double stranded rna

Summary

Summary: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans
    A Fire
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Embryology, Baltimore, Maryland 21210, USA
    Nature 391:806-11. 1998
  2. ncbi Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference
    E Bernstein
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724, USA
    Nature 409:363-6. 2001
  3. ncbi The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses
    Mitsutoshi Yoneyama
    Department of Tumor Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, 3 18 22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nat Immunol 5:730-7. 2004
  4. ncbi Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells
    S M Elbashir
    Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, , Germany
    Nature 411:494-8. 2001
  5. ncbi RNA interference
    Gregory J Hannon
    Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory, New York 11724, USA
    Nature 418:244-51. 2002
  6. ncbi Mechanisms of gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
    Gunter Meister
    Laboratory of RNA Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 186, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 431:343-9. 2004
  7. ncbi Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses
    Hiroki Kato
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Nature 441:101-5. 2006
  8. ncbi Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3
    L Alexopoulou
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520, USA
    Nature 413:732-8. 2001
  9. ncbi Asymmetry in the assembly of the RNAi enzyme complex
    Dianne S Schwarz
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lazare Research Building, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Cell 115:199-208. 2003
  10. ncbi A cellular function for the RNA-interference enzyme Dicer in the maturation of the let-7 small temporal RNA
    G Hutvagner
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Science 293:834-8. 2001

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications334 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans
    A Fire
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Embryology, Baltimore, Maryland 21210, USA
    Nature 391:806-11. 1998
    ....
  2. ncbi Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference
    E Bernstein
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724, USA
    Nature 409:363-6. 2001
    ..The enzyme has a distinctive structure, which includes a helicase domain and dual RNase III motifs. Dicer also contains a region of homology to the RDE1/QDE2/ARGONAUTE family that has been genetically linked to RNAi...
  3. ncbi The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses
    Mitsutoshi Yoneyama
    Department of Tumor Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, 3 18 22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nat Immunol 5:730-7. 2004
    ..Subsequent gene activation by these factors induced antiviral functions, including type I interferon production. Thus, RIG-I is key in the detection and subsequent eradication of the replicating viral genomes...
  4. ncbi Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells
    S M Elbashir
    Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, , Germany
    Nature 411:494-8. 2001
    ..Therefore, 21-nucleotide siRNA duplexes provide a new tool for studying gene function in mammalian cells and may eventually be used as gene-specific therapeutics...
  5. ncbi RNA interference
    Gregory J Hannon
    Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory, New York 11724, USA
    Nature 418:244-51. 2002
    ..RNAi has been cultivated as a means to manipulate gene expression experimentally and to probe gene function on a whole-genome scale...
  6. ncbi Mechanisms of gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
    Gunter Meister
    Laboratory of RNA Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 186, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 431:343-9. 2004
    ..These short dsRNAs guide RNA silencing by specific and distinct mechanisms. Many components of the RNA silencing machinery still need to be identified and characterized, but a more complete understanding of the process is imminent...
  7. ncbi Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses
    Hiroki Kato
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Nature 441:101-5. 2006
    ..Together, our data show that RIG-I and MDA5 distinguish different RNA viruses and are critical for host antiviral responses...
  8. ncbi Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3
    L Alexopoulou
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520, USA
    Nature 413:732-8. 2001
    ..Moreover, poly(I:C) can induce activation of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases independently of MyD88, and cause dendritic cells to mature...
  9. ncbi Asymmetry in the assembly of the RNAi enzyme complex
    Dianne S Schwarz
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lazare Research Building, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Cell 115:199-208. 2003
    ..Thus, the common step of RISC assembly is an unexpected source of asymmetry for both siRNA function and miRNA biogenesis...
  10. ncbi A cellular function for the RNA-interference enzyme Dicer in the maturation of the let-7 small temporal RNA
    G Hutvagner
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Science 293:834-8. 2001
    ..Thus, the RNA interference and stRNA pathways intersect. Both pathways require the RNA-processing enzyme Dicer to produce the active small-RNA component that represses gene expression...
  11. ncbi Argonaute2 is the catalytic engine of mammalian RNAi
    Jidong Liu
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Watson School of Biological Sciences, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Science 305:1437-41. 2004
    ..Thus, our evidence supports a model in which Argonaute contributes "Slicer" activity to RISC, providing the catalytic engine for RNAi...
  12. ncbi Ingestion of bacterially expressed dsRNAs can produce specific and potent genetic interference in Caenorhabditis elegans
    L Timmons
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
    Gene 263:103-12. 2001
    ....
  13. ncbi Hierarchical action and inhibition of plant Dicer-like proteins in antiviral defense
    Angelique Deleris
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes, CNRS Unité Propre de Recherche UPR 2357, 12, rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Science 313:68-71. 2006
    ..These findings define a molecular framework for studying antiviral silencing and defense in plants...
  14. ncbi RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5'-phosphates
    Andreas Pichlmair
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Science 314:997-1001. 2006
    ....
  15. ncbi 5'-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I
    Veit Hornung
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Science 314:994-7. 2006
    ....
  16. pmc Double-stranded RNA is produced by positive-strand RNA viruses and DNA viruses but not in detectable amounts by negative-strand RNA viruses
    Friedemann Weber
    Abteilung Virologie, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitat Freiburg, D 79008 Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 80:5059-64. 2006
    ..Surprisingly, however, no dsRNA signals were detected for negative-strand RNA viruses. Thus, dsRNA is indeed a general feature of most virus groups, but negative-strand RNA viruses appear to be an exception to that rule...
  17. ncbi RNAi: double-stranded RNA directs the ATP-dependent cleavage of mRNA at 21 to 23 nucleotide intervals
    P D Zamore
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01655, USA
    Cell 101:25-33. 2000
    ..Cleavage occurs at sites 21-23 nucleotides apart, the same interval observed for the dsRNA itself, suggesting that the 21-23 nucleotide fragments from the dsRNA are guiding mRNA cleavage...
  18. ncbi Systemic RNAi in C. elegans requires the putative transmembrane protein SID-1
    William M Winston
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 295:2456-9. 2002
    ..One of these loci, sid-1, encodes a conserved protein with predicted transmembrane domains. SID-1 is expressed in cells sensitive to RNAi, is localized to the cell periphery, and is required cell-autonomously for systemic RNAi...
  19. pmc Small self-RNA generated by RNase L amplifies antiviral innate immunity
    Krishnamurthy Malathi
    Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nature 448:816-9. 2007
    ..Our results indicate that RNase L has an essential role in the innate antiviral immune response that relieves the requirement for direct sensing of non-self RNA...
  20. ncbi Regulation of heterochromatic silencing and histone H3 lysine-9 methylation by RNAi
    Thomas A Volpe
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Watson School of Biological Sciences, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Science 297:1833-7. 2002
    ..We propose that double-stranded RNA arising from centromeric repeats targets formation and maintenance of heterochromatin through RNAi...
  21. ncbi Loss of the putative RNA-directed RNA polymerase RRF-3 makes C. elegans hypersensitive to RNAi
    Femke Simmer
    Hubrecht Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Genetics, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Curr Biol 12:1317-9. 2002
    ..The rrf-3 strain can be useful to study genes that, in wild-type, do not show a phenotype after RNAi, and it is probably the strain of choice for genome-wide RNAi screens...
  22. pmc Length-dependent recognition of double-stranded ribonucleic acids by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5
    Hiroki Kato
    Laboratory of Host Defense, World Premiere International Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Exp Med 205:1601-10. 2008
    ..Collectively, RIG-I detects dsRNAs without a 5'-triphosphate end, and RIG-I and MDA5 selectively recognize short and long dsRNAs, respectively...
  23. ncbi Parental RNAi in Tribolium (Coleoptera)
    Gregor Bucher
    Curr Biol 12:R85-6. 2002
  24. ncbi An RNA-directed nuclease mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing in Drosophila cells
    S M Hammond
    Genetica, Inc, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA
    Nature 404:293-6. 2000
    ..After partial purification, the sequence-specific nuclease co-fractionates with a discrete, approximately 25-nucleotide RNA species which may confer specificity to the enzyme through homology to the substrate mRNAs...
  25. ncbi Activating gene expression in mammalian cells with promoter-targeted duplex RNAs
    Bethany A Janowski
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 3:166-73. 2007
    ..These data show that, like proteins, hormones and small molecules, small duplex RNAs interact at promoters and can activate or repress gene expression...
  26. ncbi Endogenous siRNAs from naturally formed dsRNAs regulate transcripts in mouse oocytes
    Toshiaki Watanabe
    Division of Human Genetics, Department of Integrated Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Mishima 411 8540, Japan
    Nature 453:539-43. 2008
    ..Our results reveal a role for endogenous siRNAs in mammalian oocytes and show that organisms lacking RdRP activity can produce functional endogenous siRNAs from naturally occurring dsRNAs...
  27. ncbi Passenger-strand cleavage facilitates assembly of siRNA into Ago2-containing RNAi enzyme complexes
    Christian Matranga
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Cell 123:607-20. 2005
    ..For siRNAs, virtually all RISC is assembled through this cleavage-assisted mechanism. In contrast, passenger-strand cleavage is not important for the incorporation of miRNAs that derive from mismatched duplexes...
  28. pmc RNA interference: biology, mechanism, and applications
    Neema Agrawal
    International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi 110 067, India
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:657-85. 2003
    ..Because of its exquisite specificity and efficiency, RNAi is being considered as an important tool not only for functional genomics, but also for gene-specific therapeutic activities that target the mRNAs of disease-related genes...
  29. pmc Ribonuclease activity and RNA binding of recombinant human Dicer
    Patrick Provost
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Scheeles vag 2, Stockholm, S 171 77, Sweden
    EMBO J 21:5864-74. 2002
    ..Availability of the recombinant Dicer protein will help improve our understanding of RNA silencing and other Dicer-related processes...
  30. ncbi Silencing of midgut aminopeptidase N of Spodoptera litura by double-stranded RNA establishes its role as Bacillus thuringiensis toxin receptor
    R Rajagopal
    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology ICGEB, P O Box 10504, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India
    J Biol Chem 277:46849-51. 2002
    ..These results directly implicate larval midgut aminopeptidase N as receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins...
  31. pmc On the origin and functions of RNA-mediated silencing: from protists to man
    Heriberto Cerutti
    School of Biological Sciences and Plant Science Initiative, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 68588 0666, USA
    Curr Genet 50:81-99. 2006
    ....
  32. ncbi Distinct poly(I-C) and virus-activated signaling pathways leading to interferon-beta production in hepatocytes
    Kui Li
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 1019, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:16739-47. 2005
    ..We conclude that hepatocytes contain two distinct antiviral signaling pathways leading to expression of type I IFNs, one dependent upon TLR3 and the other dependent on RIG-I, with little cross-talk between these pathways...
  33. ncbi The fate of dsRNA in the nucleus: a p54(nrb)-containing complex mediates the nuclear retention of promiscuously A-to-I edited RNAs
    Z Zhang
    Department of Microbiology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
    Cell 106:465-75. 2001
    ..We provide evidence that one function of the complex identified here is to anchor hyperedited RNAs to the nuclear matrix, while allowing selectively edited mRNAs to be exported...
  34. pmc The endocytic pathway mediates cell entry of dsRNA to induce RNAi silencing
    Maria Carla Saleh
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143 2280, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 8:793-802. 2006
    ..The possible role of these receptors in dsRNA entry may link RNA interference (RNAi) silencing to other innate immune responses...
  35. ncbi Structural basis for 5'-end-specific recognition of guide RNA by the A. fulgidus Piwi protein
    Jin Biao Ma
    Structural Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 434:666-70. 2005
    ....
  36. ncbi Identification of virus-encoded microRNAs
    Sebastien Pfeffer
    Laboratory of RNA Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 186, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 304:734-6. 2004
    ..Given that miRNAs function in RNA silencing pathways either by targeting messenger RNAs for degradation or by repressing translation, we identified viral regulators of host and/or viral gene expression...
  37. pmc The primary function of RNA binding by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in infected cells: Inhibiting the 2'-5' oligo (A) synthetase/RNase L pathway
    Ji Young Min
    Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7100-5. 2006
    ....
  38. ncbi A microRNA in a multiple-turnover RNAi enzyme complex
    Gyorgy Hutvagner
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lazare Research Building, Room 825, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Science 297:2056-60. 2002
    ..Each let-7-containing complex directs multiple rounds of RNA cleavage, which explains the remarkable efficiency of the RNAi pathway in human cells...
  39. ncbi Dual modes of RNA-silencing suppression by Flock House virus protein B2
    Jeffrey A Chao
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 12:952-7. 2005
    ..These results suggest that B2 blocks both cleavage of the FHV genome by Dicer and incorporation of FHV small interfering RNAs into the RNA-induced silencing complex...
  40. ncbi Parallels among positive-strand RNA viruses, reverse-transcribing viruses and double-stranded RNA viruses
    Paul Ahlquist
    Institute for Molecular Virology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:371-82. 2006
    ..Therefore, at least four of seven principal virus classes share several underlying features in genome replication and might have emerged from common ancestors. This has implications for virus function, evolution and control...
  41. ncbi RNA interference in the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) induced by double-stranded RNA feeding
    C T Turner
    The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand
    Insect Mol Biol 15:383-91. 2006
    ..The potential mechanisms involved in the initiation, movement and amplification of the silencing signal are discussed...
  42. ncbi RAX, a cellular activator for double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase during stress signaling
    T Ito
    Sealy Center for Oncology and Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston Texas 77555 1048, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:15427-32. 1999
    ..Therefore, cellular RAX may be a stress-activated, physiologic activator of PKR that couples transmembrane stress signals and protein synthesis...
  43. pmc A conserved double-stranded RNA-binding domain
    D St Johnston
    Wellcome Cancer Research Campaign Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:10979-83. 1992
    ..On the basis of the binding studies and computer analysis, we have derived a consensus sequence that defines a 65- to 68-amino acid dsRNA-binding domain...
  44. pmc Caenorhabditis elegans SID-2 is required for environmental RNA interference
    William M Winston
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10565-70. 2007
    ..elegans. SID-2, when expressed in the environmental RNAi defective species Caenorhabditis briggsae, confers environmental RNAi...
  45. pmc Effectiveness of specific RNA-mediated interference through ingested double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans
    R S Kamath
    Wellcome CRC Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QR, UK
    Genome Biol 2:RESEARCH0002. 2001
    ....
  46. ncbi Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3
    Rashu B Seth
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Cell 122:669-82. 2005
    ..The transmembrane domain targets MAVS to the mitochondria, implicating a new role of mitochondria in innate immunity...
  47. ncbi Signal integration via PKR
    B R Williams
    The author is in the Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Sci STKE 2001:re2. 2001
    ..Although the conflicts may not be resolved in this review, suggestions are made for experiments that could lead to a clearer understanding of the mechanisms involved...
  48. ncbi RNA-triggered gene silencing
    A Fire
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, 115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
    Trends Genet 15:358-63. 1999
    ..In addition to providing a surprisingly effective set of tools to interfere selectively with gene function, these observations are spurring new inquiries to understand RNA-triggered genetic-control mechanisms and their biological roles...
  49. ncbi A mechanism for initiating RNA-dependent RNA polymerization
    S J Butcher
    Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Biosciences, Viikki Biocenter, PO Box 56 (Viikinkaari 5, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    Nature 410:235-40. 2001
    ..Our results provide a working model for the initiation of replication and transcription...
  50. ncbi The RISC subunit Tudor-SN binds to hyper-edited double-stranded RNA and promotes its cleavage
    A D J Scadden
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1GA, UK
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 12:489-96. 2005
    ..U and U.I pairs. This interaction suggests a novel unsuspected interplay between the two pathways that is more complex than mutual antagonism...
  51. pmc Structural basis of toll-like receptor 3 signaling with double-stranded RNA
    Lin Liu
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 320:379-81. 2008
    ..This juxtaposition could mediate downstream signaling by dimerizing the cytoplasmic Toll interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains. The overall shape of the TLR3-ECD does not change upon binding to dsRNA...
  52. ncbi Dicing and slicing: the core machinery of the RNA interference pathway
    Scott M Hammond
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    FEBS Lett 579:5822-9. 2005
    ..Silencing is effected by the RNA-induced silencing complex and its RNaseH core enzyme Argonaute. This review describes the discovery of these machines and discusses future lines of work on this amazing biochemical pathway...
  53. pmc The role of PACT in the RNA silencing pathway
    Yoontae Lee
    Department of Biological Sciences and Research Center for Functional Cellulomics, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
    EMBO J 25:522-32. 2006
    ..Our study indicates that, unlike other RNase III type proteins, human Dicer may employ two different dsRBD-containing proteins that facilitate RISC assembly...
  54. ncbi On the role of RNA amplification in dsRNA-triggered gene silencing
    T Sijen
    Hubrecht Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Genetics, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Cell 107:465-76. 2001
    ..This amplification mechanism substantially augments the potency of RNAi-based surveillance, while ensuring that the RNAi machinery will focus on expressed mRNAs...
  55. ncbi The dsRNA binding protein RDE-4 interacts with RDE-1, DCR-1, and a DExH-box helicase to direct RNAi in C. elegans
    Hiroaki Tabara
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Meidcal School, Worcester, MA 1605, USA
    Cell 109:861-71. 2002
    ..Our findings suggest a model in which RDE-4 and RDE-1 function together to detect and retain foreign dsRNA and to present this dsRNA to DCR-1 for processing...
  56. pmc Comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of 3' double-nucleotide overhangs neighboring Watson-Crick terminal base pairs
    Amanda S O'Toole
    Department of Chemistry, Allegheny College, 520 N Main Street, Meadville, PA 16335, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:3338-44. 2006
    ..Thermodynamic parameters for 3' single terminal overhangs adjacent to a UA pair are also presented...
  57. ncbi Double-stranded RNA is internalized by scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis in Drosophila S2 cells
    Johanna Ulvila
    Department of Pediatrics and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, FIN 90014, Oulu, Finland
    J Biol Chem 281:14370-5. 2006
    ..Our data provide insight into the mechanism of dsRNA internalization by Drosophila cells. These results have implications for dsRNA delivery into mammalian cells...
  58. pmc Genome-wide RNAi of C. elegans using the hypersensitive rrf-3 strain reveals novel gene functions
    Femke Simmer
    Hubrecht Laboratory, Centre for Biomedical Genetics, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    PLoS Biol 1:E12. 2003
    ..elegans genome. The resulting dataset will be valuable in conjunction with other functional genomics approaches, as well as in other model organisms...
  59. pmc Double-stranded RNA binding may be a general plant RNA viral strategy to suppress RNA silencing
    Zsuzsanna Mérai
    Agricultural Biotechnology Center, H 2101 Gödöllõ, P O Box 411, Hungary
    J Virol 80:5747-56. 2006
    ..The findings that many unrelated silencing suppressors bind dsRNA suggest that dsRNA binding is a general silencing suppression strategy which has evolved independently many times...
  60. pmc Molecular basis of double-stranded RNA-protein interactions: structure of a dsRNA-binding domain complexed with dsRNA
    J M Ryter
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0215, USA
    EMBO J 17:7505-13. 1998
    ..Structural comparisons of the dsRBD-dsRNA complex and models proposed for polynucleotidyl transferase-nucleic acid complexes suggest that similarities in nucleic acid binding also exist between these families of proteins...
  61. pmc Transitivity in Arabidopsis can be primed, requires the redundant action of the antiviral Dicer-like 4 and Dicer-like 2, and is compromised by viral-encoded suppressor proteins
    Guillaume Moissiard
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes, Strasbourg Cedex, France
    RNA 13:1268-78. 2007
    ..Finally, we show that target cleavage by a primary small RNA and 3-->5' transitivity can be genetically uncoupled, and we provide in vivo evidence supporting a key role for priming in this specific reaction...
  62. pmc CpG and double-stranded RNA trigger human NK cells by Toll-like receptors: induction of cytokine release and cytotoxicity against tumors and dendritic cells
    Simona Sivori
    Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita di Genova, Via Leon Battista Alberti 2, 16132 Genoa, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:10116-21. 2004
    ....
  63. ncbi Control of IRF-3 activation by phosphorylation
    Mitsutoshi Yoneyama
    Department of Tumor Cell Biology, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 22:73-6. 2002
    ....
  64. pmc The influence of locked nucleic acid residues on the thermodynamic properties of 2'-O-methyl RNA/RNA heteroduplexes
    Elzbieta Kierzek
    Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester RC Box 270216, Rochester, NY 14627 0216, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:5082-93. 2005
    ..Internal mismatches with LNA nucleotides significantly destabilize duplexes with RNA...
  65. pmc Disruption of vitellogenin gene function in adult honeybees by intra-abdominal injection of double-stranded RNA
    Gro V Amdam
    Centre for Integrative Genetics and Department of Animal Science, Agricultural University of Norway, N 1432 Aas, Norway
    BMC Biotechnol 3:1. 2003
    ..Here we assess two methods for probing gene function by RNA interference (RNAi) in adult honeybees...
  66. ncbi PKR; a sentinel kinase for cellular stress
    B R Williams
    Department of Cancer Biology NB40, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, OH 44195, USA
    Oncogene 18:6112-20. 1999
    The double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase PKR is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that is induced by interferon and activated by dsRNA, cytokine, growth factor and stress signals...
  67. ncbi Triggering antiviral response by RIG-I-related RNA helicases
    Takashi Fujita
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Biochimie 89:754-60. 2007
    ..Recently discovered cytoplasmic RNA helicases, RIG-I and MDA5, selectively sense viral RNA species. Gene disruption studies revealed the critical but non-redundant function of RIG-I and MDA5 in host antiviral responses...
  68. pmc The RNA silencing endonuclease Argonaute 2 mediates specific antiviral immunity in Drosophila melanogaster
    Ronald P Van Rij
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Genes Dev 20:2985-95. 2006
    ..Based on these results we propose that RNAi is a major antiviral immune defense mechanism in Drosophila...
  69. ncbi The double-stranded-RNA-binding motif: interference and much more
    Bin Tian
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 185 South Orange Avenue, PO Box 1709, Newark, New Jersey 07101 1709, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 5:1013-23. 2004
    ..Penetrating insights into the metabolism and functions of such RNAs have come from the identification and study of proteins that contain the double-stranded-RNA-binding motif...
  70. ncbi Argonaute2 cleaves the anti-guide strand of siRNA during RISC activation
    Tim A Rand
    Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Cell 123:621-9. 2005
    ..The anti-guide strand behaves as a RISC substrate and is cleaved by Ago2. This cleavage event is important for the removal of the anti-guide strand from Ago2 protein and activation of RISC...
  71. pmc The roles of two IkappaB kinase-related kinases in lipopolysaccharide and double stranded RNA signaling and viral infection
    Hiroaki Hemmi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Exp Med 199:1641-50. 2004
    Viral infection and stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or double stranded RNA (dsRNA) induce phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)-3 and its translocation to the nucleus, thereby leading to the IFN-beta gene ..
  72. pmc Human Dicer preferentially cleaves dsRNAs at their termini without a requirement for ATP
    Haidi Zhang
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, PO Box 2543, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    EMBO J 21:5875-85. 2002
    ..Additional experiments suggest that if ATP participates in the Dicer reaction in mammalian cells, it might be involved in product release needed for the multiple turnover of the enzyme...
  73. ncbi Antiviral signaling through pattern recognition receptors
    Taro Kawai
    Department of Host Defense, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Biochem 141:137-45. 2007
    ..TLRs are located in endosomal compartments, whereas RLH are present in the cytoplasm where they detect viral dsRNA or ssRNA. Here we review the role of TLRs and RLHs in the antiviral innate immune response...
  74. pmc Inhibition of retinoic acid-inducible gene I-mediated induction of beta interferon by the NS1 protein of influenza A virus
    Masaki Mibayashi
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 81:514-24. 2007
    ..Our results indicate that, in addition to sequestering dsRNA, the NS1 of influenza A virus binds to RIG-I and inhibits downstream activation of IRF-3, preventing the transcriptional induction of IFN-beta...
  75. pmc Gene knockdown by RNAi in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Stéphanie Jaubert-Possamai
    INRA, Agrocampus Rennes, UMR 1099 BiO3P Biology of Organisms and Populations Applied to Plant Protection, F 35653 Le Rheu, France
    BMC Biotechnol 7:63. 2007
    ..RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful method to inhibit gene expression in a sequence specific manner...
  76. pmc The influenza A virus NS1 protein inhibits activation of Jun N-terminal kinase and AP-1 transcription factors
    Stephan Ludwig
    Institut für Molekulare Medizin, Heinrich Heine Universitat, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Virol 76:11166-71. 2002
    ..Here we identify NS1 as the first viral protein that antagonizes virus- and dsRNA-induced activation of the stress response-signaling pathway mediated through Jun N-terminal kinase...
  77. ncbi RNA interference in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes through ingestion of double-stranded RNA
    Xuguo Zhou
    Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, PO Box 110620, Gainesville, FL 32611 0620, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 38:805-15. 2008
    ..Additionally, these results validate a high-throughput bioassay approach for use in (i) termite functional genomics research, and (ii) characterizing target sites of conventional and novel RNAi-based termiticides...
  78. pmc RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 suppresses measles virus-induced apoptosis and activation of protein kinase PKR
    Ann M Toth
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:29350-6. 2009
    ....
  79. ncbi A conserved siRNA-degrading RNase negatively regulates RNA interference in C. elegans
    Scott Kennedy
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nature 427:645-9. 2004
    ..Thus, ERI-1 is a negative regulator that may normally function to limit the duration, cell-type specificity or endogenous functions of RNA interference...
  80. pmc dsRNA binding properties of RDE-4 and TRBP reflect their distinct roles in RNAi
    Greg S Parker
    University of Utah, Department of Biochemistry HHMI, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 5650, USA
    J Mol Biol 384:967-79. 2008
    ....
  81. pmc RNA interference directs innate immunity against viruses in adult Drosophila
    Xiao Hong Wang
    Graduate Program for Microbiology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Science 312:452-4. 2006
    ..These findings establish a Drosophila model for studying the innate immunity against viruses in animals...
  82. pmc Structure of the double-stranded RNA-binding domain of the protein kinase PKR reveals the molecular basis of its dsRNA-mediated activation
    S Nanduri
    Structural Biology Program, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    EMBO J 17:5458-65. 1998
    ..The central linker is highly flexible, which may enable the two dsRBMs to wrap around the RNA duplex for cooperative and high-affinity binding, leading to the overall change of PKR conformation and its activation...
  83. pmc A role for the RNase III enzyme DCR-1 in RNA interference and germ line development in Caenorhabditis elegans
    S W Knight
    Department of Biochemistry and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah, 50 North Medical Drive, Room 211, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Science 293:2269-71. 2001
    ..Mutant animals have germ line defects that lead to sterility, suggesting that cleavage of dsRNA to short pieces is a requisite event in normal development...
  84. ncbi RNAi mediated silencing of actin expression in adult Litomosoides sigmodontis is specific, persistent and results in a phenotype
    Kenneth Pfarr
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Clinic Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Int J Parasitol 36:661-9. 2006
    ..By establishing controls for measuring off-target RNAi effects we showed that lower concentrations of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) are more effective than those previously reported...
  85. ncbi Toll-like receptor 3 promotes cross-priming to virus-infected cells
    Oliver Schulz
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, Lincoln s Inn Fields Laboratories, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Nature 433:887-92. 2005
    ..Thus, TLR3 may have evolved to permit cross-priming of CTLs against viruses that do not directly infect dendritic cells...
  86. ncbi Structural insight into the mechanism of double-stranded RNA processing by ribonuclease III
    Jianhua Gan
    Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Cell 124:355-66. 2006
    ..The structure reveals a wealth of information about the mechanism of RNA hydrolysis that can be extrapolated to other RNase III family members...
  87. ncbi Rates of behavior and aging specified by mitochondrial function during development
    Andrew Dillin
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0448, USA
    Science 298:2398-401. 2002
    ..Thus, the developing animal appears to contain a regulatory system that monitors mitochondrial activity early in life and, in response, establishes rates of respiration, behavior, and aging that persist during adulthood...
  88. ncbi Scavenger receptor class-A is a novel cell surface receptor for double-stranded RNA
    Gino V Limmon
    NIEHS NIH, Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, Durham, North Carolina 27709, USA
    FASEB J 22:159-67. 2008
    ..These data provide direct evidence that SR-A is a novel cell surface receptor for dsRNA, and therefore, SR-A may play a role in antiviral immune responses...
  89. pmc Phenotypic silencing of cytoplasmic genes using sequence-specific double-stranded short interfering RNA and its application in the reverse genetics of wild type negative-strand RNA viruses
    V Bitko
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology MSB 2370, University of South Alabama, College of Medicine, 307 University Blvd, Mobile, AL 36688 0002, USA
    BMC Microbiol 1:34. 2001
    ..Since directed mutation of RNA genomes is not possible through conventional mutagenesis, we have tested sequence-specific 21-nucleotide long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) for their ability to silence cytoplasmic RNA genomes...
  90. ncbi Spectroscopic and calorimetric studies on the binding of alkaloids berberine, palmatine and coralyne to double stranded RNA polynucleotides
    Md Maidul Islam
    Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Kolkata 700 032, India
    J Phys Chem B 113:1210-24. 2009
    ..These results further advance our understanding on the binding of small molecules that are specific binders to double stranded RNA sequences.
  91. pmc Two classes of short interfering RNA in RNA silencing
    Andrew Hamilton
    The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
    EMBO J 21:4671-9. 2002
    ..These findings reveal an unexpected level of complexity in the RNA silencing pathway in plants that may also apply in animals...
  92. ncbi The rde-1 gene, RNA interference, and transposon silencing in C. elegans
    H Tabara
    Department of Cell Biology, Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Cancer Center, Worcester 01605, USA
    Cell 99:123-32. 1999
    ..We discuss implications for the mechanism of RNAi and the possibility that one natural function of RNAi is transposon silencing...
  93. ncbi Prolonged gene knockdown in the tsetse fly Glossina by feeding double stranded RNA
    D P Walshe
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA
    Insect Mol Biol 18:11-9. 2009
    ..However the necessity of injecting double stranded RNA (dsRNA) inevitably compromises many investigations particularly those on immunity...
  94. pmc Specific inhibition of gene expression by small double-stranded RNAs in invertebrate and vertebrate systems
    N J Caplen
    Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9742-7. 2001
    ..These observations may open a path toward the use of siRNAs as a reverse genetic and therapeutic tool in mammalian cells...
  95. ncbi The RNA helicase Lgp2 inhibits TLR-independent sensing of viral replication by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I
    Simon Rothenfusser
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    J Immunol 175:5260-8. 2005
    ..We propose that Lgp2 acts as a negative feedback regulator of antiviral signaling by sequestering dsRNA from RIG-I...
  96. pmc A potential role for RNA interference in controlling the activity of the human LINE-1 retrotransposon
    Harris S Soifer
    Division of Molecular Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope 1450 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010 3011, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:846-56. 2005
    ..Finally, both synthetic and pooled siRNA suppressed retrotransposition from a highly active RC-L1 clone in cell culture assay. Our report is the first to demonstrate that a human transposable element is subjected to RNAi...
  97. ncbi Double-stranded RNA induces pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis by activation of the toll-like receptor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 3 pathways
    Zeynep Dogusan
    Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Route de Lennik, 808, CP 618, B 1070 Brussels, Belgium
    Diabetes 57:1236-45. 2008
    ..We presently investigated the mediators and downstream effectors of dsRNA-induced beta-cell death...
  98. ncbi Gene expression analysis in blood cells in response to unmodified and 2'-modified siRNAs reveals TLR-dependent and independent effects
    Lina Cekaite
    Department of Tumour Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, Montebello, 310, Oslo, Norway
    J Mol Biol 365:90-108. 2007
    ..The data should help to define strategies to either enhance or avoid the non-specific effects of siRNAs in order to develop safe therapeutics...
  99. ncbi Structure of the bacteriophage phi6 nucleocapsid suggests a mechanism for sequential RNA packaging
    Juha T Huiskonen
    Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P O Box 65 Viikinkaari 1, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Structure 14:1039-48. 2006
    ..This leads to exposure of new potential RNA binding surfaces to control the sequential packaging of the genome segments...
  100. ncbi Critical role for Cryopyrin/Nalp3 in activation of caspase-1 in response to viral infection and double-stranded RNA
    Thirumala Devi Kanneganti
    Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:36560-8. 2006
    ..These results identify a mechanism mediated by cryopyrin and ASC that links dsRNA and viral infection to caspase-1 activation resulting in IL-1beta and IL-18 production...
  101. pmc Chemical modification patterns compatible with high potency dicer-substrate small interfering RNAs
    Michael A Collingwood
    Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc 1710 Commercial Park, Coralville, IA 52241, USA
    Oligonucleotides 18:187-200. 2008
    ....

Research Grants71

  1. MOLECULAR BASIS OF REOVIRUS PATHOGENESIS
    Terence S Dermody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Trichothecene Toxicity and the Ribotoxic Stress Response
    James J Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Collectively, these outcomes will positively impact public health by providing a scientific basis for generating sound recommendations relative to these important toxins and appropriate remedial actions should exposures occur. ..
  3. Roles for microRNA-122 in hepatitis C virus RNA amplification
    Peter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5 fold drop in viral load without any emergence of resistant virus (Lanford et al. 2010. Science: 327:198-201). ..
  4. Interaction between RNA interference and RNA editing pathways
    Kazuko Nishikura; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our research focuses also on apoptosis, which is highly relevant to many human diseases including cancer. ..
  5. The Role of PKR in a Novel IL-3 Signal Transduction Pathway
    William Stratford May; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Results will point the way to and provide a basis for discovering novel anti-leukemia therapies. ..
  6. Control of Cardiogenesis by microRNA Editing
    Kazuko Nishikura; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  7. RNA CONFORMATION AND CATALYSIS
    David P Bartel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  8. Expression control in Drosophila splicing assembly factor RNP-4F
    JACK VAUGHN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this proposal, we outline experiments which are designed to result in understanding the roles of cis- and trans-acting regulatory factors in genetic regulation of this evolutionarily-conserved splicing assembly factor. ..
  9. Cerebral Artery Alpha1 Adrenergic and PKC Regulatory Mechanisms
    Lawrence D Longo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..immunoblots, RT- PCR, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, 2D-gel-mass spectroscopy, gene silencing by double stranded RNA or morpholinos, gene upregulation, gene microarray/pathway analysis, and gene/protein discovery...
  10. Suppression of the Interferon Response by the Hepatitis C Virus
    FRANCIS VINCENT CHISARI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PKR- activation by viral double stranded RNA usually triggers an antiviral innate response by inhibiting viral mRNA translation...
  11. Germ cell specifications and differentiation in planarians.
    Phillip A Newmark; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  12. RAX, PKR and ethanol neurotoxicity
    Gang Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 3: To determine whether RAX+/- mice, N-PKR-/- mice or PKR-inhibitor-injected mice are more resistant to ethanol-induced cerebellar behavioral dysfunction. ..
  13. Reactivity epitopes of ribonuclease III substrates
    ALLEN WHITALL NICHOLSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  14. Specification of alternate siRNA biogenesis pathways in Arabidopsis
    TODD LUCAS BLEVINS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The diversity of RNA silencing systems in Arabidopsis, loss-of-function mutants in key proteins, and ability to rescue mutations using tagged proteins allows us to scrutinize molecular interactions that generate and channel siRNAs. ..
  15. Structural studies of PKR regulation by viral non-coding RNA
    GRAEME LESLIE CONN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  16. Engineering a packaging nanomotor for delivery of RNA and other molecules
    Venigalla B Rao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal of this application is to engineer the bacteriophage T4 DNA packaging motor to translocate double stranded RNA and RNA:DNA hybrid molecules...
  17. Identification of Pathways that Regulate Fibrosis through Collagen Resorption
    Kamran Atabai; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..we will use a flow cytometry-based high-throughput screen of Drosophila S2 cell collagen uptake using a double stranded RNA library to identify candidate molecules involved in collagen turnover...
  18. The functional role of DRH-1 in RNAi directed viral immunity
    Rui Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a stepwise process that begins with the processing of viral replication intermediates (in the form of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)), into small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes by RNase III enzymes...
  19. DNA - DNA interactions with atomic detail
    Lois Pollack; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  20. TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS GENE EXPRESSION
    Adam P Geballe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition to aiding the development of the animal models, these studies will provide insights into the fundamental roles and evolution of dsRNA-binding proteins found in many viral systems. ..
  21. CONTROL OF NEURONAL ORGANELLE TRANSPORT
    Peter J Hollenbeck; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  22. Defining the cis and trans acting factors required for assembly of infectious Blu
    Polly Roy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Completion of these goals will pave the way for the rational design of inhibitors to block virus replication and provide lead compounds for related viruses of pathogenic significance to man and animals. ..
  23. Cigarette Smoke, RIG-like Helicases and Alveolar Remodeling
    Jack A Elias; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..4. Define the mechanism by which RLH-mediated innate activation regulates progenitor cell based repair responses in mice exposed to CS plus virus/viral PAMPs. ..
  24. Recognition of Regulatory and Pathogenic RNA by Muscleblind Zinc Fingers
    PETER EDWIN WRIGHT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..recognizes specific regulatory sites in single stranded RNA and also binds with high affinity to pathogenic double stranded RNA hairpins...
  25. The Molecular Structure of the RNA Polymerase Portal of a Bacteriophage-Reovirus
    PAUL JEFFREY GOTTLIEB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We anticipate that the optical qualities of viral proteins that we discover are applicable to human pathogens, in particular influenza. ..
  26. RNAi in DNA Sequence Elimination in Tetrahymena
    Martin A Gorovsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Cells of animals, plants, fungi and protists respond to the presence of intracellular double stranded RNA (dsRNA) by a conserved mechanism (the RNAi machinery), which cleaves dsRNA to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)...
  27. Inflammatory and Chemotactic Cytokines in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Vedang A Londhe; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Specifically, in a mouse model mimicking viral lung infection, double stranded RNA (dsRNA) activates NF-kB and induces CXC chemokines KC(CXCL1) and MIP-2(CXCL2/3) to recruit neutrophils ..
  28. TSG-6: Novel Regulator of Viral-Induced Hyaluronan Synthesis in Inflamed Airways
    Mark E Lauer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  29. Control of Neural Organelle Transport
    PETER HOLLENBECK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  30. Quantitative stepwise analysis of RNA interference
    Sua Myong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..First stage is pre-scanning of RNA by TRBP. It is based on our recent discovery that TRBP slides on double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in ATP independent manner...
  31. Mechanisms of CRISPR Interference
    Erik J Sontheimer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This work will clarify the molecular basis of CRISPR interference and illuminate routes toward tapping its potential in the critical battle against antibiotic resistance and bacterial infection. ..
  32. Asymmetric cell division of CNS progenitor cells
    Sally Temple; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  33. Does Dengue Virus Suppress RNA Interference in its Mosquito Vector?
    KATHRYN ALYCE HANLEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed research will investigate whether dengue virus possesses mechanisms to counteract RNA interference. ..
  34. Molecular Mechanisms of Gene Silencing by RNAi
    Richard W Carthew; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, small RNAs are used experimentally to probe gene function and are being commercially developed as disease therapeutics, making basic understanding of these molecules an important biomedical research goal. ..
  35. RNAi-Mediated Heterochromatin Assembly
    Danesh Moazed; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..amplification by recruiting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex (RDRC) to promote the synthesis of double stranded RNA, which is cleaved into siRNAs by the Dicer ribonuclease...
  36. The Biology and Biochemistry of ADAR RNA Editing Enzymes
    Brenda L Bass; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..After validation of observations made with bioinformatics studies, phenotypes suggested by molecular defects will be tested. ..
  37. The Role of RNA Interference in West Nile Virus Diversification
    Douglas E Brackney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding the adaptive mechanisms of arboviruses is paramount to developing and implementing effective control measures. ..
  38. Transgenic Mosquitoes for Improved Malaria Sporozoite Vaccine Manufacture
    Peter F Billingsley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will incorporate the optimal GM strain of A. stephensi into Sanaria's manufacturing process. ..
  39. Role of Staufen2 in asymmetric division of mouse cortical progenitor cells
    GRETCHEN K KUSEK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Studying the loss of asymmetric cell division mechanisms in NSCs will also provide valuable insight into the etiology and treatment of cancer. ..
  40. Inflammatory and stress signaling networks in metabolic disease
    Gokhan S Hotamisligil; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  41. Understanding the Mechanism of RNA Interference
    Phillip D Zamore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Of particular interest is testing the idea that piRNAs acting early in development can set the epigenetic state of genes whose expression and phenotypic consequences can be observed only in the adult fly. ..
  42. Optimization of SWCNT/siRNA complex formulation for tumor accumulation
    Lynn Kirkpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These critical studies will move this novel technology one step closer to full pre-clinical development and eventually to a clinical trial study. ..
  43. The age-dependence of synaptic deficits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome mouse models
    Laurie R Earls; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The career development award would be an important step in establishing this research program. ..
  44. ANTIVIRAL ACTIONS OF INTERFERONS
    Ganes C Sen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For combating virus infection, the interferon system is the most important component of the mammalian innate immune system and here we propose to study its functions. ..
  45. The Role of Microglia during TMEV-IDD in the Adult Mouse
    DANNE S DUNCAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  46. RNA METABOLISM IN TRYPANOSOMES
    Elisabetta Ullu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We believe that the range of expertise contributed by Dr. Aksoy and our laboratory offers a unique opportunity for synergism. ..
  47. Hedgehog Signal Transduction Across the Cell Membrane
    Lawrence Lum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. Innate Control of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Antiviral and Evasion Mechanisms
    FRANCIS VINCENT CHISARI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Specific Aim 1, we will characterize the molecular mechanism whereby NS4B blocks double stranded RNA-signaling by determining if it directly interacts with RIG-I, if it regulates RIG-I subcellular ..
  49. Mechanisms of reovirus neural tropism and spread
    Jennifer L Konopka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  50. VEGF mRNA Expression Mechanisms in Hypoxia
    Kevin P Claffey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These hypotheses will be tested in the following aims: Specific Aim 1 will define the role of double stranded RNA-binding proteins (DRBP76/ILF3) in hypoxia-induced VEGF mRNA stability, intracellular shuttling and ..
  51. Novel approaches for disrupting gene expression in mammalian oocytes
    Paul S Miller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  52. Helicase Regulation of dsRNA Signaling and Innate Antiviral Immune Responses
    Curt M Horvath; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This strategy will reveal the strengths and vulnerabilities of the antiviral response and identify targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
  53. Assembly of phi29 pRNA nanoparticles for siRNA delivery to prostate cancer cells
    Peixuan Guo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in prostate cancer therapy, the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, off-target effects as well as the double stranded RNA induced interference will be evaluated in both prostate cancer cells and mice models.
  54. Role of ASK1 and PKR in Fancc hematopoiesis
    Laura Haneline; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  55. A novel recessive genetic screen for mitochondrial phenotypes in mammalian cells
    WILLIAM JAMES CRAIGEN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the resulting transcript is predicted to bind to the endogenous sense transcript, resulting in a long, double stranded RNA molecule that will activate endogenous RNAi pathways and will knockdown expression of the intact endogenous ..
  56. 11th International Symposium on dsRNA Viruses
    Margaret E Conner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This is the sole conference that focuses on dsRNA viruses and it encompasses a wide range of topics and approaches to cultivate interdisciplinary research. ..
  57. Development of iPS Cells for Treatment of Hemoglobinopathies
    Yuet Wai Kan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..carrying 2A peptide linked Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc reprogramming cDNAs or by using small activating double stranded RNA (saRNA) to transiently enhance the expression of these reprogramming genes...
  58. Novel TLR3 inhibitors for geographic atrophy of age-related macular degeneration
    Jayakrishna Ambati; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..reported that a hypomorphic polymorphism in toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), an innate immune sensor of double stranded RNA (dsRNA), conferred protection from GA, making it the first candidate gene specific for GA...
  59. Software to Facilitate DNA Cloning
    ALINE GLICK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This innovation will make biomedical research more cost-effective and more efficient at generating improvements in health care. ..
  60. Structure and Function of RNAi-related Nucleases
    Jennifer A Doudna; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our discoveries about how such regulatory RNAs are produced and utilized in human cells will enable academic and industrial laboratories to harness RNAi to enhance or repress production of specific proteins for therapeutic purposes. ..
  61. HIV and ADAR Editing
    Marie Louise Hammarskjold; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ADAR specifically edits residues in regions of double stranded RNA. ADAR activity results in selective editing in shorter, imperfect stems, whereas long perfectly double ..
  62. Specificity of miRNA Processing Provided by Double-Stranded RNA Binding Domains
    Scott A Showalter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The full molecular understanding of miRNA processing proposed herein will allow novel entry points for targeted manipulation of miRNA expression, which may have broad impacts on both basic and clinical science. ..
  63. Mechanisms of Sequence-Based Resistance to Viruses and Plasmids in Eubacteria
    Erik J Sontheimer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed studies will clarify the mechanisms of CRISPR function, and will therefore contribute to our ability to exploit this natural pathway to prevent and treat infectious disease. ..
  64. VIRAL PROTEINS IN ROTAVIRUS REPLICATION
    John Patton; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These results should provide valuable information on events in the replication of the rotaviruses that may be useful for developing strategies of controlling diseases caused by these viruses...
  65. HK polymers as transfection reagents for siRNA delivery
    Frank Xie; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The annual market value for a dominant siRNA transfection reagent is easily over tens of millions of dollars, giving the huge potentials of siRNA as a tool for biomedical research as well as a therapeutic modality. ..
  66. REGULATION OF THE TUMORICIDAL MACROPHAGE PHENOTYPE
    David Riches; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Priming is an essential competence step that allows macrophages to respond to secondary stimuli (e.g. double stranded RNA, zymosan particles, LPS) which trigger the expression of the activated phenotype...
  67. HOST CELL INTERACTION OF ANIMAL VIRUSES
    Philip Marcus; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ....
  68. Inhibition of Collagen Synthesis by RNA Interference
    Kyonggeun Yoon; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  69. Ribonuclease III mechanism of double-strand RNA cleavage
    ALLEN NICHOLSON; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..coil RNase Ill, but will also provide mechanistic insight on RNase Ill orthologue function in eukaryotic RNA processing and degradation pathways, including RNAi. ..
  70. Understanding the Mechanism of RNA Interference (RNAi)
    Phillip Zamore; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  71. REGULATION OF RNA EDITING IN THE CNS
    Ronald B Emeson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....