Xist

Summary

Gene Symbol: Xist
Description: inactive X specific transcripts
Alias: A430022B11, AI314753
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Xist has properties of the X-chromosome inactivation centre
    L B Herzing
    CRC Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Chester Beatty Laboratories, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK
    Nature 386:272-5. 1997
  2. ncbi Requirement for Xist in X chromosome inactivation
    G D Penny
    Section of Comparative Biology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nature 379:131-7. 1996
  3. ncbi Primary non-random X inactivation associated with disruption of Xist promoter regulation
    A E Newall
    X Inactivation Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, ICSM, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 10:581-9. 2001
  4. ncbi Characterization of a murine gene expressed from the inactive X chromosome
    G Borsani
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030
    Nature 351:325-9. 1991
  5. pmc Developmentally regulated alterations in Polycomb repressive complex 1 proteins on the inactive X chromosome
    Kathrin Plath
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    J Cell Biol 167:1025-35. 2004
  6. ncbi Tsix silences Xist through modification of chromatin structure
    Takashi Sado
    Division of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Japan
    Dev Cell 9:159-65. 2005
  7. doi Molecular coupling of Xist regulation and pluripotency
    Pablo Navarro
    Institut Pasteur, Unité de Génétique Moléculaire Murine, CNRS, URA2578, F 75015, Paris, France
    Science 321:1693-5. 2008
  8. pmc Disruption of a conserved region of Xist exon 1 impairs Xist RNA localisation and X-linked gene silencing during random and imprinted X chromosome inactivation
    Claire E Senner
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Development 138:1541-50. 2011
  9. ncbi Expression of Xist during mouse development suggests a role in the initiation of X chromosome inactivation
    G F Kay
    Section of Comparative Biology, Medical Research Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, England
    Cell 72:171-82. 1993
  10. pmc Dynamic changes in paternal X-chromosome activity during imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in mice
    Catherine Patrat
    Mammalian Developmental Epigenetics Group, Institut Curie, Centre National Research Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 3215, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U934, 75248 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5198-203. 2009

Research Grants

  1. Emerging Mechanisms of Epigenetic Regulation
    JEANNIE LEE; Fiscal Year: 2003

Scientific Experts

  • B R Migeon
  • Takashi Sado
  • Shin Kobayashi
  • JEANNIE LEE
  • Catherine Corbel
  • Sylvain Maenner
  • Antonio Romito
  • W Hennig
  • Kathrin Plath
  • John R McCarrey
  • Anton Wutz
  • Maurizio Zuccotti
  • Lygia da Veiga Pereira
  • N Mise
  • A Eriksson
  • Cristina Hartshorn
  • Yuya Ogawa
  • Sundeep Kalantry
  • Pablo Navarro
  • Jing Zhao
  • Bryan K Sun
  • Yesu Jeon
  • N Brockdorff
  • Philip Avner
  • Terry Magnuson
  • Edith Heard
  • Joost Gribnau
  • Claire Rougeulle
  • Tatyana B Nesterova
  • Ikuhiro Okamoto
  • Sha Sun
  • Matthew D Simon
  • Khanh D Huynh
  • Jesse M Engreitz
  • Eda Yildirim
  • Céline Morey
  • T B Nesterova
  • Ruslan I Sadreyev
  • Stefan F Pinter
  • Brian C Del Rosario
  • Robert E Kingston
  • Kavitha Sarma
  • Rebecca J Spencer
  • Corinne Chureau
  • Claire E Senner
  • Lucy H Williams
  • Janice Y Ahn
  • Joshua Starmer
  • Satoshi H Namekawa
  • Morgan E Royce-Tolland
  • Ji Joon Song
  • Lisa Redrup
  • Ruben Agrelo
  • Yuko Hoki
  • Catherine Patrat
  • K Murakami
  • Hiroyuki Sasaki
  • A E Newall
  • Yuko Amakawa
  • Hatsune Chiba
  • Iris Jonkers
  • Patricia Le Baccon
  • Rudolf Jaenisch
  • P Avner
  • Neil Brockdorff
  • Jonathan Godwin
  • B Panning
  • R Jaenisch
  • S M Duthie
  • Kim Monkhorst
  • Julie Chaumeil
  • Na Xu
  • T Ohhata
  • S A Sheardown
  • Silvia Diaz-Perez
  • Y Marahrens
  • Leisha D Nolen
  • Arie P Otte
  • Alexander Kohlmaier
  • S Rastan
  • Marisa S Bartolomei
  • G F Kay
  • E J Formstone
  • Ivona Percec
  • Sarah K Bowman
  • Diane E Brown
  • Christine Surka
  • Alexander Shishkin
  • Barry A Kesner
  • Francois E Mercier

Detail Information

Publications86

  1. ncbi Xist has properties of the X-chromosome inactivation centre
    L B Herzing
    CRC Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Chester Beatty Laboratories, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK
    Nature 386:272-5. 1997
    ..The Xic has been localized to a 450-kilobase region of the mouse X chromosome. The Xist gene also maps to this region and is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome...
  2. ncbi Requirement for Xist in X chromosome inactivation
    G D Penny
    Section of Comparative Biology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nature 379:131-7. 1996
    The Xist gene has been proposed as a candidate for the X inactivation centre, the master regulatory switch locus that controls X chromosome inactivation. So far this hypothesis has been supported solely by indirect evidence...
  3. ncbi Primary non-random X inactivation associated with disruption of Xist promoter regulation
    A E Newall
    X Inactivation Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, ICSM, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 10:581-9. 2001
    ..primary non-random X chromosome inactivation following targeted mutagenesis of a region immediately upstream of XIST promoter P(1)...
  4. ncbi Characterization of a murine gene expressed from the inactive X chromosome
    G Borsani
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030
    Nature 351:325-9. 1991
    ..We have recently identified a human gene (XIST) exclusively expressed from the inactive X chromosome...
  5. pmc Developmentally regulated alterations in Polycomb repressive complex 1 proteins on the inactive X chromosome
    Kathrin Plath
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    J Cell Biol 167:1025-35. 2004
    ..The Xi accumulation of mPRC1 proteins requires Xist RNA and is not solely regulated by the presence of H3-K27 methylation, as not all cells that exhibit this ..
  6. ncbi Tsix silences Xist through modification of chromatin structure
    Takashi Sado
    Division of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Japan
    Dev Cell 9:159-65. 2005
    X inactivation is controlled by Xist and its antisense gene, Tsix, neither of which encodes a protein...
  7. doi Molecular coupling of Xist regulation and pluripotency
    Pablo Navarro
    Institut Pasteur, Unité de Génétique Moléculaire Murine, CNRS, URA2578, F 75015, Paris, France
    Science 321:1693-5. 2008
    ..inactivation in the pluripotent inner cell mass of the female blastocyst is initiated by the repression of Xist from the paternal X chromosome...
  8. pmc Disruption of a conserved region of Xist exon 1 impairs Xist RNA localisation and X-linked gene silencing during random and imprinted X chromosome inactivation
    Claire E Senner
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Development 138:1541-50. 2011
    ..X inactivation is regulated by a cis-acting master switch, the Xist locus, the product of which is a large non-coding RNA that coats the chromosome from which it is transcribed, ..
  9. ncbi Expression of Xist during mouse development suggests a role in the initiation of X chromosome inactivation
    G F Kay
    Section of Comparative Biology, Medical Research Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, England
    Cell 72:171-82. 1993
    The mouse Xist gene maps to the X inactivation center (Xic) region and is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome. It is thus a candidate gene for the Xic...
  10. pmc Dynamic changes in paternal X-chromosome activity during imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in mice
    Catherine Patrat
    Mammalian Developmental Epigenetics Group, Institut Curie, Centre National Research Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 3215, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U934, 75248 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5198-203. 2009
    ..These results reveal that imprinted X inactivation in mice is far less concerted than previously thought and highlight the epigenetic diversity underlying the dosage compensation process during early mammalian development...
  11. ncbi Molecular cloning of antisense transcripts of the mouse Xist gene
    N Mise
    Department of Molecular Biology, Biomolecular Engineering Research Institute BERI, 6 2 3, Fruedai, Osaka, Suita, 565 0874, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 258:537-41. 1999
    Prior to X-inactivation, Xist is transcribed in unstable form. The initiation of X-inactivation is associated with the appearance of stable Xist transcripts which coat the X chromosome to be inactivated...
  12. ncbi Role of the Xist gene in X chromosome choosing
    Y Marahrens
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Cell 92:657-64. 1998
    ..It has been postulated that Xist is crucial for heterochromatinization and thus functions downstream of the choice mechanism...
  13. ncbi Escape from X inactivation in human and mouse
    C M Disteche
    Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    Trends Genet 11:17-22. 1995
    ..Questions about the mechanisms of 'escape' are relevant to the understanding of gene regulation by X inactivation...
  14. ncbi Comparison of gene expression in male and female mouse blastocysts revealed imprinting of the X-linked gene, Rhox5/Pem, at preimplantation stages
    Shin Kobayashi
    Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Curr Biol 16:166-72. 2006
    ..The remaining two (Rhox5/Pem and Xist) were mapped to the X chromosome and were predominantly expressed in female blastocysts...
  15. pmc Xist RNA is confined to the nuclear territory of the silenced X chromosome throughout the cell cycle
    Iris Jonkers
    Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Mol Cell Biol 28:5583-94. 2008
    ..b>Xist RNA, required for X chromosome inactivation, is transcribed from the future inactivated X chromosome (Xi), where it ..
  16. pmc Intersection of the RNA interference and X-inactivation pathways
    Yuya Ogawa
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Science 320:1336-41. 2008
    In mammals, dosage compensation is achieved by X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in the female. The noncoding Xist gene initiates silencing of the X chromosome, whereas its antisense partner Tsix blocks silencing...
  17. pmc A novel role for Xist RNA in the formation of a repressive nuclear compartment into which genes are recruited when silenced
    Julie Chaumeil
    Mammalian Developmental Epigenetic Group, UMR 218, Curie Institute, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Genes Dev 20:2223-37. 2006
    ..Although X-chromosome coating by Xist RNA is essential for the initiation of X inactivation, little is known about how this signal is transformed into ..
  18. pmc The Polycomb group protein EED is dispensable for the initiation of random X-chromosome inactivation
    Sundeep Kalantry
    Department of Genetics and the Carolina Center for the Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Genet 2:e66. 2006
    ..These results highlight the lineage- and differentiation state-specific requirements for PcGs in XCI and argue against PcG function in the formation of the facultative heterochromatin of the inactive X-chromosome...
  19. ncbi Tsix-deficient X chromosome does not undergo inactivation in the embryonic lineage in males: implications for Tsix-independent silencing of Xist
    T Ohhata
    PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan
    Cytogenet Genome Res 113:345-9. 2006
    Differential induction of the X-linked non-coding Xist gene is a key event in the process of X inactivation occurring in female mammalian embryos...
  20. pmc Jpx RNA activates Xist by evicting CTCF
    Sha Sun
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Cell 153:1537-51. 2013
    ..The noncoding Xist RNA is expressed and initiates XCI only when more than one X chromosome is present...
  21. ncbi A transient heterochromatic state in Xist preempts X inactivation choice without RNA stabilization
    Bryan K Sun
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, 02114, USA
    Mol Cell 21:617-28. 2006
    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) depends on a noncoding sense-antisense transcript pair, Xist and Tsix. At the onset of XCI, Xist RNA accumulates on one of two Xs, coating and silencing the chromosome in cis...
  22. pmc Xist RNA is a potent suppressor of hematologic cancer in mice
    Eda Yildirim
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Cell 152:727-42. 2013
    ..In mammals, X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is triggered by Xist RNA to equalize gene expression between the sexes...
  23. ncbi Transient homologous chromosome pairing marks the onset of X inactivation
    Na Xu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Science 311:1149-52. 2006
    ..X inactivation is known to be regulated in cis by Xite, Tsix, and Xist, but in principle the two Xs must also be regulated in trans to ensure mutually exclusive silencing...
  24. pmc The Xist lncRNA exploits three-dimensional genome architecture to spread across the X chromosome
    Jesse M Engreitz
    Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 341:1237973. 2013
    ..We investigated the localization mechanisms of the Xist lncRNA during X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), a paradigm of lncRNA-mediated chromatin regulation...
  25. pmc Tsix transcription across the Xist gene alters chromatin conformation without affecting Xist transcription: implications for X-chromosome inactivation
    Pablo Navarro
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire Murine, URA 2578, Pasteur Institute, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Genes Dev 19:1474-84. 2005
    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is highly dynamic during early mouse embryogenesis and strictly depends on the Xist noncoding RNA. The regulation of Xist and its antisense partner Tsix remains however poorly understood...
  26. pmc X chromosome choice occurs independently of asynchronous replication timing
    Joost Gribnau
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    J Cell Biol 168:365-73. 2005
    In mammals, dosage compensation is achieved by X chromosome inactivation in female cells. Xist is required and sufficient for X inactivation, and Xist gene deletions result in completely skewed X inactivation...
  27. ncbi The product of the mouse Xist gene is a 15 kb inactive X-specific transcript containing no conserved ORF and located in the nucleus
    N Brockdorff
    Section of Comparative Biology, Medical Research Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, England
    Cell 71:515-26. 1992
    The Xist gene maps to the X inactivation center region in both mouse and human, and previous analysis of the 3' end of the gene has demonstrated inactive X-specific expression, suggesting a possible role in X inactivation...
  28. pmc A chromosomal memory triggered by Xist regulates histone methylation in X inactivation
    Alexander Kohlmaier
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    PLoS Biol 2:E171. 2004
    We have elucidated the kinetics of histone methylation during X inactivation using an inducible Xist expression system in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells...
  29. pmc The region 3' to Xist mediates X chromosome counting and H3 Lys-4 dimethylation within the Xist gene
    Céline Morey
    Génétique Moléculaire Murine, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    EMBO J 23:594-604. 2004
    ..Counting is regulated by the X-inactivation centre, which contains the Xist gene...
  30. pmc Evidence of Xist RNA-independent initiation of mouse imprinted X-chromosome inactivation
    Sundeep Kalantry
    Department of Genetics, and Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7264, USA
    Nature 460:647-51. 2009
    ..In eutherian mammals, XCI is thought to be triggered by the expression of the non-coding Xist RNA from the future inactive X chromosome (Xi); Xist RNA in turn is proposed to recruit protein complexes that ..
  31. pmc YY1 tethers Xist RNA to the inactive X nucleation center
    Yesu Jeon
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Cell 146:119-33. 2011
    The long noncoding Xist RNA inactivates one X chromosome in the female mammal. Current models posit that Xist induces silencing as it spreads along X and recruits Polycomb complexes...
  32. doi Gene silencing in X-chromosome inactivation: advances in understanding facultative heterochromatin formation
    Anton Wutz
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Rev Genet 12:542-53. 2011
    ..X-chromosome inactivation is initiated in early embryogenesis by the Xist RNA that localizes to the inactive X chromosome...
  33. pmc A boundary element between Tsix and Xist binds the chromatin insulator Ctcf and contributes to initiation of X-chromosome inactivation
    Rebecca J Spencer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Genetics 189:441-54. 2011
    ..The Xic harbors two chromatin interaction domains, one centered around the noncoding Xist gene and the other around the antisense Tsix counterpart...
  34. pmc Genome-wide identification of polycomb-associated RNAs by RIP-seq
    Jing Zhao
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Mol Cell 40:939-53. 2010
    ..Thus, Polycomb proteins interact with a genome-wide family of RNAs, some of which may be used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for human disease...
  35. pmc Retinoic acid accelerates downregulation of the Xist repressor, Oct4, and increases the likelihood of Xist activation when Tsix is deficient
    Janice Y Ahn
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02114 USA
    BMC Dev Biol 10:90. 2010
    ..X-inactivation is triggered by expression of the non-coding Xist gene. In turn, Xist is dually regulated by the antisense Tsix RNA and by the Oct4 pluripotency factor...
  36. pmc The A-repeat links ASF/SF2-dependent Xist RNA processing with random choice during X inactivation
    Morgan E Royce-Tolland
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:948-54. 2010
    One X chromosome, selected at random, is silenced in each female mammalian cell. Xist encodes a noncoding RNA that influences the probability that the cis-linked X chromosome will be silenced...
  37. pmc The X-linked imprinted gene family Fthl17 shows predominantly female expression following the two-cell stage in mouse embryos
    Shin Kobayashi
    Medical Top Track Program, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:3672-81. 2010
    ..This discovery will be important for the study of early sex differentiation, as clearly these differences arise before gonadal differentiation...
  38. doi Identification of the chromatin regions coated by non-coding Xist RNA
    K Murakami
    Department of Biomedical Science, Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Science, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan
    Cytogenet Genome Res 125:19-25. 2009
    b>Xist non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is essential for X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Some genes can escape from XCI, but how this occurs is unknown...
  39. pmc Transcription precedes loss of Xist coating and depletion of H3K27me3 during X-chromosome reprogramming in the mouse inner cell mass
    Lucy H Williams
    Department of Genetics, Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7264, USA
    Development 138:2049-57. 2011
    Repression of Xist RNA expression is considered a prerequisite to reversal of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in the mouse inner cell mass (ICM), and reactivation of X-linked genes is thought to follow loss of Xist RNA coating and ..
  40. pmc SATB1 defines the developmental context for gene silencing by Xist in lymphoma and embryonic cells
    Ruben Agrelo
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Dev Cell 16:507-16. 2009
    The noncoding Xist RNA triggers silencing of one of the two female X chromosomes during X inactivation in mammals...
  41. pmc High-resolution Xist binding maps reveal two-step spreading during X-chromosome inactivation
    Matthew D Simon
    1 Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA 2 Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, and Chemical Biology Institute, Yale University, West Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA 3
    Nature 504:465-9. 2013
    The Xist long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is essential for X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), the process by which mammals compensate for unequal numbers of sex chromosomes...
  42. pmc The long noncoding RNA Kcnq1ot1 organises a lineage-specific nuclear domain for epigenetic gene silencing
    Lisa Redrup
    Laboratory of Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK
    Development 136:525-30. 2009
    ..Long ncRNAs in imprinting clusters and the Xist RNA on the inactive X chromosome thus appear to regulate epigenetic gene silencing by similar mechanisms.
  43. doi A proximal conserved repeat in the Xist gene is essential as a genomic element for X-inactivation in mouse
    Yuko Hoki
    Division of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411 8540, Japan
    Development 136:139-46. 2009
    X-inactivation in female mammals is triggered by the association of non-coding Xist RNA in cis with the X chromosome...
  44. pmc Polycomb proteins targeted by a short repeat RNA to the mouse X chromosome
    Jing Zhao
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 322:750-6. 2008
    ..X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is initiated by expression of Xist, a 17-kb noncoding RNA (ncRNA) that accumulates on the X in cis...
  45. doi De novo DNA methylation independent establishment of maternal imprint on X chromosome in mouse oocytes
    Hatsune Chiba
    Division of Human Genetics, Department of Integrated Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Japan
    Genesis 46:768-74. 2008
    ..Furthermore, the allelic expression patterns of X-linked genes including Xist and Tsix were unchanged in preimplantation embryos and also in the trophoblast...
  46. doi Unusual chromatin status and organization of the inactive X chromosome in murine trophoblast giant cells
    Catherine Corbel
    Unité de génétique et biologie du développement, Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 3215, INSERM U934, 26 Rue d Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Development 140:861-72. 2013
    ..We find that the Xist RNA-coated X chromosome has a highly unusual chromatin content in TGCs, presenting both heterochromatic marks such ..
  47. ncbi Inheritance of a pre-inactivated paternal X chromosome in early mouse embryos
    Khanh D Huynh
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nature 426:857-62. 2003
    ..We propose that imprinted X inactivation results from inheritance of a pre-inactivated X chromosome from the paternal germ line...
  48. ncbi Conservation of position and exclusive expression of mouse Xist from the inactive X chromosome
    N Brockdorff
    Section of Comparative Biology, MRC Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, UK
    Nature 351:329-31. 1991
    ..The recently described human XIST gene maps to the XIC region and seems to be expressed only from the inactive X chromosome...
  49. ncbi Quantitative RT-PCR assays show Xist RNA levels are low in mouse female adult tissue, embryos and embryoid bodies
    C H Buzin
    Division of Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010
    Development 120:3529-36. 1994
    We have investigated expression of the Xist gene in mouse female adult kidney, embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells undergoing in vitro differentiation as embryoid bodies...
  50. ncbi Loss of methylation activates Xist in somatic but not in embryonic cells
    C Beard
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02142, USA
    Genes Dev 9:2325-34. 1995
    The mouse Xist gene, which is expressed only from the inactive X chromosome, is thought to play a role in the initiation of X inactivation...
  51. ncbi The human X-inactivation centre is not required for maintenance of X-chromosome inactivation
    C J Brown
    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
    Nature 368:154-6. 1994
    ..The XIST gene, which is localized within the XIC interval on both the human and mouse X chromosomes, is constitutively ..
  52. ncbi Evidence that random and imprinted Xist expression is controlled by preemptive methylation
    D P Norris
    Section of Comparative Biology, Medical Research Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, England
    Cell 77:41-51. 1994
    The mouse Xist gene is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome and may control the initiation of X inactivation...
  53. ncbi Imprinting and X chromosome counting mechanisms determine Xist expression in early mouse development
    G F Kay
    Section of Comparative Biology, Medical Research Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, England
    Cell 77:639-50. 1994
    In mice, X inactivation is preceded by in cis Xist expression. Initially, normal female embryos express the paternal Xist allele exclusively, preceding imprinted X inactivation in the trophectoderm...
  54. ncbi The inactive X chromosome in female mammals is distinguished by a lack of histone H4 acetylation, a cytogenetic marker for gene expression
    P Jeppesen
    Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland
    Cell 74:281-9. 1993
    ..We propose that H4 hyperacetylation defines regions of the genome containing potentially transcriptionally active chromatin, while virtual absence of H4 acetylation defines both constitutive and facultative heterochromatin...
  55. ncbi DNA hypomethylation can activate Xist expression and silence X-linked genes
    B Panning
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Genes Dev 10:1991-2002. 1996
    b>Xist and other X-linked gene expression was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization in cells of wild type and DNA methyltranferase (Dnmt) mutant embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells to determine whether demethylation-induced Xist ..
  56. ncbi Mosaic methylation of Xist gene before chromosome inactivation in undifferentiated female mouse embryonic stem and embryonic germ cells
    T Sado
    Research Center for Molecular Genetics and Division of Bioscience, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Dev Dyn 205:421-34. 1996
    ..CpG sites in the 5' region of the Xist gene were partially methylated in female ES and EG and parthenogenetic ES cell lines as in the female somatic cell ..
  57. ncbi Xist-deficient mice are defective in dosage compensation but not spermatogenesis
    Y Marahrens
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Genes Dev 11:156-66. 1997
    The X-linked Xist gene encodes a large untranslated RNA that has been implicated in mammalian dosage compensation and in spermatogenesis...
  58. ncbi X chromosome inactivation is mediated by Xist RNA stabilization
    B Panning
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Cell 90:907-16. 1997
    Low level Xist expression can be detected from both active X chromosomes (Xa) in female embryonic stem cells prior to X inactivation. After differentiation, Xist is expressed at high levels only from the inactive X chromosome (Xi)...
  59. ncbi Stabilization of Xist RNA mediates initiation of X chromosome inactivation
    S A Sheardown
    X Inactivation Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, United Kingdom
    Cell 91:99-107. 1997
    The onset of X inactivation is preceded by a marked increase in the level of Xist RNA. Here we demonstrate that increased stability of Xist RNA is the primary determinant of developmental up-regulation...
  60. ncbi Xist RNA exhibits a banded localization on the inactive X chromosome and is excluded from autosomal material in cis
    S M Duthie
    X Inactivation Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, DuCane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 8:195-204. 1999
    ..of X chromosome inactivation is thought to be mediated by the cis- limited spreading of the non-protein coding Xist transcript. In this report we have investigated the localization of Xist RNA on rodent metaphase chromosomes...
  61. ncbi Chromosomal silencing and localization are mediated by different domains of Xist RNA
    Anton Wutz
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nat Genet 30:167-74. 2002
    The gene Xist initiates the chromosomal silencing process of X inactivation in mammals. Its product, a noncoding RNA, is expressed from and specifically associates with the inactive X chromosome in female cells...
  62. ncbi Epigenetic dynamics of imprinted X inactivation during early mouse development
    Ikuhiro Okamoto
    CNRS UMR218, Curie Institute, 26 Rue d Ulm, Paris 75005, France
    Science 303:644-9. 2004
    ..This reveals the remarkable plasticity of the X-inactivation process during preimplantation development and underlines the importance of the ICM in global reprogramming of epigenetic marks in the early embryo...
  63. pmc Skewing X chromosome choice by modulating sense transcription across the Xist locus
    Tatyana B Nesterova
    X Inactivation Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine ICSTM, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK
    Genes Dev 17:2177-90. 2003
    The X-inactive-specific transcript (Xist) locus is a cis-acting switch that regulates X chromosome inactivation in mammals...
  64. ncbi Xite, X-inactivation intergenic transcription elements that regulate the probability of choice
    Yuya Ogawa
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Mol Cell 11:731-43. 2003
    ..During XCI, one X is randomly silenced by Xist. X chromosome choice is determined by asymmetric expression of Tsix whose antisense action represses Xist...
  65. pmc Comparative sequence analysis of the X-inactivation center region in mouse, human, and bovine
    Corinne Chureau
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire Murine, URA CNRS 1947, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Genome Res 12:894-908. 2002
    ..714-kb and 233-kb regions of the mouse and bovine X-inactivation centers (Xic), respectively, centered on the Xist gene. This has provided the basis for a fully annotated comparative analysis of the mouse Xic with the 2...
  66. ncbi Autosomal dominant mutations affecting X inactivation choice in the mouse
    Ivona Percec
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 296:1136-9. 2002
    ..We have used chemical mutagenesis in the mouse to identify specific factors involved in X inactivation and report two genetically distinct autosomal mutations with dominant effects on X chromosome choice early in embryogenesis...
  67. ncbi Tsix, a gene antisense to Xist at the X-inactivation centre
    J T Lee
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 21:400-4. 1999
    ..dosage compensation is achieved by X inactivation and is regulated in cis by the X-inactivation centre (Xic) and Xist. The Xic controls X-chromosome counting, choice of X to inactivate and initiation of silencing...
  68. ncbi Tsix-mediated repression of Xist accumulation is not sufficient for normal random X inactivation
    C Morey
    Génétique Moléculaire Murine, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, Paris 75015, France
    Hum Mol Genet 10:1403-11. 2001
    ..the X inactivation process, one X chromosome in each female embryonic cell is chosen at random to become coated by Xist RNA and silenced...
  69. ncbi Loss of Xist imprinting in diploid parthenogenetic preimplantation embryos
    T B Nesterova
    X Inactivation Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, ICSM, Hammersmith Hospital, DuCane Rd, London W12 ONN, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol 235:343-50. 2001
    We have analysed Xist expression patterns in parthenogenetic and control fertilised preimplantation embryos by using RNA FISH. In normal XX embryos, maternally derived Xist alleles are repressed throughout preimplantation development...
  70. ncbi Regulation of imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in mice by Tsix
    T Sado
    Division of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Yata, Mishima, Japan
    Development 128:1275-86. 2001
    ..In this study, we investigate the role of Tsix, the antisense transcript from the Xist locus, in regulation of Xist expression and X-inactivation...
  71. pmc Functional analysis of the DXPas34 locus, a 3' regulator of Xist expression
    E Debrand
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire Murine, URA CNRS 1947, Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France
    Mol Cell Biol 19:8513-25. 1999
    ..The Xist gene maps to the Xic region and is essential for the initiation of X inactivation in cis...
  72. pmc Two-step imprinted X inactivation: repeat versus genic silencing in the mouse
    Satoshi H Namekawa
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 30:3187-205. 2010
    ..X(P) repetitive element silencing occurs by the two-cell stage, does not require Xist, and occurs several divisions prior to genic silencing...
  73. ncbi Characterization of the mouse DAX-1 gene reveals evolutionary conservation of a unique amino-terminal motif and widespread expression in mouse tissue
    D S Bae
    Division of Endocrinology, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Endocrinology 137:3921-7. 1996
    ..Future studies using mouse models of altered DAX-1 expression will be critical in defining the role of this factor in tissue- and development-specific gene regulation...
  74. ncbi A 450 kb transgene displays properties of the mammalian X-inactivation center
    J T Lee
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02142, USA
    Cell 86:83-94. 1996
    ..It requires the X-inactivation center (Xic) and Xist in cis...
  75. ncbi Mapping the murine Xce locus with (CA)n repeats
    M C Simmler
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire Murine, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Mamm Genome 4:523-30. 1993
    ..Xce maps to the central region of the X Chr, which also contains the Xist sequence, itself possibly implicated in the X inactivation process...
  76. pmc The element(s) at the nontranscribed Xist locus of the active X chromosome controls chromosomal replication timing in the mouse
    Silvia Diaz-Perez
    Department of Human Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, 90095, USA
    Genetics 171:663-72. 2005
    ..The X-linked Xist gene is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome where it is involved in the initiation and maintenance ..
  77. ncbi Developmentally regulated Xist promoter switch mediates initiation of X inactivation
    C M Johnston
    MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Cell 94:809-17. 1998
    Developmental regulation of the mouse Xist gene at the onset of X chromosome inactivation is mediated by RNA stabilization. Here, we show that alternate promoter usage gives rise to distinct stable and unstable RNA isoforms...
  78. ncbi Praja1, a novel gene encoding a RING-H2 motif in mouse development
    L Mishra
    Laboratory of Developmental Molecular Biology, VA Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
    Oncogene 15:2361-8. 1997
    ..which may be a candidate gene for mouse sla (sex linked sideroblastic anemia), near the X inactivation center gene, Xist. Northern blot analysis demonstrated three transcripts (3.1, 2.6 and 2...
  79. ncbi X chromosome reactivation and regulation in cloned embryos
    Leisha D Nolen
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6148, USA
    Dev Biol 279:525-40. 2005
    ..Analysis of XCI by Xist RNA and Eed protein localization revealed heterogeneity within cloned embryos, with some cells successfully ..
  80. ncbi Mapping the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene on human chromosome 9 and mouse chromosome 4, and a likely pseudogene on the mouse X chromosome
    J Hoyle
    Neurogenetics Unit, Imperial College of Medicine at St Mary s, London, UK
    Mamm Genome 8:778-80. 1997
  81. pmc Creation of a deletion series of mouse YACs covering a 500 kb region around Xist
    E Heard
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire Murine, CNRS URA 1445, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 22:1830-7. 1994
    Two mouse YACs, PA-2 and PA-3, contain the Xist gene and are 460 kb and 3.3 Mb long respectively. While PA-2 is non-chimeric, PA-3 contains a substantial proportion of non-contiguous DNA...
  82. pmc Characterization of the promoter region of the mouse Xist gene
    N Pillet
    Unit of Molecular Genetics, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:12515-9. 1995
    The mouse Xist gene is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome and may be implicated in initiating X inactivation...
  83. ncbi Isolation of sex-specific cDNAs from fetal mouse brain using mRNA differential display and representational difference analysis
    A Eriksson
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 74:91-7. 1999
    ..Two sex-specific cDNAs were isolated, F29 and M17, corresponding to the female-specific Xist gene and the male-specific Smcy gene, respectively.
  84. ncbi Spx1, a novel X-linked homeobox gene expressed during spermatogenesis
    W W Branford
    Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Developmental Biology, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Mech Dev 65:87-98. 1997
    ..These expression data suggest SPX1 may play a role in the regulation of spermatogenesis...
  85. ncbi A 94 kb genomic sequence 3' to the murine Xist gene reveals an AT rich region containing a new testis specific gene Tsx
    M C Simmler
    CNRS URA1968, Génétique Moléculaire Murine, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Hum Mol Genet 5:1713-26. 1996
    ..In order to increase our understanding of the mouse X inactivation centre, a 94 kb region immediately distal to the Xist gene has been sequenced and analysed for the presence of transcription units and/or potential cis acting regulatory ..

Research Grants1

  1. Emerging Mechanisms of Epigenetic Regulation
    JEANNIE LEE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Appreciate the agricultural implications of epigenetics, such as those relating to plant viral defense mechanisms, animal cloning, and imprinting. ..