West Nile virus

Summary

Alias: WNV

Top Publications

  1. Brinton M. The molecular biology of West Nile Virus: a new invader of the western hemisphere. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2002;56:371-402 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally also infects humans and horses...
  2. Rosas C, Tischer B, Perkins G, Wagner B, Goodman L, Osterrieder N. Live-attenuated recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) induces a neutralizing antibody response against West Nile virus (WNV). Virus Res. 2007;125:69-78 pubmed publisher
    The immunogenicity in horses of a recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing West Nile virus (WNV) prM and E proteins was studied...
  3. MacKenzie J, Westaway E. Assembly and maturation of the flavivirus Kunjin virus appear to occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and along the secretory pathway, respectively. J Virol. 2001;75:10787-99 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the assembly of virions occurs within the lumen of the RER and that subsequent maturation occurs via the secretory pathway...
  4. Westaway E, Khromykh A, Kenney M, MacKenzie J, Jones M. Proteins C and NS4B of the flavivirus Kunjin translocate independently into the nucleus. Virology. 1997;234:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Dual IF with antibodies to double-stranded RNA showed that cytoplasmic locations of C and NS4B were apparently associated in part with the sites of viral RNA synthesis which were resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100...
  5. Avirutnan P, Hauhart R, Somnuke P, Blom A, Diamond M, Atkinson J. Binding of flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1 to C4b binding protein modulates complement activation. J Immunol. 2011;187:424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies further define the immune evasion potential of NS1 in reducing the functional capacity of C4 in complement activation and control of flavivirus infection...
  6. MacKenzie J, Khromykh A, Jones M, Westaway E. Subcellular localization and some biochemical properties of the flavivirus Kunjin nonstructural proteins NS2A and NS4A. Virology. 1998;245:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together the results indicate that the flavivirus replication complex includes NS2A and NS4A in the VP in addition to the previously identified NS1 and NS3...
  7. Chung K, Liszewski M, Nybakken G, Davis A, Townsend R, Fremont D, et al. West Nile virus nonstructural protein NS1 inhibits complement activation by binding the regulatory protein factor H. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we demonstrate an immunomodulatory function of West Nile virus NS1...
  8. Nybakken G, Nelson C, Chen B, Diamond M, Fremont D. Crystal structure of the West Nile virus envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 2006;80:11467-74 pubmed
    The envelope glycoprotein (E) of West Nile virus (WNV) undergoes a conformational rearrangement triggered by low pH that results in a class II fusion event required for viral entry. Herein we present the 3...
  9. Oliphant T, Engle M, Nybakken G, Doane C, Johnson S, Huang L, et al. Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus. Nat Med. 2005;11:522-30 pubmed
    Neutralization of West Nile virus (WNV) in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein...
  10. Setoh Y, Prow N, Hobson Peters J, Lobigs M, Young P, Khromykh A, et al. Identification of residues in West Nile virus pre-membrane protein that influence viral particle secretion and virulence. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1965-75 pubmed publisher
    The pre-membrane protein (prM) of West Nile virus (WNV) functions as a chaperone for correct folding of the envelope (E) protein, and prevents premature fusion during virus egress. However, little is known about its role in virulence...

Detail Information

Publications93

  1. Brinton M. The molecular biology of West Nile Virus: a new invader of the western hemisphere. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2002;56:371-402 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally also infects humans and horses...
  2. Rosas C, Tischer B, Perkins G, Wagner B, Goodman L, Osterrieder N. Live-attenuated recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) induces a neutralizing antibody response against West Nile virus (WNV). Virus Res. 2007;125:69-78 pubmed publisher
    The immunogenicity in horses of a recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing West Nile virus (WNV) prM and E proteins was studied...
  3. MacKenzie J, Westaway E. Assembly and maturation of the flavivirus Kunjin virus appear to occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and along the secretory pathway, respectively. J Virol. 2001;75:10787-99 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the assembly of virions occurs within the lumen of the RER and that subsequent maturation occurs via the secretory pathway...
  4. Westaway E, Khromykh A, Kenney M, MacKenzie J, Jones M. Proteins C and NS4B of the flavivirus Kunjin translocate independently into the nucleus. Virology. 1997;234:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Dual IF with antibodies to double-stranded RNA showed that cytoplasmic locations of C and NS4B were apparently associated in part with the sites of viral RNA synthesis which were resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100...
  5. Avirutnan P, Hauhart R, Somnuke P, Blom A, Diamond M, Atkinson J. Binding of flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1 to C4b binding protein modulates complement activation. J Immunol. 2011;187:424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies further define the immune evasion potential of NS1 in reducing the functional capacity of C4 in complement activation and control of flavivirus infection...
  6. MacKenzie J, Khromykh A, Jones M, Westaway E. Subcellular localization and some biochemical properties of the flavivirus Kunjin nonstructural proteins NS2A and NS4A. Virology. 1998;245:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together the results indicate that the flavivirus replication complex includes NS2A and NS4A in the VP in addition to the previously identified NS1 and NS3...
  7. Chung K, Liszewski M, Nybakken G, Davis A, Townsend R, Fremont D, et al. West Nile virus nonstructural protein NS1 inhibits complement activation by binding the regulatory protein factor H. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we demonstrate an immunomodulatory function of West Nile virus NS1...
  8. Nybakken G, Nelson C, Chen B, Diamond M, Fremont D. Crystal structure of the West Nile virus envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 2006;80:11467-74 pubmed
    The envelope glycoprotein (E) of West Nile virus (WNV) undergoes a conformational rearrangement triggered by low pH that results in a class II fusion event required for viral entry. Herein we present the 3...
  9. Oliphant T, Engle M, Nybakken G, Doane C, Johnson S, Huang L, et al. Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus. Nat Med. 2005;11:522-30 pubmed
    Neutralization of West Nile virus (WNV) in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein...
  10. Setoh Y, Prow N, Hobson Peters J, Lobigs M, Young P, Khromykh A, et al. Identification of residues in West Nile virus pre-membrane protein that influence viral particle secretion and virulence. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1965-75 pubmed publisher
    The pre-membrane protein (prM) of West Nile virus (WNV) functions as a chaperone for correct folding of the envelope (E) protein, and prevents premature fusion during virus egress. However, little is known about its role in virulence...
  11. Zhang B, Dong H, Zhou Y, Shi P. Genetic interactions among the West Nile virus methyltransferase, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the 5' stem-loop of genomic RNA. J Virol. 2008;82:7047-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report genetic interactions of West Nile virus (WNV) methyltransferase with the RdRp and the 5'-terminal stem-loop of viral genomic RNA...
  12. Kramer L, Li J, Shi P. West Nile virus. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:171-81 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus originally isolated in 1937 from the blood of a febrile woman in the West Nile province of Uganda...
  13. Kanai R, Kar K, Anthony K, Gould L, Ledizet M, Fikrig E, et al. Crystal structure of west nile virus envelope glycoprotein reveals viral surface epitopes. J Virol. 2006;80:11000-8 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion...
  14. Hanna S, Pierson T, Sanchez M, Ahmed A, Murtadha M, Doms R. N-linked glycosylation of west nile virus envelope proteins influences particle assembly and infectivity. J Virol. 2005;79:13262-74 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) encodes two envelope proteins, premembrane (prM) and envelope (E). While the prM protein of all WNV strains contains a single N-linked glycosylation site, not all strains contain an N-linked site in the E protein...
  15. Li J, Bhuvanakantham R, Howe J, Ng M. Identifying the region influencing the cis-mode of maturation of West Nile (Sarafend) virus using chimeric infectious clones. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:714-20 pubmed
    ..Transmission electron microscopy analyses performed in Vero cells infected with these chimeric viruses disclosed that the 5' end of the WN(S)V genome plays a major role in influencing the process of maturation at the plasma membrane. ..
  16. Tassaneetrithep B, Burgess T, Granelli Piperno A, Trumpfheller C, Finke J, Sun W, et al. DC-SIGN (CD209) mediates dengue virus infection of human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2003;197:823-9 pubmed
    ..Viruses produced by dendritic cells are infectious for DC-SIGN- and L-SIGN-bearing THP-1 cells and other permissive cell lines. Therefore, DC-SIGN may be considered as a new target for designing therapies that block dengue infection. ..
  17. Beasley D, Li L, Suderman M, Barrett A. Mouse neuroinvasive phenotype of West Nile virus strains varies depending upon virus genotype. Virology. 2002;296:17-23 pubmed
    ..Virus isolated in North America was found to be highly neuroinvasive with a lack of age-related resistance to infection in mice normally associated with mosquito-borne flaviviruses. ..
  18. Lanciotti R, Ebel G, Deubel V, Kerst A, Murri S, Meyer R, et al. Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Virology. 2002;298:96-105 pubmed
    ..Lineage 2 WN viruses have been isolated only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. Lineage 1 viruses can be further subdivided into three monophyletic clades. ..
  19. Khromykh A, Varnavski A, Sedlak P, Westaway E. Coupling between replication and packaging of flavivirus RNA: evidence derived from the use of DNA-based full-length cDNA clones of Kunjin virus. J Virol. 2001;75:4633-40 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may thus help alleviate the high-copy error rate of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. ..
  20. Yang J, Kim J, Hwang D, Choo A, Dang K, Maguire H, et al. Induction of potent Th1-type immune responses from a novel DNA vaccine for West Nile virus New York isolate (WNV-NY1999). J Infect Dis. 2001;184:809-16 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a vectorborne pathogen that induces brain inflammation and death. Recently, confirmed cases of infection and deaths have occurred in the United States Mid-Atlantic region...
  21. Chu J, Rajamanonmani R, Li J, Bhuvanakantham R, Lescar J, Ng M. Inhibition of West Nile virus entry by using a recombinant domain III from the envelope glycoprotein. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:405-12 pubmed
    ..In this study, the involvement of domain III of West Nile virus (WNV-DIII) envelope protein in binding to host cell surface was investigated...
  22. Chung K, Nybakken G, Thompson B, Engle M, Marri A, Fremont D, et al. Antibodies against West Nile Virus nonstructural protein NS1 prevent lethal infection through Fc gamma receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Virol. 2006;80:1340-51 pubmed
    ..In this study, we purified a recombinant, secreted form of West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 glycoprotein from baculovirus-infected insect cells and generated 22 new NS1-specific monoclonal ..
  23. Samuel M, Diamond M. Alpha/beta interferon protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by restricting cellular tropism and enhancing neuronal survival. J Virol. 2005;79:13350-61 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is neurotropic in humans, birds, and other animals...
  24. Beasley D, Whiteman M, Zhang S, Huang C, Schneider B, Smith D, et al. Envelope protein glycosylation status influences mouse neuroinvasion phenotype of genetic lineage 1 West Nile virus strains. J Virol. 2005;79:8339-47 pubmed
    The introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America has been associated with relatively high rates of neurological disease and death in humans, birds, horses, and some other animals...
  25. Ray D, Shah A, Tilgner M, Guo Y, Zhao Y, Dong H, et al. West Nile virus 5'-cap structure is formed by sequential guanine N-7 and ribose 2'-O methylations by nonstructural protein 5. J Virol. 2006;80:8362-70 pubmed
    ..Using West Nile virus (WNV), we demonstrate, for the first time, that the nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) mediates both guanine N-7 ..
  26. Samuel M, Diamond M. Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus infection: a balance between virulence, innate and adaptive immunity, and viral evasion. J Virol. 2006;80:9349-60 pubmed
  27. Westaway E, MacKenzie J, Kenney M, Jones M, Khromykh A. Ultrastructure of Kunjin virus-infected cells: colocalization of NS1 and NS3 with double-stranded RNA, and of NS2B with NS3, in virus-induced membrane structures. J Virol. 1997;71:6650-61 pubmed
    ..The collection of induced membranes may represent virus factories in which translation, RNA synthesis, and virus assembly occur. ..
  28. Khromykh A, Sedlak P, Westaway E. cis- and trans-acting elements in flavivirus RNA replication. J Virol. 2000;74:3253-63 pubmed
    ....
  29. Mukhopadhyay S, Kim B, Chipman P, Rossmann M, Kuhn R. Structure of West Nile virus. Science. 2003;302:248 pubmed
  30. Wang T, Anderson J, Magnarelli L, Wong S, Koski R, Fikrig E. Immunization of mice against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein. J Immunol. 2001;167:5273-7 pubmed
    ..Passive administration of E protein antisera was also sufficient to afford immunity. E protein is a candidate vaccine to prevent WN virus infection...
  31. Ren J, Ding T, Zhang W, Song J, Ma W. Does Japanese encephalitis virus share the same cellular receptor with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses on the C6/36 mosquito cells?. Virol J. 2007;4:83 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated that the similar molecules present on the mosquito cells involved in the uptake process of JEV, West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue virus (DV), it is proposed that the same receptor molecules for mosquito-borne flaviviruses (..
  32. Williamson P, Custer B, Biggerstaff B, Lanciotti R, Sayers M, Eason S, et al. Incidence of West Nile virus infection in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area during the 2012 epidemic. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2536-2544 pubmed publisher
    The 2012 West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic was the largest since 2003 and the North Texas region was the most heavily impacted...
  33. Fredericksen B, Gale M. West Nile virus evades activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 through RIG-I-dependent and -independent pathways without antagonizing host defense signaling. J Virol. 2006;80:2913-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that West Nile virus NY (WNV-NY) delays activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), a transcription factor critical to ..
  34. Skehel J, Wiley D. Coiled coils in both intracellular vesicle and viral membrane fusion. Cell. 1998;95:871-4 pubmed
  35. Cui J, Zhao Y, Wang H, Qiu B, Cao Z, Li Q, et al. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis...
  36. Seidah N. Unexpected similarity between the cytosolic West Nile virus NS3 and the secretory furin-like serine proteinases. Biochem J. 2006;393:e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Biochemical Journal, Strongin and co-workers report that the NS3 protease from West Nile virus unexpectedly cleaves certain substrates at pairs of basic residues, a specificity that resembles that of the ..
  37. Marini G, Rosa R, Pugliese A, Heesterbeek H. Exploring vector-borne infection ecology in multi-host communities: A case study of West Nile virus. J Theor Biol. 2017;415:58-69 pubmed publisher
    ..As a prototypical example, we apply our model to study the invasion and spread, during a typical season, of West Nile virus in an ecosystem composed of two competent avian host species and possibly of dead-end host species...
  38. Plante J, Torres M, Huang C, Beasley D. Plasticity of a critical antigenic determinant in the West Nile virus NY99 envelope protein domain III. Virology. 2016;496:97-105 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes febrile illness, encephalitis, and occasionally death in humans...
  39. Farkas J, Gourley S, Liu R, Yakubu A. Modelling Wolbachia infection in a sex-structured mosquito population carrying West Nile virus. J Math Biol. 2017;75:621-647 pubmed publisher
    ..We also extend the model to incorporate West Nile virus (WNv) dynamics, using an SEI modelling approach...
  40. Glasner D, Ratnasiri K, Puerta Guardo H, Espinosa D, Beatty P, Harris E. Dengue virus NS1 cytokine-independent vascular leak is dependent on endothelial glycocalyx components. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006673 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, we demonstrated that DENV NS1 but not the closely-related West Nile virus NS1 triggers localized vascular leak in the dorsal dermis of wild-type C57BL/6 mice...
  41. Faverjon C, Vial F, Andersson M, Lecollinet S, Leblond A. Early detection of West Nile virus in France: quantitative assessment of syndromic surveillance system using nervous signs in horses. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:1044-1057 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a growing public health concern in Europe and there is a need to develop more efficient early detection systems...
  42. Liu W, Chen H, Wang X, Huang H, Khromykh A. Analysis of adaptive mutations in Kunjin virus replicon RNA reveals a novel role for the flavivirus nonstructural protein NS2A in inhibition of beta interferon promoter-driven transcription. J Virol. 2004;78:12225-35 pubmed publisher
    ....
  43. Hammami S, Hassine T, Conte A, Amdouni J, De Massis F, Sghaier S, et al. West Nile disease in Tunisia: an overview of 60 years. Vet Ital. 2017;53:225-234 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne virus of public health importance. The virus is a member of the genus Flavivirus and belongs to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antigenic complex under the Flaviviridae family...
  44. Gorman M, Poddar S, Farzan M, Diamond M. The Interferon-Stimulated Gene Ifitm3 Restricts West Nile Virus Infection and Pathogenesis. J Virol. 2016;90:8212-25 pubmed publisher
    ..in vivo in restricting viral pathogenesis, we investigated its significance as an antiviral gene against West Nile virus (WNV), an encephalitic flavivirus, in cells and mice...
  45. Amara Korba R, Alayat M, Bouiba L, Boudrissa A, Bouslama Z, Boukraa S, et al. Ecological differentiation of members of the Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever virus in Algeria. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:455 pubmed publisher
    ..p. pipiens mating and reproduction. Consequences for pathogen transmission are discussed. ..
  46. Paul A, Acharya D, Le L, Wang P, Stokic D, Leis A, et al. TLR8 Couples SOCS-1 and Restrains TLR7-Mediated Antiviral Immunity, Exacerbating West Nile Virus Infection in Mice. J Immunol. 2016;197:4425-4435 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic ssRNA flavivirus that can cause encephalitis, meningitis, and death in humans and mice. Human TLR7 and TLR8 and mouse TLR7 recognize viral ssRNA motifs and induce antiviral immunity...
  47. Tan C, Hobson Peters J, Stoermer M, Fairlie D, Khromykh A, Hall R. An interaction between the methyltransferase and RNA dependent RNA polymerase domains of the West Nile virus NS5 protein. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1961-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These genetic interactions are consistent with structural modelling of these domains in West Nile virus (WNV) NS5 that predict close proximity of these regions of the two domains, and potentially a functional ..
  48. Goh G, Dunker A, Uversky V. Correlating Flavivirus virulence and levels of intrinsic disorder in shell proteins: protective roles vs. immune evasion. Mol Biosyst. 2016;12:1881-91 pubmed publisher
    ..most virulent TBEV FE subtype has the second highest PID score due to its C protein, and the least virulent West Nile virus (WNV) has the least disordered C protein...
  49. Grubaugh N, Ebel G. Dynamics of West Nile virus evolution in mosquito vectors. Curr Opin Virol. 2016;21:132-138 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus remains the most common cause of arboviral encephalitis in North America. Since it was introduced, it has undergone adaptive genetic change as it spread throughout the continent...
  50. Schmid E, Pang I, Carrera Silva E, Bosurgi L, Miner J, Diamond M, et al. AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is required for T cell priming and antiviral immunity. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that ablation of AXL enhances the susceptibility to infection by influenza A virus and West Nile virus. The increased type I IFN response in Axl(-/-) mice was associated with diminished DC maturation, reduced ..
  51. Hall Mendelin S, McLean B, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Hobson Peters J, Hall R, van den Hurk A. The insect-specific Palm Creek virus modulates West Nile virus infection in and transmission by Australian mosquitoes. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:414 pubmed publisher
    ..of this virus in key Australian arbovirus vectors and its impact on replication and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV)...
  52. Mastrangelo E, Milani M, Bollati M, Selisko B, Peyrane F, Pandini V, et al. Crystal structure and activity of Kunjin virus NS3 helicase; protease and helicase domain assembly in the full length NS3 protein. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:444-55 pubmed publisher
    ..of the NS3 helicase domain (residues 186-619; NS3:186-619) from Kunjin virus, an Australian variant of the West Nile virus. As for homologous helicases, NS3:186-619 is composed of three domains, two of which are structurally related ..
  53. Boone J, Balasuriya U, Karaca K, Audonnet J, Yao J, He L, et al. Recombinant canarypox virus vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the VP2 and VP5 outer capsid proteins of bluetongue virus induces high level protection in sheep. Vaccine. 2007;25:672-8 pubmed publisher
    ..sheep (n=5) immunized with a commercial recombinant canarypox virus vector expressing the E and preM genes of West Nile virus were seronegative to BTV and developed pyrexia, lymphopenia, and extended, high-titered viremias following ..
  54. Liu W, Wang X, Clark D, Lobigs M, Hall R, Khromykh A. A single amino acid substitution in the West Nile virus nonstructural protein NS2A disables its ability to inhibit alpha/beta interferon induction and attenuates virus virulence in mice. J Virol. 2006;80:2396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..In a previous study using subgenomic replicons of the Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus (WNV(KUN)), we demonstrated that the nonstructural protein NS2A is a major inhibitor of IFN-beta promoter-..
  55. Shrestha B, Samuel M, Diamond M. CD8+ T cells require perforin to clear West Nile virus from infected neurons. J Virol. 2006;80:119-29 pubmed publisher
    Injury to neurons after West Nile virus (WNV) infection is believed to occur because of viral and host immune-mediated effects...
  56. Ebel G, Carricaburu J, Young D, Bernard K, Kramer L. Genetic and phenotypic variation of West Nile virus in New York, 2000-2003. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:493-500 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) strains circulating during the first five years of WNV transmission in New York were collected, partial nucleotide sequences were determined, and in vitro and in vivo phenotypic analyses of selected strains were ..
  57. Banerjee S, Perelson A, Moses M. Modelling the effects of phylogeny and body size on within-host pathogen replication and immune response. J R Soc Interface. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny...
  58. Beasley D, Barrett A. Identification of neutralizing epitopes within structural domain III of the West Nile virus envelope protein. J Virol. 2002;76:13097-100 pubmed
    ..antibodies, we have mapped epitopes in domain III of the envelope protein of the New York strain of West Nile virus. The ability of monoclonal antibodies that recognize these epitopes to neutralize virus appeared to differ ..
  59. Liang G, Li X, Gao X, Fu S, Wang H, Li M, et al. Arboviruses and their related infections in China: A comprehensive field and laboratory investigation over the last 3 decades. Rev Med Virol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, West Nile virus, and Tahyna virus can cause human and animal infections and disease epidemics in China...
  60. Giel Moloney M, Vaine M, Zhang L, Parrington M, Gajewska B, Vogel T, et al. Application of replication-defective West Nile virus vector to non-flavivirus vaccine targets. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017;13:2982-2986 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the utility of RV vectors for development of vaccines against non-flavivirus targets including rabies and HIV...
  61. Chawla R, Pundlik G, Chaudhry R, Thakur C. Rickettsial retinitis: Direct bacterial infection or an immune-mediated response?. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:1038-1041 pubmed publisher
    Infectious retinitis postfebrile illness is known to be caused by chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, Bartonella, Lyme's disease, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia, Herpes viruses etc...
  62. Giordano D, Draves K, Young L, Roe K, Bryan M, Dresch C, et al. Protection of mice deficient in mature B cells from West Nile virus infection by passive and active immunization. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006743 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a West Nile virus (WNV) challenge model that requires antibodies (Abs) for protection, we found that unlike wild-type (WT) mice,..
  63. Paternoster G, Babo Martins S, Mattivi A, Cagarelli R, Angelini P, Bellini R, et al. Economics of One Health: Costs and benefits of integrated West Nile virus surveillance in Emilia-Romagna. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188156 pubmed publisher
    ..animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission via blood transfusion...
  64. Hesson J, Schafer M, Lundstrom J. First report on human-biting Culex pipiens in Sweden. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:632 pubmed
    ..are vectors of several bird-hosted arboviruses that cause outbreaks in Europe, such as Sindbis virus and West Nile virus. Recently, the human-biting form of Culex pipiens, Cx...
  65. Islam F, Gopalan V, Lam A. RETREG1 (FAM134B): a new player in human diseases: 15 years after the discovery in cancer. J Cell Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Selective cleavage of FAM134B by Dengue, Zika and West Nile virus encoded protease NS2B3 leads to the increased production of infection units, whereas upregulation of FAM134B ..
  66. Gorbalenya A, Donchenko A, Koonin E, Blinov V. N-terminal domains of putative helicases of flavi- and pestiviruses may be serine proteases. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:3889-97 pubmed
    ..The protease domain is probably involved in the processing of viral non-structural proteins...
  67. Yang J, Ramanathan M, Muthumani K, Choo A, Jin S, Yu Q, et al. Induction of inflammation by West Nile virus capsid through the caspase-9 apoptotic pathway. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1379-84 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family of vector-borne pathogens. Clinical signs of WNV infection include neurologic symptoms, limb weakness, and encephalitis, which can result in paralysis or death...
  68. Taylor T, Diaz F, Colgrove R, Bernard K, DeLuca N, Whelan S, et al. Production of immunogenic West Nile virus-like particles using a herpes simplex virus 1 recombinant vector. Virology. 2016;496:186-193 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that swept rapidly across North America in 1999, declined in prevalence, and then resurged in 2012. To date, no vaccine is available to prevent infection in the human population...
  69. Pliego Zamora A, Edmonds J, Reynolds M, Khromykh A, Ralph S. The in vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of combined monoterpene alcohols against West Nile virus infection. Virology. 2016;495:18-32 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause neuroinvasive disease in humans and animals for which no therapies are currently available...
  70. Benarroch D, Selisko B, Locatelli G, Maga G, Romette J, Canard B. The RNA helicase, nucleotide 5'-triphosphatase, and RNA 5'-triphosphatase activities of Dengue virus protein NS3 are Mg2+-dependent and require a functional Walker B motif in the helicase catalytic core. Virology. 2004;328:208-18 pubmed publisher
    ..DV RTPase seems to belong to a new class of Mg2+-dependent RTPases, which use the active center of the helicase/NTPase catalytic core in conjunction with elements in the C-terminal domain...
  71. Modis Y, Ogata S, Clements D, Harrison S. Variable surface epitopes in the crystal structure of dengue virus type 3 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 2005;79:1223-31 pubmed publisher
    ....
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    ..Moreover, the conserved motif, 184RKRK, of NS3 played a crucial role in binding to RNA substrate and modulating the NTPase/RNA helicase and RTPase activities of NS3...
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    ..NV-3 was the most prominent virus-specified protein found in the plasma membrane...
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    ..first to get serious complications from emerging infections like the recent waves of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, and Dengue virus...
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    ..We propose a model for the interaction of dengue C protein with RNA and the viral membrane that is based on the asymmetric charge distribution of the protein and is consistent with previously reported results...
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    b>West Nile virus-associated disease is one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases in the world. In Morocco, the first cases were reported in horses in 1996 and the disease re-emerged in 2003 and in 2010...
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    The West Nile virus (WNV), isolated in 1937, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that infects thousands of people each year. Despite its burden on global health, little is known about the virus' biological and evolutionary dynamics...
  78. Richter J, Tryfonos C, Tourvas A, Floridou D, Paphitou N, Christodoulou C. Complete Genome Sequence of West Nile Virus (WNV) from the First Human Case of Neuroinvasive WNV Infection in Cyprus. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    We report here the complete genome sequence of a West Nile virus (WNV) strain from the first laboratory-confirmed human case of neuroinvasive WNV infection in Cyprus...
  79. Groen T, L Ambert G, Bellini R, Chaskopoulou A, Petrić D, Zgomba M, et al. Ecology of West Nile virus across four European countries: empirical modelling of the Culex pipiens abundance dynamics as a function of weather. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10:524 pubmed publisher
    Culex pipiens is the major vector of West Nile virus in Europe, and is causing frequent outbreaks throughout the southern part of the continent...
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    b>West Nile virus (WNV) infections are predominantly asymptomatic, although almost 1% become neuroinvasive and debilitating...
  81. DeLisi N, Ottea J, Healy K. Susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern Louisiana to Larval Insecticides. J Econ Entomol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..against both larval and adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), the primary vector of West Nile virus in the southern United States. However, the development of resistant populations of Cx...
  82. Davis C, Nguyen H, Hanna S, S nchez M, Doms R, Pierson T. West Nile virus discriminates between DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR for cellular attachment and infection. J Virol. 2006;80:1290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated whether these lectins could enhance cellular infection by West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus related to dengue virus...
  83. Al Jabi S. Global research trends in West Nile virus from 1943 to 2016: a bibliometric analysis. Global Health. 2017;13:55 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging infectious disease which is most commonly transmitted to humans through mosquito, and is considered a major public-health problem worldwide...
  84. Athar P, Hasbun R, Nolan M, Salazar L, Woods S, Sheikh K, et al. Long-term neuromuscular outcomes of west nile virus infection: A clinical and electromyographic evaluation of patients with a history of infection. Muscle Nerve. 2018;57:77-82 pubmed publisher
    Neuromuscular clinical manifestations during acute West Nile virus (WNV) infection are well documented; however, long-term neurologic outcomes still require investigation.
  85. Petersen L, Hayes E. West Nile virus in the Americas. Med Clin North Am. 2008;92:1307-22, ix pubmed
    Since the first detection of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere in 1999, the virus has spread rapidly across the North American continent and as far south as Argentina...
  86. Zhao J, Vijay R, Zhao J, Gale M, Diamond M, Perlman S. MAVS Expressed by Hematopoietic Cells Is Critical for Control of West Nile Virus Infection and Pathogenesis. J Virol. 2016;90:7098-108 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America...
  87. Li C, Liu J, Shaozhou W, Bai X, Zhang Q, Hua R, et al. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed
    ..YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas 221LD/NLPW225 was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and corresponded to conserved and variable ..
  88. Reid C, Hobman T. The nucleolar helicase DDX56 redistributes to West Nile virus assembly sites. Virology. 2017;500:169-177 pubmed publisher
    Flaviviruses, including the human pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV), are known to co-opt many host factors for their replication and propagation...
  89. Setoh Y, Periasamy P, Peng N, Amarilla A, Slonchak A, Khromykh A. Helicase Domain of West Nile Virus NS3 Protein Plays a Role in Inhibition of Type I Interferon Signalling. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that can cause encephalitis in mammalian and avian hosts...
  90. Lund M, Shearn Bochsler V, Dusek R, Shivers J, Hofmeister E. Potential for Waterborne and Invertebrate Transmission of West Nile Virus in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017;83: pubmed publisher
    ..During the die-off, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) or viral culture in the carcasses of grebes and ..
  91. Nomaguchi M, Teramoto T, Yu L, Markoff L, Padmanabhan R. Requirements for West Nile virus (-)- and (+)-strand subgenomic RNA synthesis in vitro by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase expressed in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..b>West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne member, is a rapidly re-emerging human pathogen in the United States since its first ..
  92. Brostoff T, Pesavento P, Barker C, Kenney J, Dietrich E, Duggal N, et al. MicroRNA reduction of neuronal West Nile virus replication attenuates and affords a protective immune response in mice. Vaccine. 2016;34:5366-5375 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is an important agent of human encephalitis that has quickly become endemic across much of the United States since its identification in North America in 1999...