PAD4

Summary

Gene Symbol: PAD4
Description: alpha/beta-Hydrolases superfamily protein
Alias: ARABIDOPSIS PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4, ATPAD4, PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. pmc Phytoalexin-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis reveal that PAD4 encodes a regulatory factor and that four PAD genes contribute to downy mildew resistance
    J Glazebrook
    Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park 20742, USA
    Genetics 146:381-92. 1997
  2. doi Different roles of Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1 (EDS1) bound to and dissociated from Phytoalexin Deficient4 (PAD4) in Arabidopsis immunity
    Steffen Rietz
    Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Koln, Germany
    New Phytol 191:107-19. 2011
  3. pmc SAG101 forms a ternary complex with EDS1 and PAD4 and is required for resistance signaling against turnip crinkle virus
    Shifeng Zhu
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002318. 2011
  4. ncbi Phloem-based resistance to green peach aphid is controlled by Arabidopsis PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 without its signaling partner ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1
    Venkatramana Pegadaraju
    Division of Biology and Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology Program, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Plant J 52:332-41. 2007
  5. pmc Salicylic acid-independent ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 signaling in Arabidopsis immunity and cell death is regulated by the monooxygenase FMO1 and the Nudix hydrolase NUDT7
    Michael Bartsch
    Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D 50829 Cologne, Germany
    Plant Cell 18:1038-51. 2006
  6. pmc Premature leaf senescence modulated by the Arabidopsis PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 gene is associated with defense against the phloem-feeding green peach aphid
    Venkatramana Pegadaraju
    Division of Biology and the Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology Program, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 4901, USA
    Plant Physiol 139:1927-34. 2005
  7. pmc Arabidopsis SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 stabilizes and signals within an ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 complex in plant innate immunity
    Bart J Feys
    Sainsbury Laboratory, John Ines Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 17:2601-13. 2005
  8. ncbi Plant immunity: the EDS1 regulatory node
    Marcel Wiermer
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D 50829 Cologne, Germany
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:383-9. 2005
  9. pmc EDS5, an essential component of salicylic acid-dependent signaling for disease resistance in Arabidopsis, is a member of the MATE transporter family
    Christiane Nawrath
    Department of Biology, Unit of Plant Biology, Route Albert Gockel 3, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Plant Cell 14:275-86. 2002
  10. pmc Direct interaction between the Arabidopsis disease resistance signaling proteins, EDS1 and PAD4
    B J Feys
    The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
    EMBO J 20:5400-11. 2001

Scientific Experts

  • J Glazebrook
  • C Nawrath
  • Bruce D Kohorn
  • Jane E Parker
  • Joe Louis
  • Jyoti Shah
  • Bart J Feys
  • Venkatramana Pegadaraju
  • Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda
  • Per Mühlenbock
  • Steffen Rietz
  • Stephan Wagner
  • Enrico Gobbato
  • Vijay Singh
  • Stanislaw Karpinski
  • Jaqueline Bautor
  • Ragiba Makandar
  • Jialin Wang
  • Yinggen Ke
  • Maryke Carstens
  • Fei Gao
  • Reham M Youssef
  • Weronika Wituszynska
  • Yuancong Wang
  • Walter Gassmann
  • DuRoy Navarre
  • Aardra Kachroo
  • Marcel Wiermer
  • Katja Vogelmann
  • Karsten Niefind
  • Tae Houn Kim
  • Shifeng Zhu
  • Barbara Karpinska
  • Madhumati Mukherjee
  • Minghui Gao
  • John C Reese
  • Nieves Medina-Escobar
  • Marian Plaszczyca
  • John Reese
  • Tatiana E Mishina
  • Michael Bartsch
  • Chiara Consonni
  • Peter Brodersen
  • B J Feys
  • Marek Hebda
  • Weronika Czarnocka
  • Maciej J Bernacki
  • Stanisław Karpiński
  • Harold N Trick
  • Sujon Sarowar
  • Hyeonju Lee
  • Guy Klossner
  • Vamsi J Nalam
  • Zulkarnain Chowdhury
  • Dehlia Burdan
  • Anastashia Diener
  • Nicolette Adams
  • Qing Ming Gao
  • Sharon M Pike
  • Shiping Wang
  • Hongbo Liu
  • Jinghua Xiao
  • Tyronne K McCrindle
  • Ru Dai
  • Chunyan Liu
  • Wei Jiang
  • Wenping Qiu
  • Robert A Ingle
  • Katherine J Denby
  • Delroy T Guzha
  • Qingshan Chen
  • Xianghua Li
  • Shane L Murray
  • M B Shine
  • Guohua Hu
  • Raphael Guerois
  • Sandy Vanderauwera
  • Andrzej Kornas
  • Ireneusz Slesak
  • Eric P Brewer
  • Xiaoyan Zhang
  • Katrien Van Der Kelen
  • Sebastian Mackowski
  • Frank Van Breusegem
  • Benjamin F Matthews
  • Johannes Stuttmann
  • Zheng Wang
  • Shuhua Yang
  • Margaret H MacDonald
  • Gary R Bauchan

Detail Information

Publications36

  1. pmc Phytoalexin-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis reveal that PAD4 encodes a regulatory factor and that four PAD genes contribute to downy mildew resistance
    J Glazebrook
    Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park 20742, USA
    Genetics 146:381-92. 1997
    ..Mutations in PAD1, PAD2, and PAD4 caused enhanced susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv...
  2. doi Different roles of Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1 (EDS1) bound to and dissociated from Phytoalexin Deficient4 (PAD4) in Arabidopsis immunity
    Steffen Rietz
    Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Koln, Germany
    New Phytol 191:107-19. 2011
    ..Arabidopsis EDS1 interacts with two related proteins, Phytoalexin Deficient4 (PAD4) and Senescence Associated Gene101 (SAG101), whose combined activities are essential for defense signaling...
  3. pmc SAG101 forms a ternary complex with EDS1 and PAD4 and is required for resistance signaling against turnip crinkle virus
    Shifeng Zhu
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002318. 2011
    EDS1, PAD4, and SAG101 are common regulators of plant immunity against many pathogens...
  4. ncbi Phloem-based resistance to green peach aphid is controlled by Arabidopsis PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 without its signaling partner ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1
    Venkatramana Pegadaraju
    Division of Biology and Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology Program, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Plant J 52:332-41. 2007
    ..Previously, it has been shown that Arabidopsis thaliana PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), which is expressed at elevated levels in response to GPA infestation, is required for resistance to GPA in the ..
  5. pmc Salicylic acid-independent ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 signaling in Arabidopsis immunity and cell death is regulated by the monooxygenase FMO1 and the Nudix hydrolase NUDT7
    Michael Bartsch
    Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D 50829 Cologne, Germany
    Plant Cell 18:1038-51. 2006
    ..In both responses, EDS1, assisted by its interacting partner, PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), regulates accumulation of the phenolic defense molecule salicylic acid (SA) and other as yet unidentified signal ..
  6. pmc Premature leaf senescence modulated by the Arabidopsis PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 gene is associated with defense against the phloem-feeding green peach aphid
    Venkatramana Pegadaraju
    Division of Biology and the Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology Program, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 4901, USA
    Plant Physiol 139:1927-34. 2005
    ..In contrast, resistance against GPA was compromised in the phytoalexin deficient4 (pad4) mutant plant...
  7. pmc Arabidopsis SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 stabilizes and signals within an ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 complex in plant innate immunity
    Bart J Feys
    Sainsbury Laboratory, John Ines Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 17:2601-13. 2005
    ..Together with PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), a known EDS1 interactor, SAG101 contributes intrinsic and indispensable signaling activity to EDS1-dependent ..
  8. ncbi Plant immunity: the EDS1 regulatory node
    Marcel Wiermer
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D 50829 Cologne, Germany
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:383-9. 2005
    ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1) and its interacting partner, PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4), constitute a regulatory hub that is essential for basal resistance to invasive biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens...
  9. pmc EDS5, an essential component of salicylic acid-dependent signaling for disease resistance in Arabidopsis, is a member of the MATE transporter family
    Christiane Nawrath
    Department of Biology, Unit of Plant Biology, Route Albert Gockel 3, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Plant Cell 14:275-86. 2002
    ..infection by certain pathogens as well as after UV-C light exposure depends on the pathogen response proteins EDS1, PAD4, and NDR1, indicating that the signal transduction pathways after UV-C light exposure and pathogen inoculation ..
  10. pmc Direct interaction between the Arabidopsis disease resistance signaling proteins, EDS1 and PAD4
    B J Feys
    The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
    EMBO J 20:5400-11. 2001
    The Arabidopsis EDS1 and PAD4 genes encode lipase-like proteins that function in resistance (R) gene-mediated and basal plant disease resistance...
  11. pmc Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4 encodes a lipase-like gene that is important for salicylic acid signaling
    D Jirage
    Molecular and Cell Biology Graduate Program, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13583-8. 1999
    The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene previously was found to be required for expression of multiple defense responses including camalexin synthesis and PR-1 gene expression in response to infection by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv...
  12. doi The Combined Action of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1, PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4, and SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED101 Promotes Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defenses to Limit Fusarium graminearum Infection in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Ragiba Makandar
    1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, U S A
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 28:943-53. 2015
    ..that, in Arabidopsis, the defense regulator EDS1 (ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1) and its interacting partners, PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) and SAG101 (SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101), promote SA accumulation to curtail F...
  13. pmc Increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens in the Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 mutant is EDS1 and PAD4-dependent and modulated by environmental temperature
    Maryke Carstens
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 9:e109853. 2014
    ..SA-signalling branch of the defence network, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4)...
  14. doi Functions of EDS1-like and PAD4 genes in grapevine defenses against powdery mildew
    Fei Gao
    Division of Plant Sciences, C S Bond Life Sciences Center and Interdisciplinary Plant Group, University of Missouri, 371C Life Sciences Center, Columbia, MO, 65211 7310, USA
    Plant Mol Biol 86:381-93. 2014
    ..acid (SA) pathway, including ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1), EDS1-LIKE 2 (EDL2), EDL5 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4) of two grapevine species, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, which is susceptible to E...
  15. doi PAD4, LSD1 and EDS1 regulate drought tolerance, plant biomass production, and cell wall properties
    Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda
    Department of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Horticulture, Biotechnology and Landscape Architecture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
    Plant Cell Rep 35:527-39. 2016
    ..g. in areas with poor irrigation. In this study, we performed functional analysis of proteins encoded by PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4), LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1 (LSD1) and ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1) genes to explain ..
  16. pmc Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1 Mediates Pathogen Resistance and Virulence Function of a Bacterial Effector in Soybean
    Jialin Wang
    College of Agriculture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China J W, W J, Q C, G H Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546 J W, M B S, Q M G, A K United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Washington State University, Prosser, Washington 99350 D N andLand Reclamation Research and Breeding Centre of Heilongjiang, Harbin 150090, China C L, G H
    Plant Physiol 165:1269-1284. 2014
    Enhanced disease susceptibility1 (EDS1) and phytoalexin deficient4 (PAD4) are well-known regulators of both basal and resistance (R) protein-mediated plant defense...
  17. pmc Requirement for pectin methyl esterase and preference for fragmented over native pectins for wall-associated kinase-activated, EDS1/PAD4-dependent stress response in Arabidopsis
    Bruce D Kohorn
    From the Department of Biology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine 04011
    J Biol Chem 289:18978-86. 2014
    ..of WAK2 constitutively activates the stress response, and we show here that the effect is dependent upon EDS1 and PAD4, transcriptional activators involved in the pathogen response...
  18. doi Rice OsPAD4 functions differently from Arabidopsis AtPAD4 in host-pathogen interactions
    Yinggen Ke
    National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center of Plant Gene Research Wuhan, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
    Plant J 78:619-31. 2014
    The extensively studied Arabidopsis phytoalexin deficient 4 (AtPAD4) gene plays an important role in Arabidopsis disease resistance; however, the function of its sequence ortholog in rice is unknown...
  19. doi Structural basis for signaling by exclusive EDS1 heteromeric complexes with SAG101 or PAD4 in plant innate immunity
    Stephan Wagner
    University of Cologne, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Biochemistry, Otto Fischer Strß 12 14, 50674 Koln, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 14:619-30. 2013
    ..1 (EDS1) and its sequence-related interaction partners, senescence-associated gene 101 (SAG101) and phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4)...
  20. doi A missense mutation in CHS1, a TIR-NB protein, induces chilling sensitivity in Arabidopsis
    Yuancong Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    Plant J 75:553-65. 2013
    ..The chilling sensitivity of chs1 was fully rescued by pad4 and eds1, but not by ndr1. The overexpression of the TIR and NB domains can suppress the chs1-conferred phenotypes...
  21. pmc PAD4 functions upstream from salicylic acid to control defense responses in Arabidopsis
    N Zhou
    Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Plant Cell 10:1021-30. 1998
    The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene was previously shown to be required for synthesis of camalexin in response to infection by the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 but not in response to challenge by the non-..
  22. ncbi Arabidopsis thaliana EDS4 contributes to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent expression of defense responses: evidence for inhibition of jasmonic acid signaling by SA
    V Gupta
    Molecular and Cell Biology Graduate Program, University of Maryland, College Park 20742, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 13:503-11. 2000
    ..Two mutations that cause reduced SA levels, eds4 and pad4, cause heightened responses to inducers of JA-dependent gene expression, providing genetic evidence to support the ..
  23. pmc Lesion simulating disease1, enhanced disease susceptibility1, and phytoalexin deficient4 conditionally regulate cellular signaling homeostasis, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and seed yield in Arabidopsis
    Weronika Wituszynska
    Department of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02 776 Warsaw, Poland
    Plant Physiol 161:1795-805. 2013
    ..the role of lesion simulating disease1 (LSD1), enhanced disease susceptibility1 (EDS1), and phytoalexin deficient4 (PAD4) in the regulation of photosynthesis, water use efficiency, reactive oxygen species/hormonal homeostasis, and seed ..
  24. pmc Ectopic expression of AtPAD4 broadens resistance of soybean to soybean cyst and root-knot nematodes
    Reham M Youssef
    USDA ARS, Soybean Genomic and Improvement Laboratory, 10300 Baltimore Ave, Bldg 006, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    BMC Plant Biol 13:67. 2013
    ..maculicola. AtPAD4 (Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4) encodes a lipase-like protein that plays a regulatory role mediating salicylic acid ..
  25. doi TREHALOSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE11-dependent trehalose metabolism promotes Arabidopsis thaliana defense against the phloem-feeding insect Myzus persicae
    Vijay Singh
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
    Plant J 67:94-104. 2011
    ..Our results provide a framework for the signaling function of TPS11-dependent trehalose in plant stress responses, and also reveal an important contribution of starch in controlling the severity of aphid infestation...
  26. pmc Discrimination of Arabidopsis PAD4 activities in defense against green peach aphid and pathogens
    Joe Louis
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203, USA
    Plant Physiol 158:1860-72. 2012
    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lipase-like protein PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) is essential for defense against green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae) and the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis...
  27. pmc Early senescence and cell death in Arabidopsis saul1 mutants involves the PAD4-dependent salicylic acid pathway
    Katja Vogelmann
    Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Biozentrum Klein Flottbek, Universitat Hamburg, D 22609 Hamburg, Germany
    Plant Physiol 159:1477-87. 2012
    ..Double mutant analyses showed that PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) but not NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES1 (NPR1) is essential for saul1 phenotypes...
  28. pmc Natural variation in small molecule-induced TIR-NB-LRR signaling induces root growth arrest via EDS1- and PAD4-complexed R protein VICTR in Arabidopsis
    Tae Houn Kim
    Division of Biological Sciences, Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0116, USA
    Plant Cell 24:5177-92. 2012
    ..DFPM) that triggers rapid inhibition of early abscisic acid signal transduction via PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4)- and ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1)-dependent immune signaling mechanisms...
  29. doi Regulation of cell death and innate immunity by two receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis
    Minghui Gao
    College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China
    Cell Host Microbe 6:34-44. 2009
    ..Our data suggest that BIR1 negatively regulates multiple plant resistance signaling pathways, one of which is the SOBIR1-dependent pathway identified here...
  30. doi PAD4-dependent antibiosis contributes to the ssi2-conferred hyper-resistance to the green peach aphid
    Joe Louis
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:618-27. 2010
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana responds to GPA infestation with elevated expression of the PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) gene...
  31. doi Ascorbic acid deficiency in arabidopsis induces constitutive priming that is dependent on hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid, and the NPR1 gene
    Madhumati Mukherjee
    Department of Biology, West Virginia University, 53 Campus Drive, Morgantown, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:340-51. 2010
    ..We also studied double mutants defective in the AA-biosynthetic gene VTC1 and the SA signaling pathway genes PAD4, EDS5, and NPR1, respectively. All vtc mutants were more resistant to P. syringae than the wild type...
  32. pmc Chloroplast signaling and LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 regulate crosstalk between light acclimation and immunity in Arabidopsis
    Per Mühlenbock
    Department of Botany, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Plant Cell 20:2339-56. 2008
    ..death depends on the plant defense regulators ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4). We find that EDS1 and PAD4 operate upstream of ethylene and ROS production in the EEE response...
  33. pmc Lysigenous aerenchyma formation in Arabidopsis is controlled by LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1
    Per Mühlenbock
    Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 30 239 Krakow, Poland
    Plant Cell 19:3819-30. 2007
    ..regulators LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPIBILITY1 (EDS1), and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) that operate upstream of ethylene and reactive oxygen species production...
  34. ncbi Pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition rather than development of tissue necrosis contributes to bacterial induction of systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis
    Tatiana E Mishina
    Julius von Sachs Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Wurzburg, Julius von Sachs Platz 3, D 97082 Wurzburg, Germany
    Plant J 50:500-13. 2007
    ..Our data indicate that PAMPs significantly contribute to SAR initiation in Arabidopsis and that tissue necroses at inoculation sites are dispensable for SAR activation...
  35. ncbi Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 regulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent responses via EDS1 and PAD4
    Peter Brodersen
    Institute of Molecular Biology, Copenhagen University, Øster Farimagsgade 2A, DK 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark
    Plant J 47:532-46. 2006
    ..and ET/JA-(co)activating functions depend on MPK4 kinase activity and involve the defense regulators EDS1 and PAD4, as mutations in these genes suppress de-repression of the SA pathway and suppress the block of the ET/JA pathway ..
  36. ncbi Conserved requirement for a plant host cell protein in powdery mildew pathogenesis
    Chiara Consonni
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D 50829 Köln, Germany
    Nat Genet 38:716-20. 2006
    ....