Genomes and Genes
Nuclear receptor mechanisms controlling macrophage function in health and disease
Principal Investigator: Ajay Chawla
Abstract: Our long-term goal is to understand how nuclear receptors regulate macrophage gene expression in health and disease. Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that modulate reproduction, development, and general metabolism. Recent studies indicate that expression of nuclear receptor superfamily is dynamically modulated during macrophage activation, indicating that these receptors play a pivotal role in orchestrating macrophage transcriptional responses. Indeed, work from our laboratory and those of others has shown that Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) play a key regulatory role in macrophage cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism, and has provided the mechanistic basis for the cardioprotective functions of PPARs in coronary artery disease. While the inflammatory and pathogenic functions of macrophages are well appreciated, their homeostatic functions in tissue repair and immune tolerance remain poorly understood. Our preliminary data indicate the nuclear receptors PPAR delta and gamma play a key role in orchestrating macrophage transcriptional programs necessary for debris clearance and tissue regeneration. Moreover, genetic deletion of these receptors in macrophages severely compromises these homeostatic responses, leading to autoimmunity or impaired tissue repair. Therefore, studies proposed in the present grant application will take molecular, cellular, and genetic approaches, including tissue-specific knockouts, to further investigate how PPAR gamma and delta orchestrate macrophage gene expression during injury and repair. Data from these studies will greatly enhance the molecular understanding of how macrophage functions are regulated under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions, and should lead to identification of new therapeutic targets for treating autoimmunity and/or improving tissue regeneration after injury. The specific aims of this proposal are to: 1) Determine the molecular mechanisms by which macrophage-specific PPAR delta and gamma control tolerogenic responses, 2) Investigate the regulatory role of macrophage-specific PPAR delta and gamma in tissue regeneration and repair, and 3) Generate macrophage-specific PPAR delta/gamma double knockout mice to elucidate their non-redundant functions in macrophages. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Macrophages take residence in almost all organs of the body, where they guard against damage and perform tissue repairs. Studies in this grant application will explore the role of nuclear receptors in controlling these reparative programs of macrophages. Insights from these studies should lead to development of new therapeutics to treat chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases, and improve modalities for tissue regeneration.
Funding Period: 2009-05-20 - 2015-03-31
more information: NIH RePORT
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Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
Nat Med 15:1266-72. 2009..Thus, PPAR-delta has a pivotal role in orchestrating the timely disposal of apoptotic cells by macrophages, ensuring that tolerance to self is maintained...
- Salmonella require the fatty acid regulator PPARδ for the establishment of a metabolic environment essential for long-term persistenceNicholas A Eisele
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Cell Host Microbe 14:171-82. 2013..These data suggest that M2 macrophages represent a unique niche for long-term intracellular bacterial survival and link the PPARδ-regulated metabolic state of the host cell to persistent bacterial infection. ..
- Eosinophils secrete IL-4 to facilitate liver regenerationY P Sharon Goh
Department of Genetics and Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:9914-9. 2013..Instead, IL-4 exerts its proliferative actions via IL-4Rα in hepatocytes. Our findings thus provide a unique mechanism by which eosinophil-derived IL-4 stimulates hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating liver...
- Macrophage biology in development, homeostasis and diseaseThomas A Wynn
Immunopathogenesis Section, Program in Tissue Immunity and Repair and Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20877 8003, USA
Nature 496:445-55. 2013..It is essential to understand this diversity because macrophages have emerged as important therapeutic targets in many human diseases...
- Type 2 innate signals stimulate fibro/adipogenic progenitors to facilitate muscle regenerationJose E Heredia
Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 9001, USA
Cell 153:376-88. 2013..Surprisingly, type 2 cytokine signaling is also required in FAPs, but not in myeloid cells, for rapid clearance of necrotic debris, a process that is necessary for timely and complete regeneration of tissues...
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Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 9001, USA
Science 339:172-7. 2013..An appreciation of the adaptive context in which these responses arose is useful for understanding their pathogenic actions in disease...
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Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
J Lipid Res 54:806-15. 2013..Collectively, our results suggest that alterations in the Ly6C(lo) monocyte population and bone marrow NR4A expression do not play dominant roles in macrophage polarization or the development of atherosclerosis in mice...
- Connecting type 1 and type 2 diabetes through innate immunityJustin I Odegaard
Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2:a007724. 2012..We conclude with a discussion of the therapeutic implications of this integrated understanding of diabetic pathology...
- Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesisKhoa D Nguyen
Immunology Program, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94305, USA
Nature 480:104-8. 2011..Thus, we have discovered a role for alternatively activated macrophages in the orchestration of an important mammalian stress response, the response to cold...
- Macrophage-mediated inflammation in metabolic diseaseAjay Chawla
Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, California 94158 9001, USA
Nat Rev Immunol 11:738-49. 2011..In particular, we focus our discussion on the pathogenic and protective functions of classically and alternatively activated macrophages, respectively, in experimental models of obesity and metabolic disease...
- Involvement of adenosine A2A receptors in engulfment-dependent apoptotic cell suppression of inflammationKrisztina Köröskényi
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Signaling and Apoptosis Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Center of Molecular Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen H 4012, Hungary
J Immunol 186:7144-55. 2011..Altogether, our data indicate that adenosine is one of the soluble mediators released by macrophages that mediate engulfment-dependent apoptotic cell suppression of inflammation...
- Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasisDAVINA WU
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0795, USA
Science 332:243-7. 2011..Our results suggest that eosinophils play an unexpected role in metabolic homeostasis through maintenance of adipose AAMs...
- IL-4/STAT6 immune axis regulates peripheral nutrient metabolism and insulin sensitivityRoberto R Ricardo-Gonzalez
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:22617-22. 2010....
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Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305 5103, USA
Annu Rev Pathol 6:275-97. 2011..The therapeutic implications of this conclusion are profound because they suggest that pharmacologic targeting of macrophage activation, rather than simply inflammation, might be efficacious in treating this global epidemic...
- In obesity and weight loss, all roads lead to the mighty macrophageAlex Red Eagle
Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
J Clin Invest 120:3437-40. 2010..In this issue of the JCI, Kosteli and colleagues demonstrate that weight loss is unexpectedly also associated with rapid, albeit transient, recruitment of macrophages to WAT and that this appears to be related to lipolysis...
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta limits the expansion of pathogenic Th cells during central nervous system autoimmunityShannon E Dunn
Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
J Exp Med 207:1599-608. 2010..Collectively, these findings suggest that PPAR-delta serves as an important molecular brake for the control of autoimmune inflammation...
- Control of macrophage activation and function by PPARsAjay Chawla
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5103, USA
Circ Res 106:1559-69. 2010....
- Metabolic regulation of immune responsesKirthana Ganeshan
Cardiovascular Research Institute
Annu Rev Immunol 32:609-34. 2014..A better understanding of the metabolic checkpoints that control these transitions might provide new insights for modulating immunity in infection, cancer, or inflammatory disorders. ..
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- Characterization of LC3-Associated PhagocytosisJennifer Martinez; Fiscal Year: 2013..Further understanding the mechanisms by which autophagy, or in this case, LAP, can be triggered will provide researchers with novel therapeutic targets to the treatment of cancer. ..
- Targeting TAM Receptors to Modulate Inflammation and AutoimmunityPhilip L Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2013..If these antibodies have such an effect on models of arthritis and lupus in mice, a parallel approach to human inflammatory illnesses may open up, with the possibility of controlling many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. ..
- Cadiorenal and Metabolic Diseases Research CenterJohn E Hall; Fiscal Year: 2013..abstract_text> ..
- A critical role of TAM receptors in autoimmune nephritisWenhai Shao; Fiscal Year: 2013..Results from this study will extend our understanding of the mechanisms in which Mer and Axl regulate chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Data may reveal potential therapeutic targets for lupus nephritis. ..
- Modulation of B cell tolerance checkpoints by distinct Ras/Erk PathwaysAndre Limnander; Fiscal Year: 2013....