Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: GIGANTEA
Description: gigantea protein (GI)
Alias: GIGANTEA, T22J18.6, T22J18_6
Species: thale cress
- GIGANTEA regulates phytochrome A-mediated photomorphogenesis independently of its role in the circadian clockKarina Andrea Oliverio
IFEVA, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1417 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Plant Physiol 144:495-502. 2007b>GIGANTEA (GI) is a nuclear protein involved in the promotion of flowering by long days, in light input to the circadian clock, and in seedling photomorphogenesis under continuous red light but not far-red light (FR)...
- The circadian oscillator gene GIGANTEA mediates a long-term response of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock to sucroseNeil Dalchau
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5104-9. 2011..The mathematical studies identified GIGANTEA (GI) as being associated with sucrose sensing...
- GIGANTEA is a component of a regulatory pathway determining wall ingrowth deposition in phloem parenchyma transfer cells of Arabidopsis thalianaJoshua Edwards
Plant Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle NSW 2308, Australia
Plant J 63:651-61. 2010..analysis of public microarray datasets derived from the leaves of plants subjected to these treatments identified GIGANTEA (GI) as one of 46 genes that are commonly up-regulated twofold or more under both high-light and cold conditions...
- Oxidative stress tolerance and longevity in Arabidopsis: the late-flowering mutant gigantea is tolerant to paraquatJ Kurepa
Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, Universiteit Gent, Belgium
Plant J 14:759-64. 1998..Furthermore, the mutant gigantea (gi-3) with the longest delay in flowering time had a high tolerance level to paraquat-induced oxidative stress...
- The GIGANTEA-regulated microRNA172 mediates photoperiodic flowering independent of CONSTANS in ArabidopsisJae Hoon Jung
Molecular Signaling Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
Plant Cell 19:2736-48. 2007..Here, we demonstrate that the GIGANTEA (GI)-regulated miR172 defines a unique genetic pathway that regulates photoperiodic flowering by inducing ..
- FKF1 and GIGANTEA complex formation is required for day-length measurement in ArabidopsisMariko Sawa
Department of Biochemistry, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Science 318:261-5. 2007..The FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1), and GIGANTEA (GI) proteins regulate CO transcription in Arabidopsis...
- ZEITLUPE is a circadian photoreceptor stabilized by GIGANTEA in blue lightWoe Yeon Kim
Department of Plant Cellular and Molecular Biology Plant Biotechnology Center, Ohio State University, 054 Rightmire Hall, 1060 Carmack Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Nature 449:356-60. 2007..Here we show that GIGANTEA (GI) is essential to establish and sustain oscillations of ZTL by a direct protein-protein interaction...
- CONSTANS and the CCAAT box binding complex share a functionally important domain and interact to regulate flowering of ArabidopsisStephan Wenkel
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D 50829 Cologne, Germany
Plant Cell 18:2971-84. 2006..During plant evolution, the number of genes encoding HAP proteins was greatly amplified, and these proteins may have acquired novel functions, such as mediating the effect of CCT domain proteins on gene expression...
- GIGANTEA acts in blue light signaling and has biochemically separable roles in circadian clock and flowering time regulationEllen L Martin-Tryon
Section of Plant Biology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
Plant Physiol 143:473-86. 2007..Using a clock-regulated luciferase reporter, we isolated new alleles of ZEITLUPE, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, and GIGANTEA (GI)...
- The molecular basis of temperature compensation in the Arabidopsis circadian clockPeter D Gould
School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, United Kingdom
Plant Cell 18:1177-87. 2006..affects the rhythmic accumulation of transcripts encoding the clock components TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), GIGANTEA (GI), and the partially redundant genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY)...
- Involvement of GIGANTEA gene in the regulation of the cold stress response in ArabidopsisShuqing Cao
School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, People s Republic of China
Plant Cell Rep 24:683-90. 2005The Arabidopsis GIGANTEA (GI) gene has been shown to regulate several developmental processes, including photoperiod-mediated flowering, phytochrome B signaling, circadian clock, and carbohydrate metabolism...
- Distinct roles of GIGANTEA in promoting flowering and regulating circadian rhythms in ArabidopsisTsuyoshi Mizoguchi
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8572, Japan
Plant Cell 17:2255-70. 2005..In Arabidopsis thaliana, a circadian clock-controlled flowering pathway comprising the genes GIGANTEA (GI), CONSTANS (CO), and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) promotes flowering specifically under long days...
- SPINDLY and GIGANTEA interact and act in Arabidopsis thaliana pathways involved in light responses, flowering, and rhythms in cotyledon movementsTong Seung Tseng
Department of Plant Biology and Plant Molecular Genetics Institute, University of Minesota, St Paul, Minesota 55108, USA
Plant Cell 16:1550-63. 2004..b>GIGANTEA (GI) was recovered from a yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with the TPR domain...
- GIGANTEA is a nuclear protein involved in phytochrome signaling in ArabidopsisE Huq
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:9789-94. 2000..locus by using the T-DNA insertion and found that the disrupted gene is identical to the recently described GIGANTEA (GI) gene identified as being involved in control of flowering time...
- Distinct roles of FKF1, Gigantea, and Zeitlupe proteins in the regulation of Constans stability in Arabidopsis photoperiodic floweringYoung Hun Song
Departments of Biology and Department of Life Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443 749, Korea and
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:17672-7. 2014..Here we demonstrated that the FKF1-interacting proteins Gigantea (GI) and Zeitlupe (ZTL) are involved in CO stability regulation...
- Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/OxygenaseMarek M Galka
National Research Council of Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
PLoS ONE 10:e0133033. 2015..While the low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site and weak non-competitive inhibition of catalysis may not be relevant, the high affinity site may allow ABA to act as a negative effector of Rubisco activation...
- The GI-CDF module of Arabidopsis affects freezing tolerance and growth as well as floweringFabio Fornara
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D 50829, Cologne, Germany Department of Biosciences, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133, Milan, Italy
Plant J 81:695-706. 2015..The GIGANTEA (GI) protein is central in diverse signaling pathways, including photoperiodic, sugar and light signaling ..
- A role for GIGANTEA: keeping the balance between flowering and salinity stress toleranceHee Jin Park
Division of Applied Life Science BK21 Program Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University Jinju, South Korea
Plant Signal Behav 8:e24820. 2013..The model shows GI as a transitory regulator of SOS pathway activity whose presence or amount connects flowering to environmental conditions. ..
- TWIN SISTER OF FT, GIGANTEA, and CONSTANS have a positive but indirect effect on blue light-induced stomatal opening in ArabidopsisEigo Ando
Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464 8602, Japan
Plant Physiol 162:1529-38. 2013..We show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF), CONSTANS (CO), and GIGANTEA (GI) provide a positive effect on stomatal opening...
- GIGANTEA enables drought escape response via abscisic acid-dependent activation of the florigens and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANSMatteo Riboni
Department of Life Sciences, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
Plant Physiol 162:1706-19. 2013..flowering time mutants under DE-triggering conditions revealed the central role of the flower-promoting gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) in the DE response...
- Evening expression of arabidopsis GIGANTEA is controlled by combinatorial interactions among evolutionarily conserved regulatory motifsMarkus C Berns
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D 50829 Cologne, Germany
Plant Cell 26:3999-4018. 2014..Arabidopsis thaliana GIGANTEA (GI) contributes to photoperiodic flowering, circadian clock control, and photoreceptor signaling, and its ..
- The suppression of WRKY44 by GIGANTEA-miR172 pathway is involved in drought response of Arabidopsis thalianaYingying Han
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, Fudan University, Shanghai, China Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
PLoS ONE 8:e73541. 2013..In this study, plants with loss-of-function mutations of GIGANTEA (GI) and CONSTANS (CO) exhibited abnormal drought-escape phenotypes...
- The F-box protein ZEITLUPE controls stability and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of GIGANTEAJeongsik Kim
Department of Molecular Genetics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Development 140:4060-9. 2013..Previous work has shown that the F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and clock element GIGANTEA (GI) heterodimerize in the cytosol, thereby stabilizing ZTL...
- Balanced nucleocytosolic partitioning defines a spatial network to coordinate circadian physiology in plantsYumi Kim
Department of New Biology, DGIST, Daegu 711 873, Republic of Korea
Dev Cell 26:73-85. 2013..Here we show, using experimentation and mathematical modeling, that spatial segregation of GIGANTEA (GI), a critical component of plant circadian systems, into nuclear and cytosolic compartments leads to ..
- Release of SOS2 kinase from sequestration with GIGANTEA determines salt tolerance in ArabidopsisWoe Yeon Kim
Division of Applied Life Science BK21 program, Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660 701, South Korea
Nat Commun 4:1352. 2013..Here we report a link between the flowering time regulator, GIGANTEA (GI), and adaptation to salt stress that is mechanistically based on GI degradation under saline conditions, thus ..
- GIGANTEA and EARLY FLOWERING 4 in Arabidopsis exhibit differential phase-specific genetic influences over a diurnal cycleYumi Kim
Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, POSTECH, Hyojadong, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 790 784, Republic of Korea
Mol Plant 5:678-87. 2012The endogenous circadian clock regulates many physiological processes related to plant survival and adaptability. GIGANTEA (GI), a clock-associated protein, contributes to the maintenance of circadian period length and amplitude, and also ..
- Acceleration of flowering during shade avoidance in Arabidopsis alters the balance between FLOWERING LOCUS C-mediated repression and photoperiodic induction of floweringAmanda C Wollenberg
Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Plant Physiol 148:1681-94. 2008..A low red to far-red ratio required the photoperiod-pathway genes GIGANTEA (GI) and CONSTANS (CO) to fully accelerate flowering in long days and did not promote flowering in short days...
- GIGANTEA directly activates Flowering Locus T in Arabidopsis thalianaMariko Sawa
Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0130, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11698-703. 2011..We have previously shown that GIGANTEA (GI) regulates the timing of CO expression, together with FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX protein 1...
- Expression, purification and characterisation of GIGANTEA: a circadian clock-controlled regulator of photoperiodic flowering in plantsMoyra M Black
AgResearch Structural Biology Laboratory, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Protein Expr Purif 76:197-204. 2011The Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) GIGANTEA (GI) gene is a central component of the photoperiodic flowering pathway...
- Analysis of a post-translational steroid induction system for GIGANTEA in ArabidopsisMarkus Günl
Plant Molecular Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
BMC Plant Biol 9:141. 2009To investigate the link between the flowering time gene GIGANTEA (GI) and downstream genes, an inducible GI system was developed in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh...
- COP1 and ELF3 control circadian function and photoperiodic flowering by regulating GI stabilityJae Woong Yu
Department of Plant Science and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 921, Korea
Mol Cell 32:617-30. 2008..We propose a model in which ELF3 acts as a substrate adaptor, enabling COP1 to modulate light input signal to the circadian clock through targeted destabilization of GI...
- Characterization of genetic links between two clock-associated genes, GI and PRR5 in the current clock model of Arabidopsis thalianaHideaki Kawamura
Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:2770-4. 2008The GI (GIGANTEA) and PRR5 (PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 5) genes are crucially implicated in the Arabidopsis circadian clock...
- [Molecular mechanism by which plant determines flowering timing with circadian clock]Mariko Sawa
Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 53:739-46. 2008
- Sequence diversity and haplotype associations with phenotypic responses to crowding: GIGANTEA affects fruit set in Arabidopsis thalianaMarcus T Brock
Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, 1445 Gortner Avenue, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA
Mol Ecol 16:3050-62. 2007..For one gene, GIGANTEA (GI), we detected significant haplotype structure...
- TIME FOR COFFEE encodes a nuclear regulator in the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clockZhaojun Ding
Department of Plant Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne D 50829, Germany
Plant Cell 19:1522-36. 2007..Neither its abundance nor its cellular distribution was found to be clock regulated. We suggest that TIC encodes a nucleus-acting clock regulator working close to the central oscillator...
- Novel roles for GIGANTEA revealed under environmental conditions that modify its expression in Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatulaJudith Paltiel
The Robert H Smith Institute for Plant Sciences and Genetics, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University, P O Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Planta 224:1255-68. 2006b>GIGANTEA (GI) is a large nuclear protein which is involved in circadian-clock function, red-light signaling and photoperiodic flowering...
- RFI2, a RING-domain zinc finger protein, negatively regulates CONSTANS expression and photoperiodic floweringMingjie Chen
Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, St Paul, 55108, USA
Plant J 46:823-33. 2006..Both co-2 and gigantea-2 (gi-2) were epistatic to rfi2-1 in their flowering responses...
- Flowering of Arabidopsis cop1 mutants in darknessMayu Nakagawa
Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, N10 W8, Sapporo, 060 0810 Japan
Plant Cell Physiol 45:398-406. 2004..The delay in flowering in the double mutants was not strongly influenced by the light conditions, whereas that of the gi-2 cop1-6 double mutant was reduced in darkness...
- The early-flowering mutant efs is involved in the autonomous promotion pathway of Arabidopsis thalianaW J Soppe
Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Dreijenlaan 2, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Development 126:4763-70. 1999..By comparing the length of the juvenile and adult phases of vegetative growth for wild-type, efs and the double mutant plants, it is apparent that efs mainly reduces the length of the adult phase...
- Auxin polar transport and flower formation in Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with indoleacetamide hydrolase (iaaH) geneM Oka
College of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan
Plant Cell Physiol 40:231-7. 1999..These results suggest that the construction of the system of auxin polar transport and its normal activities are essential for the differentiation and the formation of floral meristem in the early growth stage of Arabidopsis thaliana...