Enhanced Membrane Systems for Supplying Quality Drinking Water

Summary

Principal Investigator: Andrew Feiring
Abstract: DESCRIPTION: Enhanced Membrane System for Supplying Quality Drinking Water Contaminants in Drinking Water: While many of the traditional waterborne diseases (cholera, typhoid) are now uncommon in the developed world, the continue to be a major cause of disease in developing countries and waterborne disease kills more people worldwide than all forms of violence. Waterborne disease outbreaks continue to occur within the US and the etiological agents vary considerably. A variety of bacteria such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and toxigenic E. coli are frequently implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks as are noroviruses and the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium. Additionally outbreaks of Legionnaires Disease are relatively common, and although these are usually not linked directly to potable water, the organisms can often be found in buildings supplied with water from municipal systems. Based on these concerns, new treatment methods or techniques are needed that increase removal of these contaminants from existing drinking water treatment plants. An overlying challenge is to develop an effective disinfection technology that is convenient for relatively small communities and is also easily retrofitable into existing infrastructure and space limitations. Background: Chlorine dioxide and other halogens are routinely used for oxidation. In particular, chlorine is used extensively as a disinfectant to remove organics and biological materials from drinking water. Although it has a low cost and reasonable disinfecting capability, many problems are associated with chlorine. One is that it is a hazardous material that must be shipped and stored at the site where it is to be used. Another problem is chlorine's limited effectiveness in attacking cyst and spore forming organisms like Cryptosporidium and Microsporidium. Additionally, chlorine combines with natural organics like humic acid to produce carcinogens such as THMs (trihalomethanes). Chlorine is also less effective at killing viruses. Innovation: While there is significant effort to move from chlorine t enhanced oxidation chemicals (EOC) for sanitization and disinfection of water, the growth of EOC is significantly limited by the high cost of supply. To date, no one using membranes to enhance the supply of EOC can effectively reduce the major cost of supply. This program proposes for the first time significant reductions in EOC cost by the utilization of EOC resistant membranes for supplying EOC. This program will greatly enhance the utilization of EOC for water disinfection. This greater utilization of EOC will dramatically increase destruction of viruses as well as reduce the production of trihalomethanes (THM's). Product Concept: It is proposed to construct novel polymer membrane systems for the generation and use of EOC as a reagent for effecting purification with minimal environmental hazard. Compact Membrane Systems (CMS) will fabricate an integrated membrane/EOC system for production of drinking water. CMS, in Phase I, will first fabricate the system and then demonstrate the destruction of appropriate contaminants (e.g. E. Coli, Enterococcus Faecalis, MS2 bacteriophage Poliovirus, Cryptosporidium parvum, Legionelle pneumophila, and Salmonella enterica plus specific chemicals, phenol, and humic acid), Cryptosporidium or appropriate surrogate. Long term testing and appropriate forms of the membrane system will also be evaluated. Finally, economic evaluations will be completed to make sure proposed system is economically competitive. NIH: There is broad value for this product within NIH. First reduction in THM will reduce cancer. Second enhanced disinfection will reduce infectious diseases. Third it will be of value to environmental health and occupational health activities.
Funding Period: 2013-07-05 - 2014-06-30
more information: NIH RePORT

Detail Information

Research Grants30

  1. Rocky Mountain Regional Center of Excellence or Biodefense and Emerging Infectiou
    John T Belisle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Semi-volatile PCBs: Sources, Exposures, Toxicities
    Larry W Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These data and dietary studies in the last Aim will provide a scientific basis for risk assessment and advice for stakeholders with the ultimate goal to protect highly-exposed individuals and populations. ..
  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ALCOHOL PROBLEMS
    Thomas K Greenfield; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We plan to build research capacity in the Center and other organizations, enhance careers of new investigators, and make key findings accessible to researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and the public. ..
  4. Multifunctional, Non-thermal Plasmas for Long-lasting Dental Adhesion
    Qingsong Yu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goal is not only to confirm that the design principles and the engineered plasma technology/chemistries work, but also gain deep understanding into how and why they do. ..
  5. Optimization of HIV vaccines for the induction of cross-reactive antibodies
    Shan Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..RELEVANCE: To optimize the next generation polyvalent Env HIV vaccine formulations using the multi-gene, polyvalent DNA prime - protein boost technology platform. ..
  6. Multiplex fluorescence optofluidic microscopy for diagnosis of enteric parasites
    Changhuei Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5. Develop magnetic antibody tagging separation to directly concentrate parasites from stool samples. We aim to develop a simple sample concentration procedure that eliminates the need for a centrifuge. ..
  7. Rechargeable Antimicrobial Dental Unit Waterline Tubing
    Yuyu Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..All these will make significant contributions to a better and safer healthcare environment. ..
  8. Pacific Southwest RCE for Biodefense &Emerging Infectious Diseases Research
    Alan G Barbour; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  9. Identifying components of Toxoplasma oocysts that confer environmental resistance
    HEATHER MICHELLE FRITZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goal of this project is to understand the critical components in the oocyst that make it resistant to methods of water treatment, including chlorine, UV and ozone. ..
  10. Pacific NorthWest Regional Center of Excellence (PNWRCE)
    Jay A Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pseudomallei host pathogen response during both the septicemic as well as the intracellular phases of the disease. ..
  11. Southeast Regional Centers of Excellence for Biodefense &Emerging Infectious Di
    Philip Frederick Sparling; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SERCEB brings new investigators to the biodefense effort through a combination of educational programs, support of innovative new projects, and the synergistic interactions among its world-class investigators. ..
  12. Elucidating Risks: From Exposure and Mechanism to Outcome
    James A Swenberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This Program is highly relevant to Superfund by addressing high-priority chemicals and by focusing on mechanisms underlying health effects, exposure assessment, and remediation to mitigate exposure and toxicity. ..
  13. BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
    Bruce D Hammock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. IPF Fibroblast Phenotype
    Craig A Henke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A major objective of this Program Project is to inform decisions of the IPF Clinical Network by providing information that can be translated into novel therapeutic strategies for IPF. ..
  15. Superfund Metal Mixtures, Biomarkers and Neurodevelopment
    David C Bellinger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 4- To promote rapid dissemination of significant research findings;and Aim 5- Compliance- To ensure compliance with NIH requirements for data and resource-sharing and the human and animal institutional review board requirements ..
  16. TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN THE ENVIRONMENT
    Martyn T Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The program will be overseen and coordinated by an Administration core (A). ..