chyle

Summary

Summary: An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.

Top Publications

  1. Smoke A, Delegge M. Chyle leaks: consensus on management?. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23:529-32 pubmed publisher
    Lymphatic injury leading to leakage of chyle is a potential complication that may arise from trauma or surgery in the chest, abdomen, or neck...
  2. Gunnlaugsson C, Iannettoni M, Yu B, Chepeha D, Teknos T. Management of chyle fistula utilizing thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2004;66:148-54 pubmed
    To document the treatment of refractory chyle leaks using thoracoscopic thoracic duct ligation and provide systematic guidelines to manage chyle leaks.
  3. Zhang X, Zhu Q, Ma X, Zheng T, Li H, Zhang J, et al. Renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection for chyluria via retroperitoneoscopy and open surgery: report of 53 cases with followup. J Urol. 2005;174:1828-31 pubmed
    ..We present our experience with retroperitoneoscopic renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection. We compared the clinical efficacy of this treatment for chyluria with that of open surgery...
  4. Bae J, Song B, Kim M, Park W, Kim J, Jung S. Bilateral chylothoraces without chyle leakage after left-sided neck dissection for thyroid cancer: report of two cases. Surg Today. 2007;37:652-5 pubmed
    ..Most cases reported in the literature were associated with a concurrent external chyle leakage, which occurred either during or after surgery...
  5. Roh J, Kim D, Park C. Prospective identification of chyle leakage in patients undergoing lateral neck dissection for metastatic thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:424-9 pubmed
    ..neck dissection for metastatic thyroid cancer includes the lower jugular nodes, but there has been little study of chyle leakage...
  6. Lagarde S, Omloo J, de Jong K, Busch O, Obertop H, van Lanschot J. Incidence and management of chyle leakage after esophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:449-54 pubmed
    Postoperative chyle leakage is a rare but well-recognized complication after esophageal surgery. The aim of this study was to identify its incidence and potentially predisposing factors and to assess the consequences and management.
  7. Su C, Lee Y, Wu W, Ke H, Chou Y, Huang C. Acute necrotizing ureteritis with obstructive uropathy following instillation of silver nitrate in chyluria: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2004;20:512-5 pubmed
    ..It resolved completely with non-surgical intervention. The diagnosis and management of chyluria is discussed, with a brief review of the literature...
  8. Coskun A, Yildirim M. Somatostatin in medical management of chyle fistula after neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol. 2010;31:395-6 pubmed publisher
    The use of somastostatin and its analogues in the treatment of chyle fistula is a new approach and has been documented in a few cases...
  9. Zhengjiang L, Sabesan T, Pingzhang T, Ilankovan V. Omohyoid muscle flap in prevention of chyle fistula. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1430-2 pubmed
  10. Tandon V, Singh H, Dwivedi U, Mahmood M, Singh P. Filarial chyluria: long-term experience of a university hospital in India. Int J Urol. 2004;11:193-8; discussion 199 pubmed
    ..Filariasis is an endemic problem in various Indian states. We evaluated the results of long-term follow up (10-20 years) of patients with filarial chyluria...

Detail Information

Publications100

  1. Smoke A, Delegge M. Chyle leaks: consensus on management?. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23:529-32 pubmed publisher
    Lymphatic injury leading to leakage of chyle is a potential complication that may arise from trauma or surgery in the chest, abdomen, or neck...
  2. Gunnlaugsson C, Iannettoni M, Yu B, Chepeha D, Teknos T. Management of chyle fistula utilizing thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2004;66:148-54 pubmed
    To document the treatment of refractory chyle leaks using thoracoscopic thoracic duct ligation and provide systematic guidelines to manage chyle leaks.
  3. Zhang X, Zhu Q, Ma X, Zheng T, Li H, Zhang J, et al. Renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection for chyluria via retroperitoneoscopy and open surgery: report of 53 cases with followup. J Urol. 2005;174:1828-31 pubmed
    ..We present our experience with retroperitoneoscopic renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection. We compared the clinical efficacy of this treatment for chyluria with that of open surgery...
  4. Bae J, Song B, Kim M, Park W, Kim J, Jung S. Bilateral chylothoraces without chyle leakage after left-sided neck dissection for thyroid cancer: report of two cases. Surg Today. 2007;37:652-5 pubmed
    ..Most cases reported in the literature were associated with a concurrent external chyle leakage, which occurred either during or after surgery...
  5. Roh J, Kim D, Park C. Prospective identification of chyle leakage in patients undergoing lateral neck dissection for metastatic thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:424-9 pubmed
    ..neck dissection for metastatic thyroid cancer includes the lower jugular nodes, but there has been little study of chyle leakage...
  6. Lagarde S, Omloo J, de Jong K, Busch O, Obertop H, van Lanschot J. Incidence and management of chyle leakage after esophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:449-54 pubmed
    Postoperative chyle leakage is a rare but well-recognized complication after esophageal surgery. The aim of this study was to identify its incidence and potentially predisposing factors and to assess the consequences and management.
  7. Su C, Lee Y, Wu W, Ke H, Chou Y, Huang C. Acute necrotizing ureteritis with obstructive uropathy following instillation of silver nitrate in chyluria: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2004;20:512-5 pubmed
    ..It resolved completely with non-surgical intervention. The diagnosis and management of chyluria is discussed, with a brief review of the literature...
  8. Coskun A, Yildirim M. Somatostatin in medical management of chyle fistula after neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol. 2010;31:395-6 pubmed publisher
    The use of somastostatin and its analogues in the treatment of chyle fistula is a new approach and has been documented in a few cases...
  9. Zhengjiang L, Sabesan T, Pingzhang T, Ilankovan V. Omohyoid muscle flap in prevention of chyle fistula. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1430-2 pubmed
  10. Tandon V, Singh H, Dwivedi U, Mahmood M, Singh P. Filarial chyluria: long-term experience of a university hospital in India. Int J Urol. 2004;11:193-8; discussion 199 pubmed
    ..Filariasis is an endemic problem in various Indian states. We evaluated the results of long-term follow up (10-20 years) of patients with filarial chyluria...
  11. Dalela D, Rastogi M, Goel A, Gupta V, Shankhwar S. Silver nitrate sclerotherapy for 'clinically significant' chyluria: a prospective evaluation of duration of therapy. Urol Int. 2004;72:335-40 pubmed
    ....
  12. Wykypiel H, Margreiter R. Chylous cyst formation following laparoscopic fundoplication. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:729-32 pubmed
    ..A Roux-en-Y chylous cystojejunostomy was then performed and has solved the problem up to the present. A chylous cyst may develop after laparoscopic fundoplication. If simple drainage fails, a cystojejunostomy can solve this problem...
  13. Assumpcao L, Cameron J, Wolfgang C, Edil B, Choti M, Herman J, et al. Incidence and management of chyle leaks following pancreatic resection: a high volume single-center institutional experience. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12:1915-23 pubmed publisher
    No data on incidence, management, or natural history of chyle leaks following pancreatic resection have been published...
  14. Covarelli P, Arena S, Badolato M, Canonico S, Rondelli F, Luzi G, et al. Mesenteric chylous cysts simulating a pelvic disease: a case report. Chir Ital. 2008;60:319-22 pubmed
    ..As illustrated by this case, even if they are extremely rare, they should be not underrated. The Authors review the literature, confirming the rarity of the disease and defining its characteristics...
  15. Matsumoto T, Yamagami T, Kato T, Hirota T, Yoshimatsu R, Masunami T, et al. The effectiveness of lymphangiography as a treatment method for various chyle leakages. Br J Radiol. 2009;82:286-90 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of lymphangiography as a treatment for various chyle leakages...
  16. Kulkarni A, Pathak M, Sirsat R. Fatal renal and hepatic failure following silver nitrate instillation for treatment of chyluria. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:1276-7 pubmed
  17. Priego Jiménez P, Collado Guirao M, Rojo Blanco R, Grajal Marino R, Rodríguez Velasco G, García Villanueva A. Chyle fistula in right cervical area after thyroid surgery. Clin Transl Oncol. 2008;10:593-6 pubmed
    ..Optimal treatment of these patients is unclear, without a clear limit between conservative and surgical treatment...
  18. Deso S, Ludwig B, Kabutey N, Kim D, Guermazi A. Lymphangiography in the diagnosis and localization of various chyle leaks. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2012;35:117-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Chyle leaks are rare entities infrequently encountered by most physicians...
  19. Rimensberger P, Müller Schenker B, Kalangos A, Beghetti M. Treatment of a persistent postoperative chylothorax with somatostatin. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;66:253-4 pubmed
    ..Thereafter, continuous somatostatin infusion for 14 days led to the reduction and finally cessation of chyle production. This treatment allowed early enteral feeding and avoided further surgical intervention.
  20. Berenji G, Iker E, Glass E. Lymphoscintigraphic findings in chylous reflux in a lower extremity. Clin Nucl Med. 2007;32:725-8 pubmed
    ..The authors present a case of chylous reflux in an 11-year-old boy who presented with swelling and skin lesions of the left lower extremity. ..
  21. Zhuo W, Chai J, Xu T, Wu W, Yang S, Tan J. Retroperitoneoscopic single-site renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection for the treatment of serious filarial chyluria. Can J Urol. 2013;20:6726-9 pubmed
    ..Chyluria disappeared in all patients after surgery and did not recur during the follow up period (3-14, mean 7.6 months). RPSS-RPLD is safe and feasible, with favorable short term outcomes and aesthetic effect. ..
  22. Abeygunasekera A, Bulegoda H, Nirupika H. A case of chyluria. Ceylon Med J. 2003;48:34 pubmed
  23. Chen H, Liu W, Tang Y, Ma B, Xu B, Yang G, et al. Chylous mesenteric cysts in children. Surg Today. 2011;41:358-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical presentation suggests some association with the localization of the cysts. A good prognosis can be expected with removal of the cyst and the affected intestinal segment. ..
  24. Abraham G, Pratap B, Govindan P, Matthew M. Successful treatment of chyluria, glomerular and tubular abnormalities in a young lady with silver nitrate instillation. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2007;18:231-4 pubmed
    ..No particular cause for chyluria could be ascertained. She was successfully treated with an injection of 2% silver nitrate into the left ureter and urinary bladder. She continues to be well after 15 years of follow-up. ..
  25. Katanyuwong P, Dearani J, Driscoll D. The role of pleurodesis in the management of chylous pleural effusion after surgery for congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol. 2009;30:1112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Pleurodesis is a safe and effective method for treating chylous effusion after surgical treatment of congenital heart disease, especially after failed conservative treatment. However, some patients may need more than one pleurodesis...
  26. Kim R, Joudi F. Chyluria after partial nephrectomy: case report and review of the literature. ScientificWorldJournal. 2009;9:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the sequelae of untreated disease and surgical options for intractable chyluria not responsive to conservative management. ..
  27. Fakhouri F, Matignon M, Therby A, Mejean A, Correas J, Challier S, et al. The man with "milk-shake" urine. Lancet. 2004;364:1638 pubmed
  28. Graziani G, Cucchiari D, Verdesca S, Balzarini L, Montanelli A, Ponticelli C. Chyluria associated with nephrotic-range proteinuria: pathophysiology, clinical picture and therapeutic options. Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;119:c248-53; discussion c254 pubmed publisher
    Chyluria denotes the urinary excretion of chyle, which is a lymphatic fluid rich in chylomicrons. Chyle flows from the intestinal lacteals to the left subclavian vein through the thoracic duct...
  29. Ramana Murthy K, Jayaram Reddy S, Prasad D, Purusotham G. Povidone iodine instillation into the renal pelvis in the management of chyluria: our experience. Urol Int. 2010;84:305-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The other two patients required chylolymphatic disconnection. One patient was lost to follow-up. Our experience shows that povidone iodine is a safe and effective sclerosing agent in the management of chyluria. ..
  30. Kim J, Park J, Hwang H, Shin H, Yoon D. Drainage volume after pancreaticoduodenectomy is a warning sign of chyle leakage that inversely correlates with a diagnosis of pancreatic fistula. World J Surg. 2013;37:854-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Chyle leakage is a rare complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), and its association with pancreatic fistula has not been established...
  31. Neuwirt H, Eller P, Tiefenthaler M, Mayer G, Rosenkranz A. A rare case of milky urine. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2010;122:596-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to a stable renal function and absence of lipid metabolism disorders, a conservative management of the patient was chosen. ..
  32. Burnett J, Sturdy G, Smith S, Ten Y, McComish M. "Milky" urine: a case of chyluria. Med J Aust. 2004;180:89 pubmed
  33. Nishio K, Harada K, Nakano Y, Aida S, Okabayashi K. [A case having chyliform pleural effusion caused by former tuberculous pleurisy]. Kekkaku. 2011;86:57-60 pubmed
    ..The ADA concentration in the pleural effusion was high at 91.7 IU/l. No increase in the amount of pleural effusion was observed after thoracocentesis without any anti-tuberculosis therapy. ..
  34. Gulati S, Gupta N, Singh N, Batra S, Garg S, Beniwal P, et al. Chyluria with proteinuria or filarial nephropathy? An enigma. Parasitol Int. 2007;56:251-4 pubmed
    ..Chyluria--a review of literature. Urology 1985;26(5): 427-31]. Lymphatic filariasis presenting as chyluria may be equally rare. Predominant chyluria with no overt lymphatic filariasis remains an enigma. ..
  35. Roffi F, Eiss D, Petit F, Poiree S, Correas J, Helenon O. [Pyelolymphatic fistula in a patient with lymphatic filariasis: a case report]. J Radiol. 2007;88:1896-8 pubmed
  36. Hemal A, Gupta N. Retroperitoneoscopic lymphatic management of intractable chyluria. J Urol. 2002;167:2473-6 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis was based on urine examination for the presence of chyle and fat globules, cystoscopy, excretory urogram and retrograde ureteropyelography...
  37. Brennan P, Blythe J, Herd M, Habib A, Anand R. The contemporary management of chyle leak following cervical thoracic duct damage. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;50:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..If this is not recognised at the time of surgery, a chyle leak can result in potentially serious complications as well as delaying the patient's discharge from hospital...
  38. Kodali V, Dunn N. Chyle and gout causing acute monoarthritis: some unusual findings. Clin Rheumatol. 2005;24:70-1 pubmed
    ..This combination of findings in the same joint has not been described in the literature. We emphasise the importance of history of trauma in acute monoarthritis. We discuss the unusual features of this case. ..
  39. Ossiani M, McCauley R, Patel H. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium. Pediatr Radiol. 2003;33:357-9 pubmed
    ..We report two cases of primary idiopathic chylopericardium, one of which at 6 weeks of age is the youngest case to our knowledge so far reported. ..
  40. Purkayastha J, Hazarika S, Deo S, Kar M, Shukla N. Post-mastectomy chylous fistula: anatomical and clinical implications. Clin Anat. 2004;17:413-5 pubmed
    ..milky fluid from the axillary drain and analysis of the fluid revealed biochemical features compatible with chyle. After 2 weeks of failed conservative management, the axilla was re-explored...
  41. Guttilla A, Beltrami P, Bettin L, Galantini A, Dal Moro F, Ficarra V, et al. Chyluria: the state of the art. Urologia. 2017;84:65-70 pubmed publisher
    Chyluria is the passage of chyle in the urine. The cause seems to be the rupture of retroperitoneal lymphatics into the pyelocaliceal system, giving urine a milky appearance...
  42. Blythe J, Habib A, Gulati A, Brennan P. Use of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate tissue glue in thoracic duct injury during neck dissection surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;49:486-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used this technique in four patients with no post-operative chyle leak or added complications.
  43. Kadota H, Kakiuchi Y, Yoshida T. Management of chylous fistula after neck dissection using negative-pressure wound therapy: A preliminary report. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:997-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although preliminary, NPWT can be an important treatment choice for the management of a chylous fistula after neck dissections. ..
  44. Knier B, Büschges Seraphin B, Hilgers K, Amann K, Uder M, Eckardt K, et al. From red to white urine: a patient's nightmare with a rather benign outcome. BMC Nephrol. 2012;13:7 pubmed publisher
    Chyluria is a medical condition with presence of chyle in the urine...
  45. Koizumi K, Hosaka K, Takezaki T. [Case report: instillation of povidone iodine for the treatment of idiopathic chyluria]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2008;54:615-7 pubmed
    ..In March 2007 povidone iodine was instilled retrogradedly and chyluria disappeared immediately. As of December 2007, chyluria has not recurred. ..
  46. Golestaneh L, Karam S, Lawrence J, Yang S, Greenberg M. Hypercoagulability in a patient with chronic chyluria, proteinuria and hypoalbuminaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:3240-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, because of obligate and unregulated fluid losses he has chronic dehydration, miscrovascular ischemia and secondary polycythemia. This polycythemia further increases his risk of hypercoagulability. ..
  47. Tahara M, Katsumi A, Akazawa T, Otsuka Y, Kitahara S. Post-traumatic chylous knee effusion. Knee. 2011;18:133-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Arthroscopic irrigation and debridement should be considered for these traumatic cases to confirm diagnosis and to speed up recovery. ..
  48. Morris S, Taylor S. Peripheral parenteral nutrition in a case of chyle leak following neck dissection. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2004;17:153-5 pubmed
    ..The following case study of a 75-year-old man with chyle leak following surgery shows how prompt dietetic action prevented further compromise in immune function and ..
  49. Sun T, Hu F, Cui S, Chen W, Feng L, Cao R, et al. [Localization diagnosis of chyluria by radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002;82:247-8 pubmed
    ..The positive rate of bilateral localization diagnosis was higher than that by cystoscopy. A less invasive technique, radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy can be used as a new option for the localization diagnosis of chyluria. ..
  50. Erisen L, Coskun H, Basut O. Objective and early diagnosis of chylous fistula in the postoperative period. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;126:172-5 pubmed
    ..001). Serum and drainage levels of triglycerides and cholesterol on postoperative day 1 can be used as objective and early predictive parameters of CF. ..
  51. Nandy P, Dwivedi U, Vyas N, Prasad M, Dutta B, Singh P. Povidone iodine and dextrose solution combination sclerotherapy in chyluria. Urology. 2004;64:1107-9; discussion 1110 pubmed
    ..Combination sclerotherapy using a 5% povidone iodine and 50% dextrose solution is a safe and cost-effective minimally invasive therapy for chyluria refractory to conservative treatment. ..
  52. Palacio A, Lichstein D, Vaamonde C, Tamariz L. Parasitic chyluria. South Med J. 2003;96:110-1 pubmed
  53. Sakman G, Parsak C, Demircan O. A rare complication in breast cancer surgery: chylous fistula and its treatment. Acta Chir Belg. 2007;107:317-9 pubmed
    ..Experience related to the occurrence of this complication and its management when it occurs is quite restricted. ..
  54. Ohtsuka T, Tanaka M, Nakajima J, Takamoto S. Videoscopic supradiaphragmatic thoracic duct division using ultrasonic coagulator. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;22:828-30 pubmed
    ..division using the Harmonic Scalpel with a hook blade (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, OH, USA) for treatment of chyle leaks that developed after left upper lobectomy, graft replacement of a descending aortic aneurysm and ..
  55. Santaolalla F, Anta J, Zabala A, Del Rey Sanchez A, Martinez A, Sanchez J. Management of chylous fistula as a complication of neck dissection: a 10-year retrospective review. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2010;19:510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Chylous fistulas are significantly more common in radical than in functional dissections and increase significantly the length of hospital stay. ..
  56. Goel S, Mandhani A, Srivastava A, Kapoor R, Gogoi S, Kumar A, et al. Is povidone iodine an alternative to silver nitrate for renal pelvic instillation sclerotherapy in chyluria?. BJU Int. 2004;94:1082-5 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and toxicity of 1% silver nitrate, 0.2% povidone iodine and 50% dextrose in renal pelvic instillation sclerotherapy (RPIS) for chyluria...
  57. Ben Ami H, Nagachandran P, Assalia A, Edoute Y. Acute transient chylous ascites associated with acute biliary pancreatitis. Am J Med Sci. 1999;318:122-3 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, chylous ascites was detected during elective cholecystectomy. The pathogenesis and management of this problem is discussed...
  58. Le Pimpec Arthes F, Badia A, Febvre M, Legman P, Riquet M. Chylous reflux into localized pulmonary lymphangiectasis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;74:575-8 pubmed
    ..In our experience, chylous reflux into pulmonary lymphangiectasis is not as rare as believed and many cases probably remain undiagnosed...
  59. Barbetakis N, Asteriou C, Konstantinou D, Giannoglou D, Tsilikas C, Giannoglou G. Spontaneous chylous cardiac tamponade: a case report. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;5:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Chylous cardiac tamponade is a rare condition with little known cause...
  60. Makrilakis K, Pavlatos S, Giannikopoulos G, Toubanakis C, Katsilambros N. Successful octreotide treatment of chylous pleural effusion and lymphedema in the yellow nail syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141:246-7 pubmed
  61. Huang Y, Chen J, Liu S, Lin M. Chyle leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute biliary pancreatitis: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology. 2009;56:39-42 pubmed
    b>Chyle leakage is a rare complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with only one such case being previously reported in the English literature...
  62. Zhang C, Chen R, Sun X, Zhu H, Wen R, Wang J, et al. Comparison of two approaches to retroperitoneoscopic renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection for chyluria. J Endourol. 2011;25:1161-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we reported a novel technique via extra-adipose (EA) capsule approach and compared the two approaches for intractable chyluria...
  63. Gupta A, Dalela D, Vasudeva P, Sankhwar S, Goel A. Scrotal chylorrhoea: images of uncommon scrotal fluid discharge. Urology. 2009;73:1227-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report on 2 patients who presented to us with a persistent milky white discharge from the vesicles on the scrotal surface, which otherwise showed no evidence of elephantiasis...
  64. Chi P. [Diagnosis and treatment of abdominal chyle leak after resection of colorectal cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;15:323-4 pubmed
    b>Chyle leak is a rare complication after abdominal surgery...
  65. Govil S, Justus A, Lakshminarayanan R, Nayak S, Devasia A, Gopalakrishnan G. Retroperitoneal lymphatics on CT and MR. Abdom Imaging. 2007;32:53-5 pubmed
    ..In another patient, the calibre and number of the dilated retroperitoneal channels reduced following anti-filarial therapy. The remaining four patients presented with chyluria...
  66. Lewsuwan S, Kanjanabuch T, Avihingsanon Y, Praditpornsilpa K, Eiam Ong S. A rare case of chylous ascites and chyluria in an adult nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89 Suppl 2:S253-6 pubmed
    ..Hypoalbuminemia-induced bowel edema may predispose to change the permeability of mucosal or serosal lymphatics. This could result in chylous ascites but the cause of chyluria could not be determined in this case...
  67. Zhang Y, Zeng J, Zhang K, Jin F, Ye J, Wu G, et al. Surgical management of intractable chyluria: a comparison of retroperitoneoscopy with open surgery. Urol Int. 2012;89:222-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Retroperitoneoscopic renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection has been described in the management of intractable chyluria...
  68. Roh J, Park C. OK-432 sclerotherapy of cervical chylous lymphocele after neck dissection. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:999-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the efficacy of OK-432 (Picibanil, Chungai Pharmaceutical Co., Tokyo, Japan) sclerotherapy in the treatment of cervical lymphocele after neck dissection...
  69. Wang L, Ou Z, Chen H, Cao Z, Tang Z, Chen X, et al. Learning curve for retroperitoneoscopic renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection for intractable chyluria: a single surgeon's experience. Urol J. 2012;9:562-7 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the surgical experience and outcomes of retroperitoneoscopic renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection (RRPLD) and to define a learning curve for this minimally invasive technique to treat patients with intractable chyluria...
  70. Kaul A, Bhadhuria D, Bhat S, Sharma R, Karoli R, Gupta A, et al. Chyluria: a mimicker of nephrotic syndrome. Ann Saudi Med. 2012;32:593-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to attempt to resolve diagnosis in the case of nephrotic range proteinuria when there is no clear evidence of a significant kidney lesion...
  71. Kanemoto S, Abe M, Ikeda A, Gomi S. Recurrent symptomatic chylopericardium after cardiac surgery in a child. Pediatr Cardiol. 2008;29:683-5 pubmed
    ..When chylopericardium is strongly suspected from previous history and patient background, prompt treatment, including pericardial drainage and dietary treatment, is warranted...
  72. Lan W, Jin F, Wang L, Zhu F. A comparison of retroperitoneoscopic and open surgical renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection for the treatment of serious filarial chyluria. Chin Med J (Engl). 2007;120:932-4 pubmed
  73. Kaur H, Matin S, Javadi S, Johnson V, Choi H, Sandler C, et al. Chyluria after radiofrequency ablation of renal tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011;22:924-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the incidence of chyluria after radiofrequency (RF) ablation of renal tumors and attempt to identify predictors of this phenomenon...
  74. el Dawlatly A, Al Kattan K, Hajjar W, Samarkandi A, Takrouri M. Spontaneous chylothorax--case report. Middle East J Anaesthesiol. 2000;15:635-42 pubmed
    ..During surgery he lost 1.5 L of blood and 4 L chyle. He was transferred to the SICU intubated and on mechanical ventilation...
  75. Suzuki R, Morita H, Sugenoya Y, Mizobuchi M, Yamamoto W, Ideura T, et al. [A case report of chronic chyluria probably due to Bancroftian filariasis, which showed hypoproteinemia]. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi. 2001;43:63-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, a report of the present case provides strong evidence that hypoalbuminemia of a patient with Bancroftian filariasis could be caused by chyluria alone...
  76. Pera M, Belda J, Vidal O, Rubio M, Grande L. Mediastinal chyloma after esophageal cancer resection: an unusual complication causing left cardiac failure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2002;124:198-9 pubmed
  77. von Knoch M, Michiels I, Mueller S, Siahkamary L. Chylous leakage after thoracolumbar fracture may cause paraplegia. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:E32-4 pubmed
    ..Retrospective case report...
  78. Tebala G, Camperchioli I, Tognoni V, Noia M, Gaspari A. Laparoscopic treatment of a huge mesenteric chylous cyst. JSLS. 2010;14:436-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The technique entails the perfect control of the major abdominal vessels running near the tumor and the complete sealing of the chylous and blood vessels to and from the cyst...
  79. Giove E, Merlicco D, Nacchiero E, Marzaioli R. [Conservative treatment of chyle fistula of the neck following a reintervention of cervical bilateral lymphectomy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Case report]. Ann Ital Chir. 2010;81:361-4 pubmed
    b>Chyle fistula is an uncommon serious complication of neck surgery, occurring in 1-3% of radical neck dissections...
  80. Zhang X, Ye Z, Chen Z, Chen Z, Zhu Q, Xin M, et al. Comparison of open surgery versus retroperitoneoscopic approach to chyluria. J Urol. 2003;169:991-3 pubmed
    ..We compared the clinical effectiveness of renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection for chyluria performed by retroperitoneoscopy and by open surgery...
  81. Miller F, Keppke A, Yaghmai V, Gabriel H, Hoff F, Chowdhry A, et al. CT diagnosis of chyluria after partial nephrectomy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188:W25-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to describe the CT diagnosis of chyluria after partial nephrectomy...
  82. Connolly M, Archer C. Chylous reflux presenting with minimal milia-like lesions on the thigh. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:1108-9 pubmed
  83. Chaloob S, Brown M, Stuklis R. Chylous pericardial effusion after aortic valve replacement. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2008;16:e21-2 pubmed
    ..Chylous pericardial effusion after open-heart surgery is a rare complication. We report a case of chylous pericardial effusion following aortic valve replacement, which presented as cardiac tamponade, and its subsequent management...
  84. Cao X, Wu J, Hong W. [Chylous mesenteric cyst in three children]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2008;10:416-7 pubmed
  85. Zhang D, Zheng M, Ding G, Xu L, Yu D, Li X. [Transperitoneal laparoscopic ligation of renal lymphatic vessels for treatment]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005;34:275-6 pubmed
  86. Ohtsuka T, Ninomiya M, Kobayashi J, Kaneko Y. VATS thoracic-duct division for aortic surgery-related chylous leakage. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;27:153-5 pubmed
    ....
  87. Lim J, Fraser S. Chyluria due to lymphatic filariasis: case report and review. Hawaii Med J. 2004;63:206-7 pubmed
  88. Illamperuma C, Reid J, Kanthan R. Chyloptysis with right middle lobe syndrome complicated postoperatively by chylothorax: an unusual cause of right middle lobe syndrome. Can Respir J. 2009;16:e1-2 pubmed
    ..A few weeks postoperatively, she developed a right-sided chylothorax, which was refractory to medical therapy, and was successfully treated with thoracic duct ligation. She has been symptom-free for two years postsurgery...
  89. Cope C. Management of chylothorax via percutaneous embolization. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2004;10:311-4 pubmed
    ....
  90. Sales F, Trepo E, Brondello S, Lemaitre P, Bourgeois P. Chylorrhea after axillary lymph node dissection. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2007;33:1042-3 pubmed
  91. Ratan S, Ratan K, Kapoor S, Sehgal T. Giant chylolymphatic cyst of the jejunal mesentry in a child: report of a case. Surg Today. 2003;33:120-2 pubmed
    ..An excision of the cyst, along with part of the involved bowel, was performed and was curative. The literature regarding the origin, presentation, complications, and particularly, the diagnosis of this rare lesion is also reviewed...
  92. Shindo M, Stern A. Total thyroidectomy with and without selective central compartment dissection: a comparison of complication rates. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136:584-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the postoperative complications between patients who underwent total thyroidectomy (TT) with central compartment lymph node dissection (CLND) and those who underwent only TT...
  93. Mesiha M, Ponnapula S, Plakogiannis F. Oral absorption of insulin encapsulated in artificial chyles of bile salts, palmitic acid and alpha-tocopherol dispersions. Int J Pharm. 2002;249:1-5 pubmed
    ..The dose response studies with increased insulin loaded in the chyle showed a greater corresponding hypoglycemic effect with the system of cholate-palmitic-alpha-tocopherol ..
  94. Chapman K, Ratnatunga P. Thoracic duct cyst presenting as a left supraclavicular mass. Ceylon Med J. 2001;46:28-9 pubmed
    ..The majority of such lesions occurring in the neck consist of chylous fistulae and are secondary to surgery on the neck. Fewer than five cases have been reported in the literature of primary thoracic duct cysts occurring in the neck (1)...
  95. Tan J, Fu Y, Chen J. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium: a case report. Cardiol Young. 2013;23:773-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Pericardial drainage confirmed the diagnosis of a chylopericardium. After the failure of continuous catheter drainage, surgical ligation of the thoracic duct and the creation of a pericardial window were performed under thoracoscopy...
  96. Huang H, Hu S. Scrotal cutaneous chylous reflux. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156:752-4 pubmed
  97. Chen C, Chen Y, Shiau E, Liang H, Chang H, Chen H. Therapeutic role of ultrasound-guided intranodal lymphangiography in refractory cervical chylous leakage after neck dissection: Report of a case and review of the literature. Head Neck. 2016;38:E54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by electrolyte imbalance, immunosuppression, delayed wound healing, risk of infection, and generalized sepsis. Management can be problematic and prolonged...
  98. Sriram K, Meguid R, Meguid M. Nutritional support in adults with chyle leaks. Nutrition. 2016;32:281-6 pubmed publisher
    We provide a practical approach to the complex management problem of chyle leaks that occur after surgical procedures or trauma, or when they occur spontaneously in association with malignancies...
  99. Tamura T, Kubo N, Yamamoto A, Sakurai K, Toyokawa T, Tanaka H, et al. Cervical chylous leakage following esophagectomy that was successfully treated by intranodal lipiodol lymphangiography: a case report. BMC Surg. 2017;17:20 pubmed publisher
    ..We removed the drainage tube on POD13, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on POD23. Our case suggests the clinical efficacy of lipiodol lymphangiography for cervical chylous leakage after esophagectomy. ..
  100. Nair S, Petko M, Hayward M. Aetiology and management of chylothorax in adults. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;32:362-9 pubmed
    ..Its occurrence corresponds to increased mortality following esophagectomy. Leakage of chyle and lymph leads to significant loss of essential proteins, immunoglobulins, fat, vitamins, electrolytes and water...