Hepatitis B virus

Summary

Alias: Human hepatitis B virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis B virus HBV, hepatitis B virus, HBV, human hepatitis B virus HBV, HBV

Top Publications

  1. Tang H, Oishi N, Kaneko S, Murakami S. Molecular functions and biological roles of hepatitis B virus x protein. Cancer Sci. 2006;97:977-83 pubmed
    Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the world...
  2. Cassino L, Laufer N, Salomon H, Campos R, Quarleri J. Hepatitis B precore/core promoter mutations in isolates from HBV-monoinfected and HBV-HIV coinfected patients: a 3-yr prospective study. J Clin Virol. 2009;46:354-9 pubmed publisher
    The course of chronic HBV infection is modified by HIV-coexistence. To analyze the role of HBV genomic heterogeneity in basal core promoter (BCP) and precore (Pc) genomic regions. In a 3-yr prospective study, 39 HBV infected patients (20 m..
  3. Kim J, Jung Y, Joo M, Kim J, Yim H, Park J, et al. Hepatitis B viral surface mutations in patients with adefovir resistant chronic hepatitis B with A181T/V polymerase mutations. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:257-64 pubmed publisher
    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase gene has overlapping reading frames with surface genes, which allows to alter the amino acid codon of the surface genes...
  4. Veazjalali M, Norder H, Magnius L, Jazayeri S, Alavian S, Mokhtari Azad T. A new core promoter mutation and premature stop codon in the S gene in HBV strains from Iranian patients with cirrhosis. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:259-64 pubmed publisher
    In order to define hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutational patterns in Iran, nucleotide sequences obtained from 91 patients and encompassing the precore, basal core promoter (BCP) and surface (S) regions, were compared...
  5. van B mmel F, Trojan J, Deterding K, Wedemeyer H, Wasmuth H, H ppe D, et al. Evolution of adefovir-resistant HBV polymerase gene variants after switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy. Antivir Ther. 2012;17:1049-58 pubmed publisher
    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an acyclic nucleotide analogue was shown to be effective in many HBV-infected patients with resistance to adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)...
  6. Lu H, Zhou J. HBV X gene transfection upregulates IL-1beta and IL-6 gene expression and induces rat glomerular mesangial cell proliferation. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2008;28:247-50 pubmed publisher
    The X gene of HBV encodes a 17-kD protein, termed HBx, which has been shown to function as a transcriptional trans-activator of a variety of viral and cellular promoter/enhancer elements...
  7. Wang Y, Jiang L, Ji X, Yang B, Zhang Y, Fu X. Hepatitis B viral RNA directly mediates down-regulation of the tumor suppressor microRNA miR-15a/miR-16-1 in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18484-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a key risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  8. Zhu Y, Zhu R, Fan J, Pan Q, Li H, Chen Q, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein induces hypermethylation of p16(INK4A) promoter via DNA methyltransferases in the early stage of HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17:98-107 pubmed publisher
    ..methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) in the process of HBx induced p16(INK4A) promoter hypermethylation in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their corresponding noncancerous liver tissues...
  9. Mohamadkhani A, Jazii F, Poustchi H, Nouraein O, Abbasi S, Sotoudeh M, et al. The role of mutations in core protein of hepatitis B virus in liver fibrosis. Virol J. 2009;6:209 pubmed publisher
    The core protein of hepatitis B virus encompasses B- and T-cell immunodominant epitopes and subdivided into two domains: the N-terminal and the functional C-terminal consisted phosphorylation sites...
  10. Sung W, Lu Y, Lee C, Zhang D, Ronaghi M, Lee C. Deregulated direct targets of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) protein, HBx, identified through chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression microarray profiling. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21941-54 pubmed publisher
    ..factor targets of HBx will enhance our understanding of the role of HBx in hepatocellular carcinogenesis and facilitate the design of better strategies in combating hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

Detail Information

Publications93

  1. Tang H, Oishi N, Kaneko S, Murakami S. Molecular functions and biological roles of hepatitis B virus x protein. Cancer Sci. 2006;97:977-83 pubmed
    Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the world...
  2. Cassino L, Laufer N, Salomon H, Campos R, Quarleri J. Hepatitis B precore/core promoter mutations in isolates from HBV-monoinfected and HBV-HIV coinfected patients: a 3-yr prospective study. J Clin Virol. 2009;46:354-9 pubmed publisher
    The course of chronic HBV infection is modified by HIV-coexistence. To analyze the role of HBV genomic heterogeneity in basal core promoter (BCP) and precore (Pc) genomic regions. In a 3-yr prospective study, 39 HBV infected patients (20 m..
  3. Kim J, Jung Y, Joo M, Kim J, Yim H, Park J, et al. Hepatitis B viral surface mutations in patients with adefovir resistant chronic hepatitis B with A181T/V polymerase mutations. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:257-64 pubmed publisher
    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase gene has overlapping reading frames with surface genes, which allows to alter the amino acid codon of the surface genes...
  4. Veazjalali M, Norder H, Magnius L, Jazayeri S, Alavian S, Mokhtari Azad T. A new core promoter mutation and premature stop codon in the S gene in HBV strains from Iranian patients with cirrhosis. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:259-64 pubmed publisher
    In order to define hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutational patterns in Iran, nucleotide sequences obtained from 91 patients and encompassing the precore, basal core promoter (BCP) and surface (S) regions, were compared...
  5. van B mmel F, Trojan J, Deterding K, Wedemeyer H, Wasmuth H, H ppe D, et al. Evolution of adefovir-resistant HBV polymerase gene variants after switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy. Antivir Ther. 2012;17:1049-58 pubmed publisher
    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an acyclic nucleotide analogue was shown to be effective in many HBV-infected patients with resistance to adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)...
  6. Lu H, Zhou J. HBV X gene transfection upregulates IL-1beta and IL-6 gene expression and induces rat glomerular mesangial cell proliferation. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2008;28:247-50 pubmed publisher
    The X gene of HBV encodes a 17-kD protein, termed HBx, which has been shown to function as a transcriptional trans-activator of a variety of viral and cellular promoter/enhancer elements...
  7. Wang Y, Jiang L, Ji X, Yang B, Zhang Y, Fu X. Hepatitis B viral RNA directly mediates down-regulation of the tumor suppressor microRNA miR-15a/miR-16-1 in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18484-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a key risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  8. Zhu Y, Zhu R, Fan J, Pan Q, Li H, Chen Q, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein induces hypermethylation of p16(INK4A) promoter via DNA methyltransferases in the early stage of HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17:98-107 pubmed publisher
    ..methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) in the process of HBx induced p16(INK4A) promoter hypermethylation in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their corresponding noncancerous liver tissues...
  9. Mohamadkhani A, Jazii F, Poustchi H, Nouraein O, Abbasi S, Sotoudeh M, et al. The role of mutations in core protein of hepatitis B virus in liver fibrosis. Virol J. 2009;6:209 pubmed publisher
    The core protein of hepatitis B virus encompasses B- and T-cell immunodominant epitopes and subdivided into two domains: the N-terminal and the functional C-terminal consisted phosphorylation sites...
  10. Sung W, Lu Y, Lee C, Zhang D, Ronaghi M, Lee C. Deregulated direct targets of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) protein, HBx, identified through chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression microarray profiling. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21941-54 pubmed publisher
    ..factor targets of HBx will enhance our understanding of the role of HBx in hepatocellular carcinogenesis and facilitate the design of better strategies in combating hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
  11. Gous N, Bhimma R, Kew M, Kramvis A. Retrospective characterization of the S open reading frame of HBV isolated from children with membranous nephropathy treated with interferon-alpha2b. Antivir Ther. 2010;15:61-9 pubmed publisher
    A causal relationship exists between HBV infection and membranous nephropathy. The association is especially close in Black children in sub-Saharan Africa...
  12. Xu J, Yun X, Jiang J, Wei Y, Wu Y, Zhang W, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein blunts senescence-like growth arrest of human hepatocellular carcinoma by reducing Notch1 cleavage. Hepatology. 2010;52:142-54 pubmed publisher
    One of the serious sequelae of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  13. Guo Y, Li Y, Zhao J, Zhang J, Yan Z. HBc binds to the CpG islands of HBV cccDNA and promotes an epigenetic permissive state. Epigenetics. 2011;6:720-6 pubmed
    b>HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is the template for the transcription of HBV. HBV core protein (HBc) is a main component of the HBV cccDNA minichromosome. However, the function of HBc in cccDNA is not fully understood...
  14. Borroto Esoda K, Miller M, Arterburn S. Pooled analysis of amino acid changes in the HBV polymerase in patients from four major adefovir dipivoxil clinical trials. J Hepatol. 2007;47:492-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients from ADV studies (n=998) were screened for viral breakthrough and/or insufficient HBV DNA suppression after at least 48 weeks of ADV therapy [virologic failure, VF]...
  15. Lei Y, Liu H, Yang Y, Wang X, Ren N, Li B, et al. Interaction of LHBs with C53 promotes hepatocyte mitotic entry: A novel mechanism for HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:151-9 pubmed publisher
    The pre-S mutant LHBs, especially the pre-S2 type, is believed to be crucial in HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism of HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma is not fully understood...
  16. Kitab B, Essaid El Feydi A, Afifi R, Trepo C, Benazzouz M, Essamri W, et al. Variability in the precore and core promoter regions of HBV strains in Morocco: characterization and impact on liver disease progression. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42891 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most common human pathogens that cause aggressive hepatitis and advanced liver disease (AdLD), including liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma...
  17. Sanz Cameno P, Mart n V lchez S, Lara Pezzi E, Borque M, Salmer n J, Mu oz de Rueda P, et al. Hepatitis B virus promotes angiopoietin-2 expression in liver tissue: role of HBV x protein. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:1215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein transactivator (HBx) may play a significant role in both processes...
  18. Lu H, Zhu H, Zhou J. S gene mutations of HBV in children with HBV-associated glomerulonephritis. Virol J. 2012;9:59 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN) is a kind of immune complex-induced glomerulonephritis...
  19. Ji D, Liu Y, Li L, Xu Z, Si L, Dai J, et al. The rtL229 substitutions in the reverse transcriptase region of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase are potentially associated with lamivudine resistance as a compensatory mutation. J Clin Virol. 2012;54:66-72 pubmed publisher
    It remains unclear whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) reverse-transcriptase (RT) rtL229 substitutions influence HBV drug resistance. ..
  20. You X, Liu F, Zhang T, Li Y, Ye L, Zhang X. Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates oncogene Rab18 to result in the dysregulation of lipogenesis and proliferation of hepatoma cells. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:1644-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) contributes to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through inducing dysregulation of lipogenesis. However, the mechanism by which HBx induces the abnormal lipogenesis is not well known...
  21. Jaroszewicz J, Reiberger T, Meyer Olson D, Mauss S, Vogel M, Ingiliz P, et al. Hepatitis B surface antigen concentrations in patients with HIV/HBV co-infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43143 pubmed publisher
    HBsAg clearance is associated with clinical cure of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Quantification of HBsAg may help to predict HBsAg clearance during the natural course of HBV infection and during antiviral therapy...
  22. Wu F, Wu M, Zhuge X, Zhu S, ZHu B. Correlation of the occurrence of YMDD mutations with HBV genotypes, HBV-DNA levels, and HBeAg status in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B during lamivudine treatment. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2012;11:172-6 pubmed
    ..The current study explores the association of the emergence of YMDD mutations with pretherapy HBV genotype, HBV-DNA levels, HBeAg status, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in Chinese patients ..
  23. Li B, Gao B, Ye L, Han X, Wang W, Kong L, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) activates ATF6 and IRE1-XBP1 pathways of unfolded protein response. Virus Res. 2007;124:44-9 pubmed
    Numerous viruses including hepatitis B virus (HBV) induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which interrupts protein folding causing accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in ER...
  24. DiMattia M, Watts N, Stahl S, Grimes J, Steven A, Stuart D, et al. Antigenic switching of hepatitis B virus by alternative dimerization of the capsid protein. Structure. 2013;21:133-142 pubmed publisher
    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection afflicts millions worldwide with cirrhosis and liver cancer...
  25. Hong A, Han D, Wright C, Burch T, Piper J, Osiowy C, et al. The interaction between hepatitis B virus X protein and AIB1 oncogene is required for the activation of NFκB signal transduction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;423:6-12 pubmed publisher
    We identified the interaction between HBV X (HBx) protein and the oncogene AIB1 (amplified in breast cancer 1). A serine/proline motif (SSPSPS) in HBx was found to be required for the interaction...
  26. Liu X, Wang L, Zhang S, Lin J, Zhang S, Feitelson M, et al. Mutations in the C-terminus of the X protein of hepatitis B virus regulate Wnt-5a expression in hepatoma Huh7 cells: cDNA microarray and proteomic analyses. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1207-14 pubmed publisher
    The hepatitis B virus x gene (HBx) is a promiscuous transactivator implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study was designed to investigate the molecular events regulated by HBx...
  27. Bouchard M, Wang L, Schneider R. Activation of focal adhesion kinase by hepatitis B virus HBx protein: multiple functions in viral replication. J Virol. 2006;80:4406-14 pubmed
    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) is a multifunctional regulator of cellular signal transduction and transcription pathways and has a critical role in HBV replication...
  28. Kim H, Kim S, Kim J, Lee H, Choi M, Kim J, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein induces apoptosis by enhancing translocation of Bax to mitochondria. IUBMB Life. 2008;60:473-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is essential for viral replication and plays an important role in viral pathogenesis...
  29. Datta S, Banerjee A, Chandra P, Biswas A, Panigrahi R, Mahapatra P, et al. Analysis of hepatitis B virus X gene phylogeny, genetic variability and its impact on pathogenesis: implications in Eastern Indian HBV carriers. Virology. 2008;382:190-8 pubmed publisher
    HBx genetic variability was explored in the Eastern Indian population with low HCC incidence. DNase I sensitive HBV DNA was detected in 53% samples, which differed significantly between clinical groups (P<0.001)...
  30. Yu S, Chen J, Wu M, Chen H, Kato N, Yuan Z. Hepatitis B virus polymerase inhibits RIG-I- and Toll-like receptor 3-mediated beta interferon induction in human hepatocytes through interference with interferon regulatory factor 3 activation and dampening of the interaction between TBK1/IKKepsilon. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2080-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains one of the most serious health problems worldwide...
  31. Poustchi H, Mohamadkhani A, Bowden S, Montazeri G, Ayres A, Revill P, et al. Clinical significance of precore and core promoter mutations in genotype D hepatitis B-related chronic liver disease. J Viral Hepat. 2008;15:753-60 pubmed publisher
    The impact of mutations in the precore and basal core promoter (BCP) regions of the hepatitis B virus on the course of chronic liver disease is not well established...
  32. Kim K, Shin H, Kim K, Choi H, Rhee S, Moon H, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein induces hepatic steatosis via transcriptional activation of SREBP1 and PPARgamma. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:1955-67 pubmed
    Hepatic steatosis occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection...
  33. Simonetti J, Bulkow L, McMahon B, Homan C, Snowball M, Negus S, et al. Clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a cohort chronically infected with hepatitis B virus. Hepatology. 2010;51:1531-7 pubmed publisher
    Some individuals who are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) eventually lose hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been demonstrated to occur in a few patients after loss of HBsAg...
  34. Keasler V, Hodgson A, Madden C, Slagle B. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein localized to the nucleus restores HBx-deficient virus replication in HepG2 cells and in vivo in hydrodynamically-injected mice. Virology. 2009;390:122-9 pubmed publisher
    Identifying the requirements for the regulatory HBx protein in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is an important goal...
  35. Xu X, Fan Z, Kang L, Han J, Jiang C, Zheng X, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein represses miRNA-148a to enhance tumorigenesis. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:630-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that miR-148a is repressed by hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) to promote cancer growth and metastasis in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma (..
  36. Wang Q, Zhang W, Ye L, Zhang X. A mutant of HBx (HBxDelta127) promotes hepatoma cell growth via sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c involving 5-lipoxygenase. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:367-74 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we identified a natural mutant of hepatitis B virus X gene (HBx) with a deletion from 382 to 401 base pairs (termed HBxDelta127), which could potently enhance growth of hepatoma cells...
  37. Lim K, Kim K, Choi S, Park E, Park S, Ryu K, et al. RPS3a over-expressed in HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma enhances the HBx-induced NF-κB signaling via its novel chaperoning function. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22258 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is known to play a key role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  38. Zhang F, Wang Q, Ye L, Feng Y, Zhang X. Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates expression of calpain small subunit 1 via nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 in hepatoma cells. J Med Virol. 2010;82:920-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is closely correlated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in which hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays crucial roles. HBx is believed to be a multifunctional oncoprotein...
  39. Benhenda S, Cougot D, Buendia M, Neuveut C. Hepatitis B virus X protein molecular functions and its role in virus life cycle and pathogenesis. Adv Cancer Res. 2009;103:75-109 pubmed publisher
    Despite the existence of effective vaccines, HBV infection remains a major health problem with 2 billion people infected worldwide...
  40. Zhou Y, Wang S, Ma J, Lei Z, Zhu H, Lei P, et al. Hepatitis B virus protein X-induced expression of the CXC chemokine IP-10 is mediated through activation of NF-kappaB and increases migration of leukocytes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we demonstrate that hepatitis B virus protein X (HBx) increases IP-10 expression in a dose-dependent manner...
  41. Kim K, Kim K, Cheong J. Hepatitis B virus X protein impairs hepatic insulin signaling through degradation of IRS1 and induction of SOCS3. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8649 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of chronic liver diseases, and frequently results in hepatitis, cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. The role of HCV in associations with insulin signaling has been elucidated...
  42. Shan C, Xu F, Zhang S, You J, You X, Qiu L, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein promotes liver cell proliferation via a positive cascade loop involving arachidonic acid metabolism and p-ERK1/2. Cell Res. 2010;20:563-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a crucial role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we sought to identify the mechanisms by which HBx mediates liver cell proliferation...
  43. Wei Y, Neuveut C, Tiollais P, Buendia M. Molecular biology of the hepatitis B virus and role of the X gene. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2010;58:267-72 pubmed publisher
    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen and a major health problem in many countries...
  44. Zhu Y, Jin Y, Guo X, Bai X, Chen T, Wang J, et al. Comparison study on the complete sequence of hepatitis B virus identifies new mutations in core gene associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:2623-30 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome may influence the activity of liver disease. The aim of this study was to identify new viral variations associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  45. Wang X, Li Y, Mao A, Li C, Li Y, Tien P. Hepatitis B virus X protein suppresses virus-triggered IRF3 activation and IFN-beta induction by disrupting the VISA-associated complex. Cell Mol Immunol. 2010;7:341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that hepatitis B virus (HBV)-encoded X protein (HBx) acts as an inhibitor of virus-triggered IRF3 activation and IFN-beta induction...
  46. Bai X, Zhu Y, Jin Y, Guo X, Qian G, Chen T, et al. Temporal acquisition of sequential mutations in the enhancer II and basal core promoter of HBV in individuals at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:63-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the roles of mutations in enhancer II (Enh II) and basal core promoter (BCP) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we determined the sequence of Enh II/BCP in 152 HCC and 136 non-HCC patients from a ..
  47. Hodgson A, Hyser J, Keasler V, Cang Y, Slagle B. Hepatitis B virus regulatory HBx protein binding to DDB1 is required but is not sufficient for maximal HBV replication. Virology. 2012;426:73-82 pubmed publisher
    Robust hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is stimulated by the regulatory HBx protein. HBx binds the cellular protein DDB1; however, the importance of this interaction for HBV replication remains unknown...
  48. Gao J, Chen C, Hong L, Wang J, Du Y, Song J, et al. Expression of Jagged1 and its association with hepatitis B virus X protein in hepatocellular carcinoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;356:341-7 pubmed
    ..of Jagged1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been elucidated, nor whether it is associated with hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx). In this study, we found that Jagged1 was highly expressed in 79...
  49. Xie H, Song J, Liu K, Ji H, Shen H, Hu S, et al. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with patients' prognosis and hepatitis B virus X protein. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:3225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..HIF-1alpha expression was also found to be significantly correlated with the expression of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx), and over-expressed HBx upregulated HIF-1alpha protein expression in vitro...
  50. Ryu D, Kim S, Ryu W. Hepatitis B virus polymerase suppresses translation of pregenomic RNA via a mechanism involving its interaction with 5' stem-loop structure. Virology. 2008;373:112-23 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the P protein suppresses translation of the pgRNA via a mechanism involving its interaction with the 5' epsilon sequence, a finding that implicates the coordinated switch from translation to genome replication. ..
  51. Yu F, Liu H, Lee J, Liao M, Shih W. Hepatitis B virus X protein promotes cell migration by inducing matrix metalloproteinase-3. J Hepatol. 2005;42:520-7 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major causative agent of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), encodes an oncogenic X protein (HBx) that transcriptionally activates multiple viral and cellular promoters...
  52. Le T, Zhang S, Hayashi N, Yasukawa M, Delgermaa L, Murakami S. Mutational analysis of human RNA polymerase II subunit 5 (RPB5): the residues critical for interactions with TFIIF subunit RAP30 and hepatitis B virus X protein. J Biochem. 2005;138:215-24 pubmed
    ..b>Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) binds the central part of RPB5 to modulate activated transcription, and TFIIF subunit RAP30 ..
  53. Rakotomalala L, Studach L, Wang W, Gregori G, Hullinger R, Andrisani O. Hepatitis B virus X protein increases the Cdt1-to-geminin ratio inducing DNA re-replication and polyploidy. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:28729-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus X protein (pX) is implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis by an unknown mechanism...
  54. Fang Z, Sabin C, Dong B, Ge L, Wei S, Chen Q, et al. HBV A1762T, G1764A mutations are a valuable biomarker for identifying a subset of male HBsAg carriers at extremely high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:2254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We reported that 96% of HCC patients but only 24% of controls were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) with A(1762)T, G(1764)A mutations in Guangxi, China...
  55. Du J, Liang X, Liu Y, Qu Z, Gao L, Han L, et al. Hepatitis B virus core protein inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes by blocking DR5 expression. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:219-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis in hundreds of millions of people worldwide, which can eventually lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular mechanisms underlying HBV persistence are not well understood...
  56. Cha M, Ryu D, Jung H, Chang H, Ryu W. Stimulation of hepatitis B virus genome replication by HBx is linked to both nuclear and cytoplasmic HBx expression. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:978-86 pubmed publisher
    HBx, a small regulatory protein of hepatitis B virus, plays an important role in stimulating viral genome replication. HBx was shown to be associated with diverse subcellular locations, such as the nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria...
  57. Choi C, Cho E, Park R, Kim S, Cho J, Kim H. X gene mutations in hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis, with and without hepatocellular carcinoma. J Med Virol. 2009;81:1721-5 pubmed publisher
    Specific mutations in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome have been reported to be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  58. Yen C, Lin Y, Yen C, Tsai H, Tsai T, Chang K, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates mTOR signaling through IKKβ to increase cell proliferation and VEGF production in hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41931 pubmed publisher
    ..carcinoma (HCC), a major cause of cancer-related death in Southeast Asia, is frequently associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
  59. Wang M, Ding J, Liu Y. [A study in the Guizhou area on pre-S region mutations of hepatitis B virus]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2007;15:98-102 pubmed
    To study the relationships between hepatitis B virus (HBV ) pre-S region mutations and their genotypes and the stages of liver disease of the patients...
  60. Qadri I, Fatima K, Abdel Hafiz H. Hepatitis B virus X protein impedes the DNA repair via its association with transcription factor, TFIIH. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:48 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections play an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  61. Lee J, Kwun H, Jung J, Choi K, Min D, Jang K. Hepatitis B virus X protein represses E-cadherin expression via activation of DNA methyltransferase 1. Oncogene. 2005;24:6617-25 pubmed
    ..implicated as a tumor suppressor, which is frequently altered in hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related tumors...
  62. Jiao B, Lin W, She F, Chen W, Lin X. Hepatitis B virus X protein enhances activation of nuclear factor κB through interaction with valosin-containing protein. Arch Virol. 2011;156:2015-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx protein) is a multifunctional regulatory protein. The transactivation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by HBx protein has been shown to be of importance in the pathogenesis of HBV-related diseases...
  63. Mun H, Lee S, Kim H, Hwang E, Kook Y, Kim B. Novel F141L pre-S2 mutation in hepatitis B virus increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic genotype C infections. J Virol. 2011;85:123-32 pubmed publisher
    Several lines of evidence have suggested that some naturally occurring mutations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) play a critical role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we describe a novel HCC-related pre-S2 mutation, F141L...
  64. Park S, Chung C, Kang H, Kim J, Jung G. Up-regulation of cyclin D1 by HBx is mediated by NF-kappaB2/BCL3 complex through kappaB site of cyclin D1 promoter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31770-7 pubmed
    ..This HBx-mediated-cyclin D1 up-regulation might play an important role in the HBx-mediated HCC development and progression. ..
  65. Wang J, Yun C, Kim S, Chae S, Lee Y, Kim W, et al. Reactivation of p53 in cells expressing hepatitis B virus X-protein involves p53 phosphorylation and a reduction of Hdm2. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:888-93 pubmed publisher
    Multifunctional activities of the hepatitis B virus X-protein (HBx) in cells have been largely implicated in the development of liver cancer; one of these activities is the loss of p53 function by sequestering p53 in the cytoplasm...
  66. Wei C, Ni C, Song T, Liu Y, Yang X, Zheng Z, et al. The hepatitis B virus X protein disrupts innate immunity by downregulating mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein. J Immunol. 2010;185:1158-68 pubmed publisher
    ..For human hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis B s-Ag, hepatitis B e-Ag, or HBV virions have been shown to suppress TLR-induced ..
  67. Asim M, Malik A, Sarma M, Polipalli S, Begum N, Ahmad I, et al. Hepatitis B virus BCP, Precore/core, X gene mutations/genotypes and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in India. J Med Virol. 2010;82:1115-25 pubmed publisher
    The study aims to characterize mutations of the HBV genome involving BCP, Precore/core and X regions and also defines HBV genotypes in patients of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  68. Liu X, Zhang S, Lin J, Zhang S, Feitelson M, Gao H, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutants exhibit distinct biological activities in hepatoma Huh7 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;373:643-7 pubmed publisher
    The role of the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in hepatocarcinogenesis remains controversial...
  69. Chung T, Lee Y, Kim C. Hepatitis B viral HBx induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression through activation of ERK and PI-3K/AKT pathways: involvement of invasive potential. FASEB J. 2004;18:1123-5 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) has been shown to be essential for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  70. Wang W, Hullinger R, Andrisani O. Hepatitis B virus X protein via the p38MAPK pathway induces E2F1 release and ATR kinase activation mediating p53 apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25455-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (pX) is implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis by an unknown mechanism...
  71. Murata M, Matsuzaki K, Yoshida K, Sekimoto G, Tahashi Y, Mori S, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein shifts human hepatic transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling from tumor suppression to oncogenesis in early chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2009;49:1203-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein is suspected to participate in oncogenesis during chronic hepatitis B progression. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling involves both tumor suppression and oncogenesis...
  72. Lee T, Elledge S, Butel J. Hepatitis B virus X protein interacts with a probable cellular DNA repair protein. J Virol. 1995;69:1107-14 pubmed
    The mechanism of action of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein in transcriptional transactivation and in tumorigenesis remains obscure...
  73. Wei X, Xiang T, Ren G, Tan C, Liu R, Xu X, et al. miR-101 is down-regulated by the hepatitis B virus x protein and induces aberrant DNA methylation by targeting DNA methyltransferase 3A. Cell Signal. 2013;25:439-46 pubmed publisher
    The hepatitis B virus x (HBx) protein has been implicated in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis...
  74. Zhang X, Dong N, Yin L, Cai N, Ma H, You J, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates survivin expression in hepatoma tissues. J Med Virol. 2005;77:374-81 pubmed
    The hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The relationship was examined between HBV antigens and IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) family in development of HCC...
  75. Melegari M, Scaglioni P, Wands J. Cloning and characterization of a novel hepatitis B virus x binding protein that inhibits viral replication. J Virol. 1998;72:1737-43 pubmed
    The hepatitis B virus and the mammalian hepadnavirus genomes encode for a short open reading frame called x. Expression of the protein product (HBx) appears necessary for establishment of natural infection...
  76. Sze K, Chu G, Lee J, Ng I. C-terminal truncated hepatitis B virus x protein is associated with metastasis and enhances invasiveness by C-Jun/matrix metalloproteinase protein 10 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2013;57:131-9 pubmed publisher
    Random integration of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA into the host genome is frequent in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and this leads to truncation of the HBV DNA, particularly at the C-terminal end of the HBV X protein (HBx)...
  77. Qu L, Kuai X, Liu T, Chen T, Ni Z, Shen X. Pre-S deletion and complex mutations of hepatitis B virus related to young age hepatocellular carcinoma in Qidong, China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59583 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the roles of biomedical factors, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels, genotypes, and specific viral mutation patterns on the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients below 40 years of age in Qidong, China...
  78. Kim W, Hong F, Jaruga B, Zhang Z, Fan S, Liang T, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein sensitizes primary mouse hepatocytes to ethanol- and TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis by a caspase-3-dependent mechanism. Cell Mol Immunol. 2005;2:40-8 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we demonstrated that primary hepatocytes from transgenic mice overexpressing hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX) were more susceptible to ethanol- and TNF-alpha-induced apoptotic killing...
  79. Chauhan R, Kazim S, Bhattacharjee J, Sakhuja P, Sarin S. Basal core promoter, precore region mutations of HBV and their association with e antigen, genotype, and severity of liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis B in India. J Med Virol. 2006;78:1047-54 pubmed
    Spontaneous mutations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) could influence the severity of liver disease...
  80. Kuzhandaivelu N, Cong Y, Inouye C, Yang W, Seto E. XAP2, a novel hepatitis B virus X-associated protein that inhibits X transactivation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:4741-50 pubmed
    The hepatitis B virus X protein is a promiscuous transcriptional transactivator. Transactivation by the X protein is most likely mediated through binding to different cellular factors...
  81. Lee S, Mun H, Kim H, Lee H, Kim B, Hwang E, et al. Naturally occurring hepatitis B virus X deletions and insertions among Korean chronic patients. J Med Virol. 2011;83:65-70 pubmed publisher
    Deletions and insertions in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) X region have been associated with severe forms of liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  82. Lewellyn E, Loeb D. The arginine clusters of the carboxy-terminal domain of the core protein of hepatitis B virus make pleiotropic contributions to genome replication. J Virol. 2011;85:1298-309 pubmed publisher
    The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the core protein of hepatitis B virus is not necessary for capsid assembly. However, the CTD does contribute to encapsidation of pregenomic RNA (pgRNA)...
  83. Cheng A, Yu J, Lai P, Chan H, Sung J. COX-2 mediates hepatitis B virus X protein abrogation of p53-induced apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;374:175-80 pubmed publisher
    The oncogenic hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 are highly co-expressed in chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  84. Cao Z, Bai X, Guo X, Jin Y, Qian G, Tu H. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus pre-S mutation and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma in Qidong, China. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1807-12 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the frequency and the clinical relevance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S mutations in Qidong, China. The results showed HBV pre-S mutants were detected in 48.4% (47/97) of patients with HBV infection...
  85. CLIPPINGER A, Gearhart T, Bouchard M. Hepatitis B virus X protein modulates apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes by regulating both NF-kappaB and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. J Virol. 2009;83:4718-31 pubmed publisher
    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) is a multifunctional protein that regulates numerous cellular signal transduction pathways, including those that modulate apoptosis...
  86. Belloni L, Pollicino T, De Nicola F, Guerrieri F, Raffa G, Fanciulli M, et al. Nuclear HBx binds the HBV minichromosome and modifies the epigenetic regulation of cccDNA function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19975-9 pubmed publisher
    b>HBV cccDNA, the template for transcription of all viral mRNAs, accumulates in the nucleus of infected cells as a stable episome organized into minichromosomes by histones and non-histone viral and cellular proteins...
  87. Ren M, Qin D, Li K, Qu J, Wang L, Wang Z, et al. Correlation between hepatitis B virus protein and microRNA processor Drosha in cells expressing HBV. Antiviral Res. 2012;94:225-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis...
  88. Ou D, Tao Y, Tang F, Yang L. The hepatitis B virus X protein promotes hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1208-14 pubmed
    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which has a very high mortality rate due to high incidence of metastasis. It is unknown whether HBV contributes to HCC metastasis...
  89. Tong M, Blatt L, Kao J, Cheng J, Corey W. Basal core promoter T1762/A1764 and precore A1896 gene mutations in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparison with chronic carriers. Liver Int. 2007;27:1356-63 pubmed
    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and specific viral factors have been identified that may increase the risk for HCC development...
  90. Wang W, Studach L, Andrisani O. Proteins ZNF198 and SUZ12 are down-regulated in hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein-mediated hepatocyte transformation and in HBV replication. Hepatology. 2011;53:1137-47 pubmed publisher
    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major etiologic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis, involving effects of chronic liver inflammation and of the weakly oncogenic HBV X protein (pX)...
  91. Iyer S, Groopman J. Interaction of mutant hepatitis B X protein with p53 tumor suppressor protein affects both transcription and cell survival. Mol Carcinog. 2011;50:972-80 pubmed publisher
    This study examines the differential activities between wild-type Hepatitis B virus X protein (WtHBx) and a mutant HBx (MutHBx), which bears a hotspot mutation at nucleotides 1,762 and 1,764, resulting in a lysine to methionine change at ..
  92. Tsai W, Lo G, Hsu P, Lai K, Lin C, Chan H, et al. Role of genotype and precore/basal core promoter mutations of hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B with acute exacerbation. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..of long-term, follow-up studies show that the severity and frequency of acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) are associated with the development of liver cirrhosis in chronic HBV infection...
  93. Yin J, Xie J, Zhang H, Shen Q, Han L, Lu W, et al. Significant association of different preS mutations with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol. 2010;45:1063-71 pubmed publisher
    The associations of nucleotide substitution mutations in the preS region of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis remain unknown...