Influenza A virus (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1))

Summary

Alias: influenza A virus (A/goose/Guangdong/1/96/(H5N1))

Top Publications

  1. Maines T, Chen L, Van Hoeven N, Tumpey T, Blixt O, Belser J, et al. Effect of receptor binding domain mutations on receptor binding and transmissibility of avian influenza H5N1 viruses. Virology. 2011;413:139-47 pubmed publisher
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  2. Le Goffic R, Bouguyon E, Chevalier C, Vidic J, Da Costa B, Leymarie O, et al. Influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 exacerbates IFN-beta expression of human respiratory epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:4812-23 pubmed publisher
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  3. Schmolke M, Manicassamy B, Pena L, Sutton T, Hai R, Varga Z, et al. Differential contribution of PB1-F2 to the virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus in mammalian and avian species. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002186 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data could explain why PB1-F2 is conserved in avian influenza virus isolates and only impacts pathogenicity in mammals when containing certain amino acid motifs such as the rare N66S polymorphism. ..
  4. Yuan P, Bartlam M, Lou Z, Chen S, Zhou J, He X, et al. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA(N) reveals an endonuclease active site. Nature. 2009;458:909-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics. ..
  5. Li Z, Jiang Y, Jiao P, Wang A, Zhao F, Tian G, et al. The NS1 gene contributes to the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses. J Virol. 2006;80:11115-23 pubmed
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  6. Li J, Li Y, Hu Y, Chang G, Sun W, Yang Y, et al. PB1-mediated virulence attenuation of H5N1 influenza virus in mice is associated with PB2. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of the N terminus of PB2 in virulence attenuation in mice remains unclear. ..
  7. He X, Zhou J, Bartlam M, Zhang R, Ma J, Lou Z, et al. Crystal structure of the polymerase PA(C)-PB1(N) complex from an avian influenza H5N1 virus. Nature. 2008;454:1123-6 pubmed publisher
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  8. Mänz B, Brunotte L, Reuther P, Schwemmle M. Adaptive mutations in NEP compensate for defective H5N1 RNA replication in cultured human cells. Nat Commun. 2012;3:802 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, when crossing the species barrier, avian influenza viruses acquire adaptive mutations in nuclear export protein to escape restricted viral genome replication in mammalian cells. ..
  9. Steel J, Lowen A, Mubareka S, Palese P. Transmission of influenza virus in a mammalian host is increased by PB2 amino acids 627K or 627E/701N. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000252 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data show that PB2 amino acids 627 and 701 are determinants of mammalian inter-host transmission in diverse virus backgrounds. ..
  10. Varga Z, Palese P. The influenza A virus protein PB1-F2: killing two birds with one stone?. Virulence. 2011;2:542-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e. interferon antagonism, both in vitro and in the mouse model. Here, we discuss a hypothesis for a possible molecular link between the pro-apoptotic and anti-interferon functions of PB1-F2. ..

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. Maines T, Chen L, Van Hoeven N, Tumpey T, Blixt O, Belser J, et al. Effect of receptor binding domain mutations on receptor binding and transmissibility of avian influenza H5N1 viruses. Virology. 2011;413:139-47 pubmed publisher
    ....
  2. Le Goffic R, Bouguyon E, Chevalier C, Vidic J, Da Costa B, Leymarie O, et al. Influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 exacerbates IFN-beta expression of human respiratory epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:4812-23 pubmed publisher
    ....
  3. Schmolke M, Manicassamy B, Pena L, Sutton T, Hai R, Varga Z, et al. Differential contribution of PB1-F2 to the virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus in mammalian and avian species. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002186 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data could explain why PB1-F2 is conserved in avian influenza virus isolates and only impacts pathogenicity in mammals when containing certain amino acid motifs such as the rare N66S polymorphism. ..
  4. Yuan P, Bartlam M, Lou Z, Chen S, Zhou J, He X, et al. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA(N) reveals an endonuclease active site. Nature. 2009;458:909-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics. ..
  5. Li Z, Jiang Y, Jiao P, Wang A, Zhao F, Tian G, et al. The NS1 gene contributes to the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses. J Virol. 2006;80:11115-23 pubmed
    ....
  6. Li J, Li Y, Hu Y, Chang G, Sun W, Yang Y, et al. PB1-mediated virulence attenuation of H5N1 influenza virus in mice is associated with PB2. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of the N terminus of PB2 in virulence attenuation in mice remains unclear. ..
  7. He X, Zhou J, Bartlam M, Zhang R, Ma J, Lou Z, et al. Crystal structure of the polymerase PA(C)-PB1(N) complex from an avian influenza H5N1 virus. Nature. 2008;454:1123-6 pubmed publisher
    ....
  8. Mänz B, Brunotte L, Reuther P, Schwemmle M. Adaptive mutations in NEP compensate for defective H5N1 RNA replication in cultured human cells. Nat Commun. 2012;3:802 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, when crossing the species barrier, avian influenza viruses acquire adaptive mutations in nuclear export protein to escape restricted viral genome replication in mammalian cells. ..
  9. Steel J, Lowen A, Mubareka S, Palese P. Transmission of influenza virus in a mammalian host is increased by PB2 amino acids 627K or 627E/701N. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000252 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data show that PB2 amino acids 627 and 701 are determinants of mammalian inter-host transmission in diverse virus backgrounds. ..
  10. Varga Z, Palese P. The influenza A virus protein PB1-F2: killing two birds with one stone?. Virulence. 2011;2:542-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e. interferon antagonism, both in vitro and in the mouse model. Here, we discuss a hypothesis for a possible molecular link between the pro-apoptotic and anti-interferon functions of PB1-F2. ..
  11. Liu W, Lin S, Yu Y, Chu C, Wu S. Dendritic cell activation by recombinant hemagglutinin proteins of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A viruses. J Virol. 2010;84:12011-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The stimulation of mDCs by HA proteins of H1N1 and H5N1 was completely MyD88 dependent. These findings may provide useful information for the development of more-effective influenza vaccines...
  12. . Evolution of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..An updated nonpathogenic H5N1 reference virus, lacking the polybasic cleavage site in the hemagglutinin gene, was produced by reverse genetics in anticipation of the possible need to vaccinate humans...
  13. Jia D, Rahbar R, Chan R, Lee S, Chan M, Wang B, et al. Influenza virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) disrupts interferon signaling. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13927 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that NS1 can directly interfere with IFN signaling to enhance viral replication, but that treatment with IFN can nevertheless override these inhibitory effects to block H5N1 and H1N1 virus infections...
  14. Li Z, Liu Z, Ma C, Zhang L, Su Y, Gao G, et al. Identification of amino acids in highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus hemagglutinin that determine avian influenza species specificity. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1803-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutation is the result of adaptation caused by the receptor. Our results suggest that continuing occurrence of these two types of mutations made the variants persist in the new host species...
  15. Suguitan A, Matsuoka Y, Lau Y, Santos C, Vogel L, Cheng L, et al. The multibasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) avian influenza virus acts as a virulence factor in a host-specific manner in mammals. J Virol. 2012;86:2706-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the contribution of H5 HA MBS to the virulence of the HPAI H5N1 virus varies among mammalian hosts and is most significant in mice and ferrets and less remarkable in nonhuman primates...
  16. Maamary J, Pica N, Belicha Villanueva A, Chou Y, Krammer F, Gao Q, et al. Attenuated influenza virus construct with enhanced hemagglutinin protein expression. J Virol. 2012;86:5782-90 pubmed publisher
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  17. Tang D, Lam Y, Siu Y, Lam C, Chu S, Peiris J, et al. A single residue substitution in the receptor-binding domain of H5N1 hemagglutinin is critical for packaging into pseudotyped lentiviral particles. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43596 pubmed publisher
    ..Because A134V substitution has been reported as a naturally occurring mutation in human host, our results may have implications for the understanding of human host adaptation of avian influenza H5N1 viruses...
  18. Chen W, Zhong Y, Qin Y, Sun S, Li Z. The evolutionary pattern of glycosylation sites in influenza virus (H5N1) hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49224 pubmed publisher
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  19. Shelton H, Roberts K, Molesti E, Temperton N, Barclay W. Mutations in haemagglutinin that affect receptor binding and pH stability increase replication of a PR8 influenza virus with H5 HA in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets and may contribute to transmissibility. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1220-9 pubmed publisher
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  20. Zaraket H, Bridges O, Duan S, Baranovich T, Yoon S, Reed M, et al. Increased acid stability of the hemagglutinin protein enhances H5N1 influenza virus growth in the upper respiratory tract but is insufficient for transmission in ferrets. J Virol. 2013;87:9911-22 pubmed publisher
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  21. Kalthoff D, R hrs S, H per D, Hoffmann B, Bogs J, Stech J, et al. Truncation and sequence shuffling of segment 6 generate replication-competent neuraminidase-negative influenza H5N1 viruses. J Virol. 2013;87:13556-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel HPAIV variants may facilitate future studies shedding light on the role of neuraminidase in virus replication and pathogenicity...
  22. Li Q, Yuan X, Wang Q, Chang G, Wang F, Liu R, et al. Interactomic landscape of PA-X-chicken protein complexes of H5N1 influenza A virus. J Proteomics. 2016;148:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals the viral-host interactome of PA-X and uncovers interactions between host proteins and PA-X which might have crucial roles in viral infection. ..
  23. Wasilenko J, Lee C, Sarmento L, Spackman E, Kapczynski D, Suarez D, et al. NP, PB1, and PB2 viral genes contribute to altered replication of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens. J Virol. 2008;82:4544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..While the pathogenesis of AIVs in chickens is clearly dependent on the interaction of multiple gene products, we have shown that single-gene reassortment events are sufficient to alter the virulence of AIVs in chickens...
  24. Ilyushina N, Seiler J, Rehg J, Webster R, Govorkova E. Effect of neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant mutations on pathogenicity of clade 2.2 A/Turkey/15/06 (H5N1) influenza virus in ferrets. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000933 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need for novel anti-influenza drugs that target different virus/host factors and can limit the emergence of resistance...
  25. Wang C, Chen J, Tseng Y, Hsu C, Hung Y, Chen S, et al. Glycans on influenza hemagglutinin affect receptor binding and immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, removal of structurally nonessential glycans on viral surface glycoproteins may be a very effective and general approach for vaccine design against influenza and other human viruses...
  26. Ng A, Zhang H, Tan K, Li Z, Liu J, Chan P, et al. Structure of the influenza virus A H5N1 nucleoprotein: implications for RNA binding, oligomerization, and vaccine design. FASEB J. 2008;22:3638-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study of H5N1 NP provides insight into the oligomerization interface and the RNA-binding groove, which are attractive drug targets, and it identifies the epitopes that might be used for universal vaccine development...
  27. Zhong G, Le M, Lopes T, Halfmann P, Hatta M, Fan S, et al. Mutations in the PA Protein of Avian H5N1 Influenza Viruses Affect Polymerase Activity and Mouse Virulence. J Virol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Infection with viruses possessing these amino acid changes may pose an increased risk to humans...
  28. Miyazaki M, Nishihara H, Hasegawa H, Tashiro M, Wang L, Kimura T, et al. NS1-binding protein abrogates the elevation of cell viability by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in association with CRKL. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:953-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, an alternative role of adaptor protein CRKL in association with NS1 and NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection is demonstrated...
  29. Long J, Xue F, Peng Y, Gu M, Liu X. [The deletion of nucleotides of NS gene from 263 to 277 of H5N1 increases viral virulence in chicken]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006;46:301-5 pubmed
    ..81. RWSN-m848 caused one of the ten chickens died and its' index was only 0.175. The results revealed that the deletion of nucleotides of NS gene from 263 to 277 sites increases H5N1 pathogenesis in chicken...
  30. Velkov T, Ong C, Baker M, Kim H, Li J, Nation R, et al. The antigenic architecture of the hemagglutinin of influenza H5N1 viruses. Mol Immunol. 2013;56:705-19 pubmed publisher
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  31. Karthick V, Ramanathan K. Insight into the oseltamivir resistance R292K mutation in H5N1 influenza virus: a molecular docking and molecular dynamics approach. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014;68:291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is believed that this study provides valuable guidance for the resistance management of oseltamivir and designing of more potent antiviral inhibitor...
  32. Chen Q, Huang S, Chen J, Zhang S, Chen Z. NA proteins of influenza A viruses H1N1/2009, H5N1, and H9N2 show differential effects on infection initiation, virus release, and cell-cell fusion. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54334 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenomena might be partially due to NA proteins' different specificity to α2-3/2-6-sialylated carbohydrate chains, but the exact mechanism remains to be explored...
  33. Johnson R, Hamill M, Harvey R, Nicolson C, Robertson J, Engelhardt O. Permissible variation in the 3' non-coding region of the haemagglutinin genome segment of the H5N1 candidate influenza vaccine virus NIBRG-14 [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36241 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may serve to assure the influenza vaccine community that generation of CVVs using best-guess NCR sequences, based on sequence alignments, are likely to produce robust viruses...
  34. Lim A, Chan C, Wong S, Chan A, Ooi E, Hanson B. Neutralizing human monoclonal antibody against H5N1 influenza HA selected from a Fab-phage display library. Virol J. 2008;5:130 pubmed publisher
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  35. Schrauwen E, Herfst S, Leijten L, van Run P, Bestebroer T, Linster M, et al. The multibasic cleavage site in H5N1 virus is critical for systemic spread along the olfactory and hematogenous routes in ferrets. J Virol. 2012;86:3975-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, HPAI H5N1 virus can spread systemically via two different routes, olfactory and hematogenous, in ferrets. This systemic spread was dependent on the presence of the MBCS in HA...
  36. Matsuoka Y, Swayne D, Thomas C, Rameix Welti M, Naffakh N, Warnes C, et al. Neuraminidase stalk length and additional glycosylation of the hemagglutinin influence the virulence of influenza H5N1 viruses for mice. J Virol. 2009;83:4704-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of additional HA glycosylation sites had less of an effect on virulence than did NA stalk length. The short-stalk NA of H5N1 viruses circulating in Asia may contribute to virulence in humans...
  37. Das P, Li J, Royyuru A, Zhou R. Free energy simulations reveal a double mutant avian H5N1 virus hemagglutinin with altered receptor binding specificity. J Comput Chem. 2009;30:1654-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These large scale molecular simulations on single and double mutants thus provide new insights into our understanding toward human adaptation of the avian H5N1 virus...
  38. Lee K, Pessi A, Gui L, Santoprete A, Talekar A, Moscona A, et al. Capturing a fusion intermediate of influenza hemagglutinin with a cholesterol-conjugated peptide, a new antiviral strategy for influenza virus. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide proof of concept for an antiviral strategy that is applicable to intracellularly fusing viruses, including known and emerging viral pathogens...
  39. Li J, Wang Y, Liang Y, Ni B, Wan Y, Liao Z, et al. Fine antigenic variation within H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin's antigenic sites defined by yeast cell surface display. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3498-510 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate the existence of immunodominant positions in the H5 HA protein, alteration of these residues might improve the immunogenicity of vaccine strains...
  40. Nayak B, Kumar S, DiNapoli J, Paldurai A, Perez D, Collins P, et al. Contributions of the avian influenza virus HA, NA, and M2 surface proteins to the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity. J Virol. 2010;84:2408-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there was no indication that M2 is immunogenic or protective. Furthermore, inclusion of NA in addition to HA in a vaccine preparation for chickens may not enhance the high level of protection provided by HA...
  41. Li W, Wang G, Zhang H, Xin G, ZHANG D, Zeng J, et al. Effects of NS1 variants of H5N1 influenza virus on interferon induction, TNFalpha response and p53 activity. Cell Mol Immunol. 2010;7:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings shed new light on the role of NS1 in the pathogenicity of H5N1 virus...
  42. Song J, Feng H, Xu J, Zhao D, Shi J, Li Y, et al. The PA protein directly contributes to the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in domestic ducks. J Virol. 2011;85:2180-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide strong evidence that the polymerase PA subunit is a virulence factor for H5N1 AIVs in ducks...
  43. Zielecki F, Semmler I, Kalthoff D, Voss D, Mauel S, Gruber A, et al. Virulence determinants of avian H5N1 influenza A virus in mammalian and avian hosts: role of the C-terminal ESEV motif in the viral NS1 protein. J Virol. 2010;84:10708-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that a PDZ domain ligand sequence in NS1 contributes little to the virulence of H5N1 viruses in these hosts, and they indicate that this motif modulates viral replication in a strain- and host-dependent manner...
  44. Xu X, Cox N, Guo Y. Genetic characterization of the pathogenic influenza A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus: similarity of its hemagglutinin gene to those of H5N1 viruses from the 1997 outbreaks in Hong Kong. Virology. 1999;261:15-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the H5N1 viruses isolated from the Hong Kong outbreaks derived their HA genes from a virus similar to the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 virus or shared a progenitor with this goose pathogen...
  45. Leung B, Chen H, Brownlee G. Correlation between polymerase activity and pathogenicity in two duck H5N1 influenza viruses suggests that the polymerase contributes to pathogenicity. Virology. 2010;401:96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we suggest that the influenza polymerase is one of the determinants of pathogenicity of duck H5N1 viruses...
  46. Zhu X, Guo Y, Jiang T, Wang Y, Chan K, Li X, et al. A unique and conserved neutralization epitope in H5N1 influenza viruses identified by an antibody against the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 hemagglutinin. J Virol. 2013;87:12619-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the H5M9 epitope identified here should provide valuable insights into H5N1 vaccine design and improvement, as well as antibody-based therapies for treatment of H5N1 infection...
  47. Glinsky G. Genomic analysis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 reveals association of increasing disease severity with emergence of novel hemagglutinin mutations. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:958-70 pubmed publisher
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  48. Wang Q, Long J, Hu S, Wu Y, Liu X. [Biological significance of amino acids deletion in NA stalk of H5N1 avian influenza virus]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006;46:542-6 pubmed
    ..The unique amino acids deletion in NA molecule of H5N1 may be associated with the adaptation of virus to terrestrial poultry or the increasing ability of interspecies transmission...
  49. Li Z, Gabbard J, Mooney A, Chen Z, Tompkins S, He B. Efficacy of parainfluenza virus 5 mutants expressing hemagglutinin from H5N1 influenza A virus in mice. J Virol. 2013;87:9604-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PIV5ΔSH is a better vaccine vector than wild-type PIV5...
  50. Kainov D, M ller K, Theisen L, Anastasina M, Kaloinen M, Muller C. Differential effects of NS1 proteins of human pandemic H1N1/2009, avian highly pathogenic H5N1, and low pathogenic H5N2 influenza A viruses on cellular pre-mRNA polyadenylation and mRNA translation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:7239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we identified strain-specific differences between influenza virus NS1 proteins in pre-mRNA polyadenylation and mRNA translation...
  51. Smith A, McCullers J. Molecular signatures of virulence in the PB1-F2 proteins of H5N1 influenza viruses. Virus Res. 2013;178:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Surveillance efforts should include sequencing of the PB1 gene segment and analysis for these molecular signatures to allow for the potential prioritization of resources during pandemic planning...
  52. Leymarie O, Jouvion G, Herv P, Chevalier C, Lorin V, Lecardonnel J, et al. Kinetic characterization of PB1-F2-mediated immunopathology during highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57894 pubmed publisher
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  53. Zaraket H, Bridges O, Russell C. The pH of activation of the hemagglutinin protein regulates H5N1 influenza virus replication and pathogenesis in mice. J Virol. 2013;87:4826-34 pubmed publisher
    ..4. Identification of the HA activation pH as a host-specific infectivity factor is expected to aid in the surveillance and risk assessment of currently circulating H5N1 influenza viruses...
  54. Fan S, Macken C, Li C, Ozawa M, Goto H, Iswahyudi N, et al. Synergistic effect of the PDZ and p85β-binding domains of the NS1 protein on virulence of an avian H5N1 influenza A virus. J Virol. 2013;87:4861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a functional interplay between the mutations at NS1-138 and NS1-229 that results in a synergistic effect on influenza virulence...
  55. Long J, Peng D, Liu Y, Wu Y, Liu X. Virulence of H5N1 avian influenza virus enhanced by a 15-nucleotide deletion in the viral nonstructural gene. Virus Genes. 2008;36:471-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that the 15-nucleotide deletion of NS gene from site 263 to 277 associated with D92E shift in NS1 protein contributes to the virulence increase of H5N1 viruses in chickens and mice...
  56. Zhao C, Lou Z, Guo Y, Ma M, Chen Y, Liang S, et al. Nucleoside monophosphate complex structures of the endonuclease domain from the influenza virus polymerase PA subunit reveal the substrate binding site inside the catalytic center. J Virol. 2009;83:9024-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of this binding pocket opens a new avenue for anti-influenza drug discovery, targeting the cap-dependent endonuclease, in response to the worldwide threat of influenza...
  57. Resa Infante P, Jorba N, Zamarre o N, Fern ndez Y, Ju rez S, Ort n J. The host-dependent interaction of alpha-importins with influenza PB2 polymerase subunit is required for virus RNA replication. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3904 pubmed publisher
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  58. Gabriel G, Czudai Matwich V, Klenk H. Adaptive mutations in the H5N1 polymerase complex. Virus Res. 2013;178:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous other adaptive mutations, some of which compensate for the lack of PB2 E627K, have been observed in PB2 as well as in the polymerase subunit PB1, the nucleoprotein NP, and the nuclear export protein NEP (NS2)...
  59. Chervyakova O, Strochkov V, Sultankulova K, Sandybayev N, Zaitsev V, Mamadaliyev S. Molecular and genetic analysis of NS gene from high pathogenic strains of the avian influenza (H5N1) virus isolated in Kazakhstan. Gene. 2011;476:15-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the analysis allow assuming that A/swan/Mangystau/3/2006 strain has been brought onto the territory of Kazakhstan from the European part of the continent along the Black Sea-Mediterranean flyway...
  60. Elbahesh H, Bergmann S, Russell C. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates polymerase activity of multiple influenza A virus subtypes. Virology. 2016;499:369-374 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the data indicates that FAK kinase activity is important in promoting IAV replication by regulating its polymerase activity. ..