plasmodesmata

Summary

Summary: Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.

Top Publications

  1. Gilbertson R, Sudarshana M, Jiang H, Rojas M, Lucas W. Limitations on geminivirus genome size imposed by plasmodesmata and virus-encoded movement protein: insights into DNA trafficking. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2578-91 pubmed
    ..In plants, plasmodesmata serve as the conduit for this phenomenon, and viruses have evolved to use this pathway for the spread of ..
  2. Tilsner J, Cowan G, Roberts A, Chapman S, Ziegler A, Savenkov E, et al. Plasmodesmal targeting and intercellular movement of potato mop-top pomovirus is mediated by a membrane anchored tyrosine-based motif on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum and the C-terminal transmembrane domain in the TGB3 movement protei. Virology. 2010;402:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..triple gene block protein (TGB3) of potato mop-top pomovirus and its role in assisted targeting of TGB2 to plasmodesmata (PD)...
  3. Faulkner C, Maule A. Opportunities and successes in the search for plasmodesmal proteins. Protoplasma. 2011;248:27-38 pubmed publisher
    The proteinaceous composition of plasmodesmata (PDs) is a puzzle for which pieces have proven particularly difficult to find...
  4. Hofmann C, Sambade A, Heinlein M. Plasmodesmata and intercellular transport of viral RNA. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007;35:142-5 pubmed
    ..of informational protein and RNA macromolecules through cytoplasmic bridges in the plant cell wall known as plasmodesmata. Viruses exploit this route for the spread of infection and are used as a model to study the mechanisms by ..
  5. Maule A. Plasmodesmata: structure, function and biogenesis. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008;11:680-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata remain one of the outstanding mysteries in plant biology. In providing conduits for the exchange of small and large, informational molecules they are central to the growth, development and defence of all higher plants...
  6. Stonebloom S, Burch Smith T, Kim I, Meinke D, Mindrinos M, Zambryski P. Loss of the plant DEAD-box protein ISE1 leads to defective mitochondria and increased cell-to-cell transport via plasmodesmata. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17229-34 pubmed publisher
    Plants have intercellular channels, plasmodesmata (PD), that span the cell wall to enable cell-to-cell transport of micro- and macromolecules...
  7. Maule A, Benitez Alfonso Y, Faulkner C. Plasmodesmata - membrane tunnels with attitude. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:683-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata are doors in the rigid cell wall...
  8. Brecknock S, Dibbayawan T, Vesk M, Vesk P, Faulkner C, Barton D, et al. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of plasmodesmata. Planta. 2011;234:749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..occurs between neighbouring plant cells through functionally and structurally dynamic channels called plasmodesmata (PD)...
  9. Xu X, Jackson D. Lights at the end of the tunnel: new views of plasmodesmal structure and function. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2010;13:684-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (PDs), tiny channels connecting neighboring plant cells, play big roles in the transport of metabolites, viral movement, cell fate specification and development...
  10. Wright K, Wood N, Roberts A, Chapman S, Boevink P, MacKenzie K, et al. Targeting of TMV movement protein to plasmodesmata requires the actin/ER network: evidence from FRAP. Traffic. 2007;8:21-31 pubmed
    ..by which fluorescent-protein-tagged movement protein (MP) of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is targeted to plasmodesmata (PD)...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Gilbertson R, Sudarshana M, Jiang H, Rojas M, Lucas W. Limitations on geminivirus genome size imposed by plasmodesmata and virus-encoded movement protein: insights into DNA trafficking. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2578-91 pubmed
    ..In plants, plasmodesmata serve as the conduit for this phenomenon, and viruses have evolved to use this pathway for the spread of ..
  2. Tilsner J, Cowan G, Roberts A, Chapman S, Ziegler A, Savenkov E, et al. Plasmodesmal targeting and intercellular movement of potato mop-top pomovirus is mediated by a membrane anchored tyrosine-based motif on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum and the C-terminal transmembrane domain in the TGB3 movement protei. Virology. 2010;402:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..triple gene block protein (TGB3) of potato mop-top pomovirus and its role in assisted targeting of TGB2 to plasmodesmata (PD)...
  3. Faulkner C, Maule A. Opportunities and successes in the search for plasmodesmal proteins. Protoplasma. 2011;248:27-38 pubmed publisher
    The proteinaceous composition of plasmodesmata (PDs) is a puzzle for which pieces have proven particularly difficult to find...
  4. Hofmann C, Sambade A, Heinlein M. Plasmodesmata and intercellular transport of viral RNA. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007;35:142-5 pubmed
    ..of informational protein and RNA macromolecules through cytoplasmic bridges in the plant cell wall known as plasmodesmata. Viruses exploit this route for the spread of infection and are used as a model to study the mechanisms by ..
  5. Maule A. Plasmodesmata: structure, function and biogenesis. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008;11:680-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata remain one of the outstanding mysteries in plant biology. In providing conduits for the exchange of small and large, informational molecules they are central to the growth, development and defence of all higher plants...
  6. Stonebloom S, Burch Smith T, Kim I, Meinke D, Mindrinos M, Zambryski P. Loss of the plant DEAD-box protein ISE1 leads to defective mitochondria and increased cell-to-cell transport via plasmodesmata. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17229-34 pubmed publisher
    Plants have intercellular channels, plasmodesmata (PD), that span the cell wall to enable cell-to-cell transport of micro- and macromolecules...
  7. Maule A, Benitez Alfonso Y, Faulkner C. Plasmodesmata - membrane tunnels with attitude. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:683-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata are doors in the rigid cell wall...
  8. Brecknock S, Dibbayawan T, Vesk M, Vesk P, Faulkner C, Barton D, et al. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of plasmodesmata. Planta. 2011;234:749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..occurs between neighbouring plant cells through functionally and structurally dynamic channels called plasmodesmata (PD)...
  9. Xu X, Jackson D. Lights at the end of the tunnel: new views of plasmodesmal structure and function. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2010;13:684-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (PDs), tiny channels connecting neighboring plant cells, play big roles in the transport of metabolites, viral movement, cell fate specification and development...
  10. Wright K, Wood N, Roberts A, Chapman S, Boevink P, MacKenzie K, et al. Targeting of TMV movement protein to plasmodesmata requires the actin/ER network: evidence from FRAP. Traffic. 2007;8:21-31 pubmed
    ..by which fluorescent-protein-tagged movement protein (MP) of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is targeted to plasmodesmata (PD)...
  11. Avisar D, Prokhnevsky A, Dolja V. Class VIII myosins are required for plasmodesmatal localization of a closterovirus Hsp70 homolog. J Virol. 2008;82:2836-43 pubmed publisher
    ..yellows virus (BYV) functions in virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement and is autonomously targeted to plasmodesmata in association with the actomyosin motility system (A. I. Prokhnevsky, V. V. Peremyslov, and V. V. Dolja, J...
  12. Zambryski P. Plasmodesmata. Curr Biol. 2008;18:R324-5 pubmed publisher
  13. Bilska A, Sowinski P. Closure of plasmodesmata in maize (Zea mays) at low temperature: a new mechanism for inhibition of photosynthesis. Ann Bot. 2010;106:675-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the slowing of maize photosynthesis at low temperature is related to ultrastructural changes in the plasmodesmata between KM and BS as well as BS and vascular parenchyma (VP) cells.
  14. Howard A, Heppler M, Ju H, Krishnamurthy K, Payton M, Verchot Lubicz J. Potato virus X TGBp1 induces plasmodesmata gating and moves between cells in several host species whereas CP moves only in N. benthamiana leaves. Virology. 2004;328:185-97 pubmed
    ..Microinjection experiments indicated that TGBp1 gates plasmodesmata in Nicotiana tabacum leaves...
  15. Terauchi M, Nagasato C, Kajimura N, Mineyuki Y, Okuda K, Katsaros C, et al. Ultrastructural study of plasmodesmata in the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae). Planta. 2012;236:1013-26 pubmed
    b>Plasmodesmata are intercellular bridges that directly connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells and play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication and cell development in multicellular plants...
  16. Kragler F. Plasmodesmata: intercellular tunnels facilitating transport of macromolecules in plants. Cell Tissue Res. 2013;352:49-58 pubmed publisher
    In plants, intercellular structures named plasmodesmata (PD) form a continuous cytoplasmic network between neighboring cells...
  17. Genoves A, Navarro J, Pallas V. The Intra- and intercellular movement of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) depends on an active secretory pathway. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..ER) at motile Golgi apparatus (GA) stacks that actively tracked the actin microfilaments, and at the plasmodesmata (PD)...
  18. White R, Barton D. The cytoskeleton in plasmodesmata: a role in intercellular transport?. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:5249-66 pubmed publisher
    Actin and myosin are components of the plant cell cytoskeleton that extend from cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD), but it is unclear how they are organized within the cytoplasmic sleeve or how they might behave as regulatory ..
  19. Koh E, Zhou L, Williams D, Park J, Ding N, Duan Y, et al. Callose deposition in the phloem plasmodesmata and inhibition of phloem transport in citrus leaves infected with "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus". Protoplasma. 2012;249:687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Plasmodesmata pore units (PPUs) connecting companion cells and sieve elements were stained with a callose-specific dye in ..
  20. Stonebloom S, Brunkard J, Cheung A, Jiang K, Feldman L, Zambryski P. Redox states of plastids and mitochondria differentially regulate intercellular transport via plasmodesmata. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:190-9 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies suggest that intercellular transport via plasmodesmata (PD) is regulated by cellular redox state...
  21. Kankanala P, Czymmek K, Valent B. Roles for rice membrane dynamics and plasmodesmata during biotrophic invasion by the blast fungus. Plant Cell. 2007;19:706-24 pubmed
    ..This and additional evidence strongly suggest that IH co-opt plasmodesmata for cell-to-cell movement...
  22. Gorshkova E, Erokhina T, Stroganova T, Yelina N, Zamyatnin A, Kalinina N, et al. Immunodetection and fluorescent microscopy of transgenically expressed hordeivirus TGBp3 movement protein reveals its association with endoplasmic reticulum elements in close proximity to plasmodesmata. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:985-94 pubmed
    ..pairs of opposing discrete structures that co-localized with callose, indicating their association with the plasmodesmata-enriched cell wall fields...
  23. Lee J, Yoo B, Rojas M, Gomez Ospina N, Staehelin L, Lucas W. Selective trafficking of non-cell-autonomous proteins mediated by NtNCAPP1. Science. 2003;299:392-6 pubmed publisher
    In plants, cell-to-cell communication is mediated by plasmodesmata and involves the trafficking of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs)...
  24. Werner D, Gerlitz N, Stadler R. A dual switch in phloem unloading during ovule development in Arabidopsis. Protoplasma. 2011;248:225-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Assimilates are unloaded either symplastically through plasmodesmata or apoplastically by specific transport proteins...
  25. Tilsner J, Amari K, Torrance L. Plasmodesmata viewed as specialised membrane adhesion sites. Protoplasma. 2011;248:39-60 pubmed publisher
    A significant amount of work has been expended to identify the elusive components of plasmodesmata (PD) to help understand their structure, as well as how proteins are targeted to them...
  26. Kronberg K, Vogel F, Rutten T, Hajirezaei M, Sonnewald U, Hofius D. The silver lining of a viral agent: increasing seed yield and harvest index in Arabidopsis by ectopic expression of the potato leaf roll virus movement protein. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:905-18 pubmed
    Ectopic expression of viral movement proteins (MPs) has previously been shown to alter plasmodesmata (PD) function and carbon partitioning in transgenic plants, giving rise to the view of PD being dynamic and highly regulated structures ..
  27. Kim I, Zambryski P. Cell-to-cell communication via plasmodesmata during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2005;8:593-9 pubmed
    ..This pathway utilizes cell-to-cell communication via plasmodesmata. Plasmodesmata span the walls between neighboring plant cells...
  28. Faulkner C, Akman O, Bell K, Jeffree C, Oparka K. Peeking into pit fields: a multiple twinning model of secondary plasmodesmata formation in tobacco. Plant Cell. 2008;20:1504-18 pubmed publisher
    In higher plants, plasmodesmata (PD) are major conduits for cell-cell communication. Primary PD are laid down at cytokinesis, while secondary PD arise during wall extension...
  29. Lee J, Taoka K, Yoo B, Ben Nissan G, Kim D, Lucas W. Plasmodesmal-associated protein kinase in tobacco and Arabidopsis recognizes a subset of non-cell-autonomous proteins. Plant Cell. 2005;17:2817-31 pubmed
    ..in plants involves the trafficking of macromolecules through specialized intercellular organelles, termed plasmodesmata. This exchange of proteins and RNA is likely regulated, and a role for protein phosphorylation has been ..
  30. Raffaele S, Bayer E, Lafarge D, Cluzet S, German Retana S, Boubekeur T, et al. Remorin, a solanaceae protein resident in membrane rafts and plasmodesmata, impairs potato virus X movement. Plant Cell. 2009;21:1541-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used imaging and biochemical approaches and in situ labeling to demonstrate that REM clusters at plasmodesmata and in approximately 70-nm membrane domains, similar to lipid rafts, in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma ..
  31. Liesche J, Schulz A. Quantification of plant cell coupling with three-dimensional photoactivation microscopy. J Microsc. 2012;247:2-9 pubmed publisher
    Plant cells are directly connected by plasmodesmata that form channels through the cell wall and enable the intercellular movement of cytosolic solutes, membrane lipids and signalling molecules...
  32. Voitsekhovskaja O, Koroleva O, Batashev D, Knop C, Tomos A, Gamalei Y, et al. Phloem loading in two Scrophulariaceae species. What can drive symplastic flow via plasmodesmata?. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:383-95 pubmed
    ..barclaiana, apoplastic phloem loading is an indispensable mechanism and that symplastic entrance of solutes into the phloem may occur by mass flow. The conditions favoring symplastic mass flow into the phloem are discussed...
  33. Ruiz Medrano R, Xoconostle Cazares B, Kragler F. The plasmodesmatal transport pathway for homeotic proteins, silencing signals and viruses. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2004;7:641-50 pubmed
    ..b>Plasmodesmata (PD) form a cytoplasmic network throughout the plant body and provide the means of symplasmic cell-to-cell ..
  34. Bayer E, Thomas C, Maule A. Plasmodesmata in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells. Protoplasma. 2004;223:93-102 pubmed
    A current challenge in plant biology is to identify the structural and functional components of plasmodesmata (PDs)...
  35. Ueki S, Citovsky V. Identification of an interactor of cadmium ion-induced glycine-rich protein involved in regulation of callose levels in plant vasculature. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12089-94 pubmed
    ..Therefore, GrIP and cdiGRP represent sequentially acting factors in a biochemical pathway that regulates callose accumulation in the plant vasculature...
  36. Guenoune Gelbart D, Elbaum M, Sagi G, Levy A, Epel B. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) replicase and movement protein function synergistically in facilitating TMV spread by lateral diffusion in the plasmodesmal desmotubule of Nicotiana benthamiana. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:335-45 pubmed publisher
    Virus spread through plasmodesmata (Pd) is mediated by virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs) that modify Pd structure and function...
  37. Epel B. Plant viruses spread by diffusion on ER-associated movement-protein-rafts through plasmodesmata gated by viral induced host beta-1,3-glucanases. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009;20:1074-81 pubmed publisher
    Plant viruses spread cell-to-cell by exploiting and modifying plasmodesmata, coaxial membranous channels that cross cell walls and interlink the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum and plasma-membranes of contiguous cells...
  38. Escobar N, Haupt S, Thow G, Boevink P, Chapman S, Oparka K. High-throughput viral expression of cDNA-green fluorescent protein fusions reveals novel subcellular addresses and identifies unique proteins that interact with plasmodesmata. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1507-23 pubmed
    ..In a subsequent screen of >20,000 infection foci, 12 fusion proteins were identified that localized to plasmodesmata, a subcellular structure for which very few protein components have been identified...
  39. Burch Smith T, Brunkard J, Choi Y, Zambryski P. Organelle-nucleus cross-talk regulates plant intercellular communication via plasmodesmata. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E1451-60 pubmed publisher
    We use Arabidopsis thaliana embryogenesis as a model system for studying intercellular transport via plasmodesmata (PD)...
  40. Ham B, Li G, Kang B, Zeng F, Lucas W. Overexpression of Arabidopsis plasmodesmata germin-like proteins disrupts root growth and development. Plant Cell. 2012;24:3630-48 pubmed publisher
    ..of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD)...
  41. Thomas C, Bayer E, Ritzenthaler C, Fernandez Calvino L, Maule A. Specific targeting of a plasmodesmal protein affecting cell-to-cell communication. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e7 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata provide the cytoplasmic conduits for cell-to-cell communication throughout plant tissues and participate in a diverse set of non-cell-autonomous functions...
  42. Bayne E, Rakitina D, Morozov S, Baulcombe D. Cell-to-cell movement of potato potexvirus X is dependent on suppression of RNA silencing. Plant J. 2005;44:471-82 pubmed
    ..It is possible, based on analyses of short interfering RNA accumulation, that P25 suppresses silencing by interfering with either assembly or function of the effector complexes of RNA silencing...
  43. Kobayashi K, Otegui M, Krishnakumar S, Mindrinos M, Zambryski P. INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT 2 encodes a putative DEVH box RNA helicase involved in plasmodesmata function during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1885-97 pubmed
    ..ise2 embryos contain branched as well as simple plasmodesmata (PD) compared with wild-type embryos, which only contain simple PD...
  44. Ueki S, Spektor R, Natale D, Citovsky V. ANK, a host cytoplasmic receptor for the Tobacco mosaic virus cell-to-cell movement protein, facilitates intercellular transport through plasmodesmata. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001201 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that ANK represents a host cellular receptor exploited by MP to aid viral movement by gating PD through relaxation of their callose sphincters...
  45. Cilia M, Jackson D. Plasmodesmata form and function. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:500-6 pubmed
    Intercellular transport via plasmodesmata controls cell fate decisions in plants, and is of fundamental importance in viral movement, disease resistance, and the spread of RNAi signals...
  46. Shemyakina E, Erokhina T, Gorshkova E, Schiemann J, Solovyev A, Morozov S. Formation of protein complexes containing plant virus movement protein TGBp3 is necessary for its intracellular trafficking. Biochimie. 2011;93:742-8 pubmed publisher
    ..integral membrane protein essential for intracellular transport of other TGB proteins and viral genomic RNA to plasmodesmata. TGBp3 targeting to plasmodesmata-associated sites is believed to involve an unconventional mechanism which ..
  47. Xu M, Cho E, Burch Smith T, Zambryski P. Plasmodesmata formation and cell-to-cell transport are reduced in decreased size exclusion limit 1 during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5098-103 pubmed publisher
    In plants, plasmodesmata (PD) serve as channels for micromolecular and macromolecular cell-to-cell transport. Based on structure, PD in immature tissues are classified into two types, simple and branched (X- and Y-shaped) or twinned...
  48. Tian G, Mohanty A, Chary S, Li S, Paap B, Drakakaki G, et al. High-throughput fluorescent tagging of full-length Arabidopsis gene products in planta. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:25-38 pubmed
    ....
  49. Lucas W, Lee J. Plasmodesmata as a supracellular control network in plants. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004;5:712-26 pubmed
    ..b>Plasmodesmata, the intercellular organelles of the plant kingdom, establish an effective pathway for local and long-distance ..
  50. Wang X, Sager R, Cui W, Zhang C, Lu H, Lee J. Salicylic acid regulates Plasmodesmata closure during innate immune responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2315-29 pubmed publisher
    ..of pathogenesis-related genes1-dependent SA pathway in conjunction with the regulator of plasmodesmal gating Plasmodesmata-located protein5...
  51. Kozieradzka Kiszkurno M, Bohdanowicz J. Unusual electron-dense dome associates with compound plasmodesmata in the embryo-suspensor of genus Sedum (Crassulaceae). Protoplasma. 2010;247:117-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata ensure the continuity of cytoplasm between plant cells and play an important part in the intercellular communication and signal transduction. During the development of the suspensor of both Sedum acre L...
  52. Christensen N, Faulkner C, Oparka K. Evidence for unidirectional flow through plasmodesmata. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..a unique secretory structure in which the basal trichome cell is connected to the epidermis by numerous plasmodesmata (PD)...
  53. Dashevskaya S, Kopito R, Friedman R, Elbaum M, Epel B. Diffusion of anionic and neutral GFP derivatives through plasmodesmata in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. Protoplasma. 2008;234:13-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (Pd) are trans-wall membrane channels that permit cell-to-cell transport of metabolites and other small molecules, proteins, RNAs, and signaling molecules...
  54. Taliansky M, Torrance L, Kalinina N. Role of plant virus movement proteins. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;451:33-54 pubmed publisher
    ..the form of virions or nucleic acid protein complexes) moves intracellularly from the sites of replication to plasmodesmata (PD, plant-specific intercellular membranous channels), the virus then transverses the PD to spread ..
  55. Schepetilnikov M, Solovyev A, Gorshkova E, Schiemann J, Prokhnevsky A, Dolja V, et al. Intracellular targeting of a hordeiviral membrane-spanning movement protein: sequence requirements and involvement of an unconventional mechanism. J Virol. 2008;82:1284-93 pubmed
    ..TGBp3 is thought to direct other viral MPs and genomic RNA to peripheral bodies located in close proximity to plasmodesmata. We used the ectopic expression of green fluorescent protein-fused TGBp3 in epidermal cells of Nicotiana ..
  56. Lucas W. Plant viral movement proteins: agents for cell-to-cell trafficking of viral genomes. Virology. 2006;344:169-84 pubmed
    ..spread throughout their hosts using a number of pathways, the most common being movement cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD), unique intercellular organelles of the plant kingdom, and between organs by means of the vascular system...
  57. Niehl A, Heinlein M. Cellular pathways for viral transport through plasmodesmata. Protoplasma. 2011;248:75-99 pubmed publisher
    Plant viruses use plasmodesmata (PD) to spread infection between cells and systemically...
  58. Zavaliev R, Ueki S, Epel B, Citovsky V. Biology of callose (β-1,3-glucan) turnover at plasmodesmata. Protoplasma. 2011;248:117-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The deposition and degradation of callose at the neck region of plasmodesmata (Pd) is one of the cellular control mechanisms regulating Pd permeability during both abiotic and biotic ..
  59. Liarzi O, Epel B. Development of a quantitative tool for measuring changes in the coefficient of conductivity of plasmodesmata induced by developmental, biotic, and abiotic signals. Protoplasma. 2005;225:67-76 pubmed
    ..In plants, symplasmic cell-to-cell communication is provided by plasmodesmata (Pd), coaxial membranous tunnels that span cell walls interconnecting adjacent cytoplasms...
  60. Kim I, Kobayashi K, Cho E, Zambryski P. Subdomains for transport via plasmodesmata corresponding to the apical-basal axis are established during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11945-50 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that another pathway, cell-to-cell communication through plasmodesmata (PD), is regulated during apical-basal pattern formation...
  61. Ehlers K, van Bel A. Dynamics of plasmodesmal connectivity in successive interfaces of the cambial zone. Planta. 2010;231:371-85 pubmed publisher
    Frequency, density and branching of plasmodesmata were counted in successive tangential and transverse walls in the cambial zone of tomato stems in order to examine development of the plasmodesmal network in a chronological order...
  62. Simpson C, Thomas C, Findlay K, Bayer E, Maule A. An Arabidopsis GPI-anchor plasmodesmal neck protein with callose binding activity and potential to regulate cell-to-cell trafficking. Plant Cell. 2009;21:581-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (Pds) traverse the cell wall to establish a symplastic continuum through most of the plant...