limb morphogenesis and the specification of forelimb/hindlimb identity
    J J Gibson-Brown
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Mech Dev 56:93-101. 1996
  9. pmc Retinoic acid guides eye morphogenetic movements via paracrine signaling but is unnecessary for retinal dorsoventral patterning
    Andrei Molotkov
    Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Development 133:1901-10. 2006
  10. ncbi Expression of the T-box family genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, during early mouse development
    D L Chapman
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicans and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Dev Dyn 206:379-90. 1996

Research Grants

  1. Excess TGF beta in neonatal lung injury and repair
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2004
  2. Lung epithelial and vascular morphogenesis
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2006
  3. AUTOCRINE/PARACRINE GROWTH FACTORS & LUNG MORPHOGENESIS
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2009
  4. DEVELOPMENTAL TYPE II PNEUMOCYTE PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. Body Plan Formation in Early Mouse Embryo
    Yusuke Marikawa; Fiscal Year: 2004
  6. HAND GENES IN CARDIAC DEVELOPMENT
    William Pu; Fiscal Year: 2004
  7. EFFECTS OF DIOXIN ON TOOTH AND MANDIBLE TRAITS IN MICE
    Larry Leamy; Fiscal Year: 2005

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications129 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Tbx2 is essential for patterning the atrioventricular canal and for morphogenesis of the outflow tract during heart development
    Zachary Harrelson
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Development 131:5041-52. 2004
    ....
  2. ncbi Mutations in human TBX5 [corrected] cause limb and cardiac malformation in Holt-Oram syndrome
    C T Basson
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 15:30-5. 1997
    ..Here, we demonstrate that mutations in the human TBX5 gene underlie this disorder. TBX5 was cloned from the disease locus on human chromosome 12q24...
  3. pmc Vax genes ventralize the embryonic eye
    Stina H Mui
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Genes Dev 19:1249-59. 2005
    ....
  4. ncbi Cardiac T-box factor Tbx20 directly interacts with Nkx2-5, GATA4, and GATA5 in regulation of gene expression in the developing heart
    Fiona A Stennard
    Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, 2010, Sydney, Australia
    Dev Biol 262:206-24. 2003
    ..sites resembling the consensus brachyury half site, although with less avidity compared with the related factor, Tbx5. Tbx20 physically interacted with cardiac transcription factors Nkx2-5, GATA4, and GATA5, collaborating to ..
  5. pmc Cooperative action of Tbx2 and Nkx2.5 inhibits ANF expression in the atrioventricular canal: implications for cardiac chamber formation
    Petra E M H Habets
    Experimental and Molecular Cardiology Group, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Genes Dev 16:1234-46. 2002
    ..5 on the ANF TBE-NKE, and was able to repress ANF promoter activity. Our data provide a potential mechanism for chamber-restricted gene activity in which the cooperative action of Tbx2 and Nkx2.5 inhibits expression in the AVC...
  6. pmc Regulatory variation in a TBX5 enhancer leads to isolated congenital heart disease
    Scott Smemo
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 21:3255-63. 2012
    ..variation in congenital heart diseases (CHDs), we searched for regulatory mutations impacting the activity of TBX5, a dosage-dependent transcription factor with well-defined roles in the heart and limb development that has been ..
  7. pmc Odd-skipped related 1 (Odd 1) is an essential regulator of heart and urogenital development
    Qingru Wang
    Center for Oral Biology and Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 611, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Dev Biol 288:582-94. 2005
    ..5, Pitx2, and Tbx5, are unaltered in the developing heart in Odd 1(-/-) mutants compared to that of the wild-type littermates...
  8. ncbi Evidence of a role for T-box genes in the evolution of limb morphogenesis and the specification of forelimb/hindlimb identity
    J J Gibson-Brown
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Mech Dev 56:93-101. 1996
    ..1996) Dev. Dyn., in press), and four (Tbx2-Tbx5) are represented as two cognate, linked gene pairs (Agulnik et al., (1996), Genetics, in press)...
  9. pmc Retinoic acid guides eye morphogenetic movements via paracrine signaling but is unnecessary for retinal dorsoventral patterning
    Andrei Molotkov
    Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Development 133:1901-10. 2006
    ..for the establishment or maintenance of dorsoventral patterning in the retina, as we observe normal expression of Tbx5 and ephrin B2 (Efnb2) dorsally, plus Vax2 and Ephb2 ventrally...
  10. ncbi Expression of the T-box family genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, during early mouse development
    D L Chapman
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicans and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Dev Dyn 206:379-90. 1996
    ..study of the function and evolution of these genes, we have examined the expression of 5 of these genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, across a wide range of embryonic stages from blastocyst through gastrulation and early organogenesis by in situ ..
  11. pmc Evolution of mouse T-box genes by tandem duplication and cluster dispersion
    S I Agulnik
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 1014, USA
    Genetics 144:249-54. 1996
    ..Here, we report the discovery of three new members of the mouse T-box gene family, named Tbx4, Tbx5, and Tbx6...
  12. ncbi Holt-Oram syndrome is caused by mutations in TBX5, a member of the Brachyury (T) gene family
    Q Y Li
    Department of Genetics, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, UK
    Nat Genet 15:21-9. 1997
    ..We have now identified a gene for this disorder (HOS1). The gene (TBX5) is a member of the Brachyury (T) family corresponding to the mouse Tbx5 gene...
  13. ncbi Fgf10 is essential for limb and lung formation
    K Sekine
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan
    Nat Genet 21:138-41. 1999
    ..Thus, we show here that Fgf10 serves as an essential regulator of lung and limb formation...
  14. ncbi Chamber-specific cardiac expression of Tbx5 and heart defects in Holt-Oram syndrome
    B G Bruneau
    Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, USA
    Dev Biol 211:100-8. 1999
    To further define the role of a T-box transcription factor, Tbx5, in cardiac development, we have examined its expression in the developing mouse and chick heart and correlated this pattern with cardiac defects caused by human TBX5 ..
  15. ncbi Chamber formation and morphogenesis in the developing mammalian heart
    V M Christoffels
    Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1105, The Netherlands
    Dev Biol 223:266-78. 2000
    ..govern compartmentalization in the forming heart is seen in the patterns of expression of Hand1 for the dorsoventral axis, Irx4 and Tbx5 for the anteroposterior axis, and Irx5 for the distinction between primary and chamber myocardium.
  16. ncbi Tbx5 associates with Nkx2-5 and synergistically promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation
    Y Hiroi
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Nat Genet 28:276-80. 2001
    ..Using the yeast two-hybrid system with Nkx2-5 as the 'bait', we isolated the T-box-containing transcription factor Tbx5; mutations in TBX5 cause heart and limb malformations in Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS)...
  17. ncbi Characterization of the TBX5 binding site and analysis of mutations that cause Holt-Oram syndrome
    T K Ghosh
    Institute of Genetics, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 10:1983-94. 2001
    Holt-Oram syndrome is caused by mutations in TBX5, a member of the T-box gene family. In order to identify DNA sequences to which the TBX5 protein binds, we have performed an in vitro binding site selection assay...
  18. ncbi A murine model of Holt-Oram syndrome defines roles of the T-box transcription factor Tbx5 in cardiogenesis and disease
    B G Bruneau
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 106:709-21. 2001
    Heterozygous Tbx5(del/+) mice were generated to study the mechanisms by which TBX5 haploinsufficiency causes cardiac and forelimb abnormalities seen in Holt-Oram syndrome...
  19. ncbi The homeodomain protein Vax2 patterns the dorsoventral and nasotemporal axes of the eye
    Stina H Mui
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA
    Development 129:797-804. 2002
    ..Vax2 mutants also exhibit flattened DV and NT gradients of the EphA5, EphB2, EphB3, ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 axon guidance cues. Together, these data identify Vax2 as a fundamental regulator of axial polarization in the mammalian retina...
  20. ncbi Vax2 inactivation in mouse determines alteration of the eye dorsal-ventral axis, misrouting of the optic fibres and eye coloboma
    Anna Maria Barbieri
    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine TIGEM, Via Pietro Castellino 111, Naples, Italy
    Development 129:805-13. 2002
    ..Vax2 inactivation determines dorsalisation of the expression of mid-late (Ephb2 and Efnb2) but not early (Pax2 and Tbx5) markers of dorsal-ventral polarity in the developing retina...
  21. ncbi Bop encodes a muscle-restricted protein containing MYND and SET domains and is essential for cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis
    Paul D Gottlieb
    Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Nat Genet 31:25-32. 2002
    ..These results indicate that m-Bop is essential for cardiomyocyte differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis...
  22. ncbi Tbx5 is essential for forelimb bud initiation following patterning of the limb field in the mouse embryo
    Pooja Agarwal
    Programmes in Cardiovascular Research and Developmental Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
    Development 130:623-33. 2003
    ..The T-box transcription factor TBX5 is important for normal heart and limb formation, but its role in early limb development is not well defined...
  23. ncbi T-box gene products are required for mesenchymal induction of epithelial branching in the embryonic mouse lung
    Judith A Cebra-Thomas
    Department of Biology, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA
    Dev Dyn 226:82-90. 2003
    ..AS ODNs) and in vitro culture of embryonic lungs, we demonstrate that the transcription factors Tbx4 and Tbx5 are critical for the expression of mesenchymal FGF10...
  24. pmc Mapping Wnt/beta-catenin signaling during mouse development and in colorectal tumors
    Silvia Maretto
    Histology and Embryology Section, Department of Histology, Microbiology, and Medical Biotechnology, University of Padua, 35131 Padua, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:3299-304. 2003
    ..In summary, BAT-gal mice unveil the entire complexity of Wntbeta-catenin signaling in mammals and have broad application potentials for the identification of Wnt-responsive cell populations in development and disease...
  25. ncbi Mammary gland, limb and yolk sac defects in mice lacking Tbx3, the gene mutated in human ulnar mammary syndrome
    Todd G Davenport
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 701 W 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Development 130:2263-73. 2003
    ....
  26. ncbi Loss of Tbx4 blocks hindlimb development and affects vascularization and fusion of the allantois
    L A Naiche
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 701 W 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Development 130:2681-93. 2003
    ....
  27. ncbi Tbx5 is required for forelimb bud formation and continued outgrowth
    Charalampos Rallis
    Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 130:2741-51. 2003
    b>Tbx5 is a T-box transcription factor expressed exclusively in the developing forelimb but not in the developing hindlimb of vertebrates...
  28. ncbi Tbx5 specifies the left/right ventricles and ventricular septum position during cardiogenesis
    Jun K Takeuchi
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916 5, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630 0101, Japan
    Development 130:5953-64. 2003
    Extensive misexpression studies were carried out to explore the roles played by Tbx5, the expression of which is excluded from the right ventricle (RV) during cardiogenesis...
  29. ncbi The transcriptional repressor Tbx3 delineates the developing central conduction system of the heart
    Willem M H Hoogaars
    Experimental and Molecular Cardiology Group, AMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cardiovasc Res 62:489-99. 2004
    ..We studied the developmental expression pattern and functional aspects of the T-box transcription factor Tbx3, a novel marker for the murine central conduction system (CCS)...
  30. ncbi GATA4 is a dosage-sensitive regulator of cardiac morphogenesis
    William T Pu
    Department of Cardiology, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Dev Biol 275:235-44. 2004
    ..development is orchestrated by a set of highly conserved transcription factors that includes GATA4, Nkx2-5, and Tbx5. Heterozygous mutation of each of these genes causes congenital heart disease in humans...
  31. ncbi The Hand1 and Hand2 transcription factors regulate expansion of the embryonic cardiac ventricles in a gene dosage-dependent manner
    David G McFadden
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9148, USA
    Development 132:189-201. 2005
    ..These findings demonstrate that Hand factors play pivotal and partially redundant roles in cardiac morphogenesis, cardiomyocyte differentiation and cardiac-specific transcription...
  32. ncbi Tbx5 and Tbx4 are not sufficient to determine limb-specific morphologies but have common roles in initiating limb outgrowth
    Carolina Minguillon
    Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Dev Cell 8:75-84. 2005
    Morphological differences between forelimbs and hindlimbs are thought to be regulated by Tbx5 expressed in the forelimb and Tbx4 and Pitx1 expressed in the hindlimb...
  33. ncbi Tbx20 dose-dependently regulates transcription factor networks required for mouse heart and motoneuron development
    Jun K Takeuchi
    Cardiovascular Research, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Development 132:2463-74. 2005
    ..We conclude that Tbx20 is positioned at a critical node in transcription factor networks required for heart and motoneuron development where it dose-dependently regulates gene expression...
  34. ncbi Abnormal cardiac inflow patterns during postnatal development in a mouse model of Holt-Oram syndrome
    Yu Qing Zhou
    Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 289:H992-H1001. 2005
    b>Tbx5(del/+) mice provide a model of human Holt-Oram syndrome...
  35. ncbi Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells
    Nicolas Matt
    Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire IGBMC Collège de France, BP10142, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, CU de Strasbourg, France
    Development 132:4789-800. 2005
    ..We additionally show that RALDH1 and RALDH3 are the only enzymes that are required for RA synthesis in the eye region from E10.5 to E13.5, and that patterning of the dorsoventral axis of the retina does not require RA...
  36. ncbi T-box transcription factors and their roles in regulatory hierarchies in the developing heart
    Fiona A Stennard
    Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, St Vincent s Hospital, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010, Australia
    Development 132:4897-910. 2005
    ..At least seven family members are expressed in the developing mammalian heart, and the human T-box genes TBX1 and TBX5 are mutated in cardiac congenital anomaly syndromes...
  37. ncbi Bmp2 is essential for cardiac cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myocardial patterning
    Lijiang Ma
    Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, 2121 West Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Development 132:5601-11. 2005
    ..Our data indicate that Bmp2 has a crucial role in coordinating multiple aspects of AV canal morphogenesis...
  38. ncbi Cooperative and antagonistic interactions between Sall4 and Tbx5 pattern the mouse limb and heart
    Kazuko Koshiba-Takeuchi
    Programs in Cardiovascular Research, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Nat Genet 38:175-83. 2006
    Human mutations in TBX5, a gene encoding a T-box transcription factor, and SALL4, a gene encoding a zinc-finger transcription factor, cause similar upper limb and heart defects...
  39. ncbi Isl1Cre reveals a common Bmp pathway in heart and limb development
    Lei Yang
    Skaggs School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Development 133:1575-85. 2006
    ..Tbx3 is required for heart and limb formation, and is mutated in ulnar-mammary syndrome. We provide evidence that the Tbx3 promoter is directly regulated by Bmp Smads in vivo...
  40. pmc Tbx1 haploinsufficiency is linked to behavioral disorders in mice and humans: implications for 22q11 deletion syndrome
    Richard Paylor
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7729-34. 2006
    ..Thus, Tbx1 and Gnb1l are strong candidates for psychiatric disease in 22q11DS patients and candidate susceptibility genes for psychiatric disease in the wider population...
  41. ncbi Microarray analysis of Tbx5-induced genes expressed in the developing heart
    Timothy F Plageman
    Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, ML7020, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Dev Dyn 235:2868-80. 2006
    b>Tbx5 is a member of the T-box family of transcription factors and is associated with Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS), a congenital disorder characterized by heart and limb defects...
  42. ncbi Pitx1 determines the morphology of muscle, tendon, and bones of the hindlimb
    April DeLaurier
    Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA, UK
    Dev Biol 299:22-34. 2006
    ..Three genes have been implicated in this process; T-box transcription factors Tbx5 and Tbx4, which are expressed in the forelimb and hindlimb, respectively, and a paired-type homeodomain ..
  43. ncbi Tbx5 is dispensable for forelimb outgrowth
    Peleg Hasson
    Division of Developmental Biology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 134:85-92. 2007
    b>Tbx5 is essential for initiation of the forelimb, and its deletion in mice results in the failure of forelimb formation...
  44. pmc The level of BMP4 signaling is critical for the regulation of distinct T-box gene expression domains and growth along the dorso-ventral axis of the optic cup
    Hourinaz Behesti
    Developmental Biology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK
    BMC Dev Biol 6:62. 2006
    ..In chick, retroviral gene overexpression studies indicate that Bmp4 activates the dorsally expressed Tbx5 gene, which represses ventrally expressed cVax...
  45. pmc Tbx2 and Tbx3 regulate the dynamics of cell proliferation during heart remodeling
    Ines Ribeiro
    Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e398. 2007
    ..Cardiomyocytes in the future chamber myocardium acquire different cellular and physiological characteristics through activation of a chamber-specific genetic program, which is in part mediated by T-box genes...
  46. ncbi A molecular pathway including Id2, Tbx5, and Nkx2-5 required for cardiac conduction system development
    Ivan P G Moskowitz
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 129:1365-76. 2007
    ..A 1.2 kb fragment of the Id2 promoter proved sufficient for cooperative regulation by Nkx2-5 and Tbx5 in vitro and for conduction-system-specific gene expression in vivo...
  47. pmc Tbx5-dependent pathway regulating diastolic function in congenital heart disease
    Yonghong Zhu
    Programme in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Division of Cardiology and Labatt Family Heart Centre, Programme in Physiology and Experimental Medicine, and Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5519-24. 2008
    ..Haploinsufficiency of the T-box transcription factor Tbx5 in mouse and man causes congenital heart defects (CHDs) as part of Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS)...
  48. doi Transcription factor Tbx3 is required for the specification of the atrioventricular conduction system
    Martijn L Bakker
    Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Circ Res 102:1340-9. 2008
    ..Our data suggest a mechanism in which Tbx3 represses differentiation into ventricular working myocardium, thereby imposing the conduction system phenotype on cells within its expression domain...
  49. pmc Tbx3 is required for outflow tract development
    Karim Mesbah
    Developmental Biology Institute of Marseilles Luminy, France
    Circ Res 103:743-50. 2008
    ....
  50. pmc Interaction of Gata4 and Gata6 with Tbx5 is critical for normal cardiac development
    Meenakshi Maitra
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Dev Biol 326:368-77. 2009
    ..The mutation (G296S) exhibited biochemical deficits and disrupted a novel interaction between Gata4 and Tbx5. To determine if Gata4 and Tbx5 genetically interact in vivo, we generated mice heterozygous for both alleles...
  51. pmc Tbx4/5 gene duplication and the origin of vertebrate paired appendages
    Carolina Minguillon
    Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21726-30. 2009
    ..The T-box genes Tbx5 and Tbx4 encode two closely related transcription factors that are the earliest factors required to initiate ..
  52. pmc Tbx4 and tbx5 acting in connective tissue are required for limb muscle and tendon patterning
    Peleg Hasson
    Division of Developmental Biology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Dev Cell 18:148-56. 2010
    ..We find that deletion of Tbx5 in forelimbs (or Tbx4 in hindlimbs) specifically affects muscle and tendon patterning without disrupting skeletal ..
  53. pmc Stat3 directly controls the expression of Tbx5, Nkx2.5, and GATA4 and is essential for cardiomyocyte differentiation of P19CL6 cells
    Marylynn Snyder
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:23639-46. 2010
    ..to the promoters and regulates the expression of three genes that are essential for cardiac differentiation: Tbx5, Nkx2.5, and GATA4. We further demonstrate that Tbx5, Nkx2...
  54. pmc Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes by defined factors
    Masaki Ieda
    Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell 142:375-86. 2010
    ..Here, we report that a combination of three developmental transcription factors (i.e., Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5) rapidly and efficiently reprogrammed postnatal cardiac or dermal fibroblasts directly into differentiated ..
  55. pmc An endocardial pathway involving Tbx5, Gata4, and Nos3 required for atrial septum formation
    Mathieu Nadeau
    Research Unit in Cardiac Growth and Differentiation and Molecular Biology Program, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3J7
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19356-61. 2010
    ..We report that transcription factor Tbx5 is present in a subpopulation of endocardial cells and that its deletion therein results in fully penetrant, dose-..
  56. pmc Divergent transcriptional activities determine limb identity
    Jean François Ouimette
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7
    Nat Commun 1:35. 2010
    ..by limb-restricted regulators such as hindlimb (HL) transcription factors Pitx1 and Tbx4 and the forelimb (FL) Tbx5. Both Tbx factors have been implicated in limb patterning and growth, but their relative activities and underlying ..
  57. pmc Chromatin remodelling complex dosage modulates transcription factor function in heart development
    Jun K Takeuchi
    Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nat Commun 2:187. 2011
    ..Disrupting the balance between Brg1 and disease-causing cardiac transcription factors, including Tbx5, Tbx20 and Nkx2-5, causes severe cardiac anomalies, revealing an essential allelic balance between Brg1 and these ..
  58. pmc Axial Hox9 activity establishes the posterior field in the developing forelimb
    Ben Xu
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2200, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4888-91. 2011
    ..This Hox9 mutant phenotype is restricted to the forelimbs; mutant hindlimbs are normal, revealing fundamental differences in the patterning mechanisms governing the establishment of forelimb and hindlimb fields...
  59. pmc Synergistic activation of cardiac genes by myocardin and Tbx5
    Chunbo Wang
    UNC McAllister Heart Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e24242. 2011
    ..Here, we show that myocardin directly interacts with Tbx5, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors involved in the Holt-Oram syndrome...
  60. pmc Identification of a Tbx1/Tbx2/Tbx3 genetic pathway governing pharyngeal and arterial pole morphogenesis
    Karim Mesbah
    Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille Luminy, Aix Marseille University, CNRS UMR6216, Marseille, France
    Hum Mol Genet 21:1217-29. 2012
    ..2DS patients...
  61. pmc Lethal arrhythmias in Tbx3-deficient mice reveal extreme dosage sensitivity of cardiac conduction system function and homeostasis
    Deborah U Frank
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84158, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E154-63. 2012
    ..TBX3 and its regulatory targets merit investigation as candidates for human arrhythmias...
  62. pmc Dynamic expression of Tbx2 subfamily genes in development of the mouse reproductive system
    Nataki C Douglas
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Dev Dyn 241:365-75. 2012
    Tbx2, Tbx3, Tbx4, and Tbx5, members of the Tbx2 subfamily of T-box transcription factor genes, are important for many aspects of embryonic development and mutations in some human TBX2 subfamily genes cause developmental syndromes...
  63. pmc Inefficient reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes using Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5
    Jenny X Chen
    Cardiovascular Research Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    Circ Res 111:50-5. 2012
    ..Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes is a novel strategy for cardiac regeneration. However, the key determinants involved in this process are unknown...
  64. pmc TBX5 drives Scn5a expression to regulate cardiac conduction system function
    David E Arnolds
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:2509-18. 2012
    ..association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with adult human CCS function, including TBX5 and SCN5A...
  65. pmc Hox genes regulate the onset of Tbx5 expression in the forelimb
    Carolina Minguillon
    Division of Developmental Biology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 139:3180-8. 2012
    Tbx4 and Tbx5 are two closely related T-box genes that encode transcription factors expressed in the prospective hindlimb and forelimb territories, respectively, of all jawed vertebrates...
  66. pmc Multiple roles and interactions of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in development of the respiratory system
    Ripla Arora
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002866. 2012
    ..Both Tbx4 and Tbx5 are expressed throughout the mesenchyme of the developing lung and trachea; and, although multiple genes are known ..
  67. ncbi Ventricular expression of tbx5 inhibits normal heart chamber development
    C M Liberatore
    Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, The Children s Hospital Research Foundation, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Dev Biol 223:169-80. 2000
    The T-box gene tbx5 is expressed in the developing heart, forelimb, eye, and liver in vertebrate embryos during critical stages of morphogenesis and patterning...
  68. ncbi T-box genes coordinate regional rates of proliferation and regional specification during cardiogenesis
    Chen Leng Cai
    Skaggs School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Development 132:2475-87. 2005
    ....
  69. pmc Distinct expression and function of alternatively spliced Tbx5 isoforms in cell growth and differentiation
    Romain Georges
    Research Unit in Cardiac Growth and Differentiation, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 28:4052-67. 2008
    Mutations in the T-box transcription factor Tbx5 cause Holt-Oram syndrome, an autosomal dominant disease characterized by a wide spectrum of cardiac and upper limb defects with variable expressivity...
  70. pmc Wt1 and retinoic acid signaling in the subcoelomic mesenchyme control the development of the pleuropericardial membranes and the sinus horns
    Julia Norden
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie, OE5250, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl Neuberg Str 1, D 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Circ Res 106:1212-20. 2010
    ..The systemic venous return myocardium (sinus node and sinus horns) forms only late in cardiogenesis from a pool of pericardial mesenchymal precursor cells...
  71. ncbi Expression of Drosophila omb-related T-box genes in the developing human and mouse neural retina
    J C Sowden
    Developmental Biology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:3095-102. 2001
    ..To examine the role of Drosophila optomotor blind (omb)-related T-box genes in development of human and mouse retina...
  72. doi TAp63 is important for cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells and heart development
    Matthieu Rouleau
    INSERM U898, Nice, France
    Stem Cells 29:1672-83. 2011
    ..Therefore, TAp63 acts in a non-cell-autonomous manner by modulating expression of endodermal factors. Our findings uncover a critical role for p63 in cardiogenesis that could be related to human heart disease...
  73. ncbi Tbx6, a mouse T-Box gene implicated in paraxial mesoderm formation at gastrulation
    D L Chapman
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 701 West 168th Street, New York, New York, 10032, USA
    Dev Biol 180:534-42. 1996
    ..reported the discovery of six new mouse T-box genes, Tbx1-Tbx6, and described the expression patterns of Tbx1-Tbx5 (Bollag et al., 1994; Agulnik et al., 1996; Chapman et al., 1996; Gibson-Brown et al., 1996)...
  74. ncbi Chimeric analysis of retinoic acid receptor function during cardiac looping
    Angelo Iulianella
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Dev Biol 247:62-75. 2002
    ..This work suggests a role for RAR signaling in late looping morphogenesis and illustrates the utility of using a dominant-negative gene substitution approach to circumvent the functional redundancy inherent to the RAR family...
  75. ncbi The developing heart and congenital heart defects: a make or break situation
    B G Bruneau
    Program in Cardiovascular Research, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Clin Genet 63:252-61. 2003
    ..This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of mammalian heart formation, and how some of these processes, when disrupted, lead to congenital heart defects...
  76. ncbi An enhancer-trap LacZ transgene reveals a distinct expression pattern of Kinesin family 26B in mouse embryos
    Yusuke Marikawa
    Department of Anatomy and Reproductive Biology, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, 1960 East West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
    Dev Genes Evol 214:64-71. 2004
    ..5-kb mRNA was the major Kif26B transcript in the embryo, it was absent in many adult tissues. These results imply that KIF26B may play a role in embryogenesis, specifically in the development of limbs, face, and somites...
  77. ncbi Development gone awry: congenital heart disease
    Peter J Gruber
    Cardiac Center, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Circ Res 94:273-83. 2004
    ..In this review, we summarize some of the more clinically significant forms of congenital heart disease, and we highlight relevant genetic and developmental pathways...
  78. ncbi The T-Box transcription factor Tbx5 is required for the patterning and maturation of the murine cardiac conduction system
    Ivan P G Moskowitz
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 131:4107-16. 2004
    We report a critical role for the T-box transcription factor Tbx5 in development and maturation of the cardiac conduction system...
  79. ncbi CYP26A1 and CYP26C1 cooperate in degrading retinoic acid within the equatorial retina during later eye development
    Yasuo Sakai
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Waltham, MA, USA
    Dev Biol 276:143-57. 2004
    ..The safeguard of the RA-poor stripe by two distinct enzymes during later development points to a role in maturation of a significant functional feature like an area of higher visual acuity that develops at its location...
  80. ncbi CSX/Nkx2.5 modulates differentiation of skeletal myoblasts and promotes differentiation into neuronal cells in vitro
    Ali M Riazi
    Division of Cardiovascular Surgery Research Rm 7017, McMaster Bldg, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, M5G 1X8 Ontario, Canada
    J Biol Chem 280:10716-20. 2005
    ..5 in C2C12 myoblasts inhibited myocyte differentiation and myotube formation, and up-regulated Gata4 and Tbx5 expression. The expression of NKX2...
  81. ncbi Mutation of an upstream cleavage site in the BMP4 prodomain leads to tissue-specific loss of activity
    Devorah C Goldman
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, School of Medicine, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239 3098, USA
    Development 133:1933-42. 2006
    ..In addition, these studies provide the first genetic evidence that BMP4 is required for dorsal vertebral fusion and closure of the ventral body wall...
  82. ncbi Left and right ventricular contributions to the formation of the interventricular septum in the mouse heart
    Diego Franco
    Department of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
    Dev Biol 294:366-75. 2006
    ..Examination of the orientation as well as the distribution of labeled cells in clusters provides new insights into the morphogenesis of the septum...
  83. ncbi MEF2C is required for the normal allocation of cells between the ventricular and sinoatrial precursors of the primary heart field
    Linh Vong
    Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Dev Dyn 235:1809-21. 2006
    ..In addition, the sinoatrial-enriched transcription factor, tbx5, was ectopically expressed in the primitive ventricle and ventricle-specific splicing of mef2b was lost, suggesting ..
  84. ncbi Levels of mesenchymal FGFR2 signaling modulate smooth muscle progenitor cell commitment in the lung
    Stijn P De Langhe
    Developmental Biology Program, Department of Surgery, Saban Research Institute of Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
    Dev Biol 299:52-62. 2006
    ..Our work unravels part of the complex interactions that govern normal lung development and may be pertinent to understanding the basis of respiratory defects in Apert syndrome...
  85. ncbi Pan-myocardial expression of Cre recombinase throughout mouse development
    Ross Breckenridge
    Division of Developmental Biology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, United Kingdom
    Genesis 45:135-44. 2007
    ..Both lines cause severe cardiac malformations when crossed to a conditional Tbx5 line, resulting in embryonic death at midgestation...
  86. pmc Lateral motor column axons execute a ternary trajectory choice between limb and body tissues
    Victor Luria
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neural Dev 2:13. 2007
    ..The cellular logic that guides motor axon trajectory choices into non-limb tissues such as the ventral flank remains unclear...
  87. pmc Mutations in cardiac T-box factor gene TBX20 are associated with diverse cardiac pathologies, including defects of septation and valvulogenesis and cardiomyopathy
    Edwin P Kirk
    Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, 2010, Australia
    Am J Hum Genet 81:280-91. 2007
    ..physically, functionally, and genetically with other cardiac transcription factors, including NKX2-5, GATA4, and TBX5, mutations of which cause congenital heart disease (CHD)...
  88. pmc Dynamic gene expression of Lin-28 during embryonic development in mouse and chicken
    Shigetoshi Yokoyama
    Department of Systems Biomedicine, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2 10 1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
    Gene Expr Patterns 8:155-60. 2008
    ....
  89. pmc Loss of both GATA4 and GATA6 blocks cardiac myocyte differentiation and results in acardia in mice
    Roong Zhao
    Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Dev Biol 317:614-9. 2008
    ..Our data support a model whereby GATA4 or GATA6 are essential for expression of the network of transcription factors that regulate the onset of cardiac myocyte gene expression during mammalian development...
  90. doi Essential role of developmentally activated hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha for cardiac morphogenesis and function
    Jaya Krishnan
    Institute of Cell Biology, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, Switzerland
    Circ Res 103:1139-46. 2008
    ..HIF1alpha-deficient hearts display reduced expression of the core cardiac transcription factors Mef2C and Tbx5 and of titin, a giant protein that serves as a template for the assembly and organization of the sarcomere...
  91. pmc Retinoic acid promotes limb induction through effects on body axis extension but is unnecessary for limb patterning
    Xianling Zhao
    Development and Aging Program, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Curr Biol 19:1050-7. 2009
    ....
  92. pmc Characterization and in vivo pharmacological rescue of a Wnt2-Gata6 pathway required for cardiac inflow tract development
    Ying Tian
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Dev Cell 18:275-87. 2010
    ..These data reveal a molecular pathway regulating the posterior cardiac mesoderm and demonstrate that cardiovascular defects caused by loss of Wnt signaling can be rescued pharmacologically in vivo...
  93. doi Endothelin receptor type A expression defines a distinct cardiac subdomain within the heart field and is later implicated in chamber myocardium formation
    Rieko Asai
    Department of Physiological Chemistry and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Development 137:3823-33. 2010
    ..The Ednra-lacZ/EGFP-expressing subpopulation is characterized by the presence of Tbx5-expressing cells...
  94. doi Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are essential for the development of the second heart field
    Maki Nakazawa
    Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 51:58-66. 2011
    ..These data reveal that IP(3)R type 1 and type 3 may play a redundant role in the development of the SHF...
  95. pmc Hox genes define distinct progenitor sub-domains within the second heart field
    Nicolas Bertrand
    Laboratoire de Génétique Médicale et Génomique Fonctionnelle, Inserm UMR_S910, Universite d Aix Marseille, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France
    Dev Biol 353:266-74. 2011
    ..This report provides new insights into the regulatory gene network in SHF cells contributing to the atria and sub-pulmonary myocardium...
  96. doi Ezh2 regulates anteroposterior axis specification and proximodistal axis elongation in the developing limb
    Laurie A Wyngaarden
    Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
    Development 138:3759-67. 2011
    ..Ezh2 maintains the late phase of Hox gene expression and cell transposition experiments suggest that it regulates the plasticity with which cells respond to instructive positional cues...
  97. ncbi Hindlimb patterning and mandible development require the Ptx1 gene
    C Lanctot
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Montreal Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7
    Development 126:1805-10. 1999
    ..the mutant limb buds appear to have retained their molecular identity as assessed by forelimb expression of Tbx5 and by hindlimb expression of Tbx4, even though Tbx4 expression is decreased in Ptx1 null mice...
  98. ncbi Genetic and developmental bases of serial homology in vertebrate limb evolution
    I Ruvinsky
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Development 127:5233-44. 2000
    ....
  99. ncbi Embryonic retinoic acid synthesis is essential for heart morphogenesis in the mouse
    K Niederreither
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP College de France, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, CU de Strasbourg, France
    Development 128:1019-31. 2001
    ..However, cardiac neural crest cells cannot be properly rescued in Raldh2(-/- )embryos, leading to outflow tract septation defects...
  100. ncbi Defects in pulmonary vasculature and perinatal lung hemorrhage in mice heterozygous null for the Forkhead Box f1 transcription factor
    V V Kalinichenko
    University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Medicine, Department of Molecular Genetics, 900 S Ashland Ave, Chicago, IL 60607 7170, USA
    Dev Biol 235:489-506. 2001
    ..2 (Flk-1), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp-4), and the transcription factors of the Brachyury T-Box family (Tbx2-Tbx5) and Lung Kruppel-like Factor...
  101. ncbi The limb identity gene Tbx5 promotes limb initiation by interacting with Wnt2b and Fgf10
    Jennifer K Ng
    The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Gene Expression Laboratory, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 1099 USA
    Development 129:5161-70. 2002
    ..Combining mutant analyses with gain- and loss-of-function approaches in zebrafish and chick embryos, we show that Tbx5, in addition to its role governing forelimb identity, is both necessary and sufficient for limb outgrowth...

Research Grants7

  1. Excess TGF beta in neonatal lung injury and repair
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Lung epithelial and vascular morphogenesis
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. AUTOCRINE/PARACRINE GROWTH FACTORS & LUNG MORPHOGENESIS
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aim 4: To determine the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in protein-protein interaction and supra-molecular assembly of mSPRY2 with SHP2 and FRS2. Aim 5: To determine the functional importance of Shp2 in lung morphogenesis in vivo. ..
  4. DEVELOPMENTAL TYPE II PNEUMOCYTE PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Inosine may function as a low molecular weight therapeutic to ameliorate lung injury, protect lung progenitor cells and hence to promote recovery of the alveolar epithelium from acute injury in both adult and neonate. ..
  5. Body Plan Formation in Early Mouse Embryo
    Yusuke Marikawa; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  6. HAND GENES IN CARDIAC DEVELOPMENT
    William Pu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This experience, and the information generated in this plan, will launch the applicant's career as an independent investigator. ..
  7. EFFECTS OF DIOXIN ON TOOTH AND MANDIBLE TRAITS IN MICE
    Larry Leamy; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The identification of such genes should allow us to test for potential effects of this toxicant, even at prevailing levels of exposure in human populations, on a myriad of human diseases. ..