Transgenesis and Xenotransplantation
Principal Investigator: Jorge A Piedrahita
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The ability to efficiently modify the swine genome to generate genetically modified animals has the potential to provide a novel source of cells/tissues for clinical applications. Here we propose further development of the technology and its application to the development of genetically modified swine capable of high-level engraftment with human cells, and the testing and development of artificial organs. Specifically, we propose: Aim 1. To develop a genetically modified pig deficient in B cells, T cells, and NK cells (we will refer to this model as pSCID for porcine Severe Combined Immunodeficient from now on). Aim 1a. will accomplish this by ablating B cells and T cells using the toxin DTA. Aim 1b will utilize a responder line carrying a conditional DTA activated by Cre expression and an inducer line expressing Cre under the control of lymphoid specific promoters. Both lines can be easily propagated, and distributed, and the pSCID phenotype induced when the two lines are crossed. Aim2. To develop a pig hosting a human immune system. Aim 2a. We will utilize human/or swine bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to repopulate the immune system by injecting into a developing fetus prior to immune maturation. The porcine donors will be genetically labeled so that even in the absence of a pSCID we can complete this aim. Engraftment will be examined at one month, three months and six months of age by collection of bone marrow and peripheral blood. Aim 2b. Will examine the generated immune cells for the presence cell fusions between host and donor cells, presence of newly generated T cells using a T cell receptor excision circle assay (TREC), antibody receptor diversity by using oligonucleotide probes, proliferative responses using mixed leukocyte cultures, and examining novel T- cell specificities by immunizing with parvovirus, pseudorabies, and tetanus toxoid. Aim 3. To develop a transgenic pig that will facilitate engraftment and proliferation of human hepatocytes. Aim 3a will focus on generation of a transgenic swine carrying Cre-ERT2, a tamoxifen inducible Cre, driven by a liver-specific promoter. Crossing this line with the inducible DTA line generated in Aim 1 b, will allow depletion of the porcine hepatocytes upon tamoxifen addition. This will allow transplanted non-transgenic human hepatocytes to gradually replace the porcine hepatocytes. Aim 3b will focus on analyzing the resulting hepatocytes at multiple levels including expression of mature hepatocyte markers, induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, liver cytoarchitecture and presence/absence of cell fusions. This aim will allow us to determine the strengths and weaknesses of this xenotransplant organ regeneration approach so it can be used in the future to develop tissue and organs of greater complexity such as lung and cardiac tissue. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: At completion of this proposal a number of unique transgenic swine will be available that can play a key role in the development and testing of artificial organs and tissue engineering but, in addition, have a broad range of uses in biomedical research. They can be used to study adoptive immunotherapy, normal and abnormal immune system development and function, study development and treatment for diseases such as leukemia, looking at disease progression and the development of vaccines for diseases such as AIDS, and study human tumor progression and treatment. In addition, the development of swine with livers largely composed of human hepatocytes will greatly facilitate pharmacological testing, the study of diseases such as hepatitis, development of models of liver-associated diseases such as cirrhosis, and eventual development of a human hepatocytes that can be transplanted back into humans.
Funding Period: 1993-12-15 - 2015-03-31
more information: NIH RePORT
- Swine generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer have increased incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)Jose Estrada
Molecular and Biomedical Sciences Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607, USA
Cloning Stem Cells 9:229-36. 2007..SCNT-derived pigs are excellent models to study epigenetic factors and genes involved in IUGRs, and to develop effective means to improve fetal growth in humans and animals...
- Enhancement of extra chromosomal recombination in somatic cells by affecting the ratio of homologous recombination (HR) to non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)Gretchen M Zaunbrecher
Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, USA
Anim Biotechnol 19:6-21. 2008....
- Successful cloning of the Yucatan minipig using commercial/occidental breeds as oocyte donors and embryo recipientsJose L Estrada
Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA
Cloning Stem Cells 10:287-96. 2008..This report shows that it is possible to produce viable Yucatan SCNT clones and opens up the possibility of developing valuable biomedical models in this porcine breed...
- A comparative study on the efficiency of two enucleation methods in pig somatic cell nuclear transfer: effects of the squeezing and the aspiration methodsEunsong Lee
Molecular and Biomedical Sciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607, USA
Anim Biotechnol 19:71-9. 2008..Our results indicate that the aspiration method for oocyte enucleation is more efficient than the squeezing method in producing a large number of pig SCNT embryos with normal in vivo viability...
- Functional genomic approaches for the study of fetal/placental development in swine with special emphasis on imprinted genesS R Bischoff
Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 66:245-64. 2009..First we will introduce the biological question to provide context for the discussion of the functional genomic approaches and the types of information they generate...
- Evaluation of the Serratia marcescens nuclease (NucA) as a transgenic cell ablation system in porcineI Caballero
Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences and Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
Anim Biotechnol 20:177-85. 2009..These results indicate that the NucA gene, while capable of mammalian cell ablation, is less efficient than DTA...
- Development of a model of sacrocaudal spinal cord injury in cloned Yucatan minipigs for cellular transplantation researchJi Hey Lim
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA
Cell Reprogram 12:689-97. 2010..We conclude that this model of sacrocaudal SCI in Yucatan SCNT clones represents a powerful research tool to investigate the effect of cellular transplantation on axonal regeneration and functional recovery...
- From "ES-like" cells to induced pluripotent stem cells: a historical perspective in domestic animalsSehwon Koh
Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA Genomics Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
Theriogenology 81:103-11. 2014..In addition, we summarize the latest progress and limitations in the derivation and application of iPSCs...