rna directed dna polymerase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi rtREV: an amino acid substitution matrix for inference of retrovirus and reverse transcriptase phylogeny
    Matthew W Dimmic
    Biophysics Research Division, University of Michigan, 930 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1055, USA
    J Mol Evol 55:65-73. 2002
  2. ncbi The replication strategy of foamy viruses
    A Rethwilm
    Institut fur Virologie, Medizinische Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, Fetscherstr 74, Dresden, 01307 Germany
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 277:1-26. 2003
  3. ncbi Transposable elements controlling I-R hybrid dysgenesis in D. melanogaster are similar to mammalian LINEs
    D H Fawcett
    Cell 47:1007-15. 1986
  4. ncbi Characterization of the C-terminal DNA-binding/DNA endonuclease region of a group II intron-encoded protein
    Joseph San Filippo
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Section of Molecular, Genetics and Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, MBB2 234BA, 2500 Speedway, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    J Mol Biol 324:933-51. 2002
  5. ncbi Reverse transcriptase-mediated tropism switching in Bordetella bacteriophage
    Minghsun Liu
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 295:2091-4. 2002
  6. ncbi RNA and protein catalysis in group II intron splicing and mobility reactions using purified components
    R Saldanha
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Biochemistry 38:9069-83. 1999
  7. pmc Hsp90 is required for the activity of a hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase
    J Hu
    Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:1060-4. 1996
  8. pmc Endogenous expression of a high-affinity pseudoknot RNA aptamer suppresses replication of HIV-1
    Laurent Chaloin
    Max Planck Institut fur molekulare Physiologie, Abteilung Physikalische Biochemie, Otto Hahn Strasse 11, 44227 Dortmund, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 30:4001-8. 2002
  9. pmc Requirement of heat shock protein 90 for human hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase function
    Jianming Hu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology H107, The Pennsylvania State University, 500 University Dr, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Virol 78:13122-31. 2004
  10. ncbi The crystal structure of the monomeric reverse transcriptase from Moloney murine leukemia virus
    Debanu Das
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA
    Structure 12:819-29. 2004

Detail Information

Publications219 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi rtREV: an amino acid substitution matrix for inference of retrovirus and reverse transcriptase phylogeny
    Matthew W Dimmic
    Biophysics Research Division, University of Michigan, 930 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1055, USA
    J Mol Evol 55:65-73. 2002
    ..We provide evidence that rtREV is a more realistic evolutionary model for analyses of the pol gene, although it is inapplicable to analyses involving the gag gene...
  2. ncbi The replication strategy of foamy viruses
    A Rethwilm
    Institut fur Virologie, Medizinische Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, Fetscherstr 74, Dresden, 01307 Germany
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 277:1-26. 2003
    ..A number of experimental findings in favour of the view that foamy viruses are reverse transcribing DNA viruses which integrate into the host cell genome are discussed...
  3. ncbi Transposable elements controlling I-R hybrid dysgenesis in D. melanogaster are similar to mammalian LINEs
    D H Fawcett
    Cell 47:1007-15. 1986
    ..These results suggest that I factors transpose by reverse transcription of a full-length RNA...
  4. ncbi Characterization of the C-terminal DNA-binding/DNA endonuclease region of a group II intron-encoded protein
    Joseph San Filippo
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Section of Molecular, Genetics and Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, MBB2 234BA, 2500 Speedway, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    J Mol Biol 324:933-51. 2002
    ....
  5. ncbi Reverse transcriptase-mediated tropism switching in Bordetella bacteriophage
    Minghsun Liu
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 295:2091-4. 2002
    ..This cassette-based mechanism is capable of providing a vast repertoire of potential ligand-receptor interactions...
  6. ncbi RNA and protein catalysis in group II intron splicing and mobility reactions using purified components
    R Saldanha
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Biochemistry 38:9069-83. 1999
    ....
  7. pmc Hsp90 is required for the activity of a hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase
    J Hu
    Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:1060-4. 1996
    ..This RNP complex is required early in replication for viral assembly and initiation of DNA synthesis through a protein-priming mechanism. These results thus invoke a role for the Hsp90 pathway in the formation of an RNP...
  8. pmc Endogenous expression of a high-affinity pseudoknot RNA aptamer suppresses replication of HIV-1
    Laurent Chaloin
    Max Planck Institut fur molekulare Physiologie, Abteilung Physikalische Biochemie, Otto Hahn Strasse 11, 44227 Dortmund, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 30:4001-8. 2002
    ..This is the first example of an RNA aptamer selected against a viral enzyme target to show powerful antiviral activity in HIV-1-permissive human T-lymphoid cell lines...
  9. pmc Requirement of heat shock protein 90 for human hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase function
    Jianming Hu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology H107, The Pennsylvania State University, 500 University Dr, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Virol 78:13122-31. 2004
    ..The establishment of a defined in vitro reconstitution system has now paved the way for future biochemical and structural studies to elucidate the mechanisms of RT-epsilon interaction and chaperone activation...
  10. ncbi The crystal structure of the monomeric reverse transcriptase from Moloney murine leukemia virus
    Debanu Das
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA
    Structure 12:819-29. 2004
    ..A comparative analysis with related DNA polymerases suggests a unique trajectory for the template-primer exiting the polymerase active site and provides insights regarding processive DNA synthesis by MMLV RT...
  11. ncbi Tropism switching in Bordetella bacteriophage defines a family of diversity-generating retroelements
    Sergei Doulatov
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nature 431:476-81. 2004
    ..These elements constitute a new family of retroelements with the potential to confer selective advantages to their host genomes...
  12. pmc Mechanism of maturase-promoted group II intron splicing
    M Matsuura
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    EMBO J 20:7259-70. 2001
    ....
  13. pmc R2 target-primed reverse transcription: ordered cleavage and polymerization steps by protein subunits asymmetrically bound to the target DNA
    Shawn M Christensen
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 25:6617-28. 2005
    ..A complete model for the R2 integration reaction is presented, which with minor modifications is adaptable to other non-LTR retrotransposons...
  14. pmc Structure of HIV-2 reverse transcriptase at 2.35-A resolution and the mechanism of resistance to non-nucleoside inhibitors
    J Ren
    Division of Structural Biology, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14410-5. 2002
    ..The availability of a refined structure of HIV-2 RT will provide a stimulus for the structure-based design of novel non-nucleoside inhibitors that could be used against HIV-2 infection...
  15. pmc Hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase and epsilon RNA sequences required for specific interaction in vitro
    Jianming Hu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, H107, The Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, 17033, USA
    J Virol 80:2141-50. 2006
    ..In addition, our results suggest that recognition of some epsilon sequences by the RT may be required specifically for viral DNA synthesis...
  16. ncbi Bipolar localization of the group II intron Ll.LtrB is maintained in Escherichia coli deficient in nucleoid condensation, chromosome partitioning and DNA replication
    Arthur Beauregard
    Molecular Genetics Program, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Center for Medical Sciences, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Mol Microbiol 62:709-22. 2006
    ..Together, these results suggest that bipolar localization of group II intron retrotransposition results from the residence of the intron-encoded protein at the poles of the cell...
  17. pmc Role of the Bombyx mori R2 element N-terminal domain in the target-primed reverse transcription (TPRT) reaction
    Shawn M Christensen
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 0211, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:6461-8. 2005
    ..Mutations of the protein domain also affected binding of the upstream subunit but not its function, suggesting the primary path to DNA target recognition by R2 involves both upstream and downstream subunits...
  18. ncbi Systematic survey for novel types of prokaryotic retroelements based on gene neighborhood and protein architecture
    Kenji K Kojima
    Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
    Mol Biol Evol 25:1395-404. 2008
    ..In addition, we found 8 RT genes were associated with clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPRs) of the CRISPR-Cas system. These RT genes are likely to work in immunity against RNA phages via cDNA synthesis...
  19. pmc Domain structure and three-dimensional model of a group II intron-encoded reverse transcriptase
    Forrest J H Blocker
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station A4800, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    RNA 11:14-28. 2005
    ..These regions potentially comprise an extended RNA-binding surface that interacts with different regions of the intron for RNA splicing and reverse transcription...
  20. pmc Splicing of a group II intron involved in the conjugative transfer of pRS01 in lactococci
    D A Mills
    Department of Microbiology and Institute for Advanced Studies in Biological Process Technology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455 0312, USA
    J Bacteriol 178:3531-8. 1996
    ..These results provide the first direct evidence for splicing of a prokaryotic group II intron in vivo and suggest that conjugative transfer is a mechanism for group II intron dissemination in bacteria...
  21. ncbi A group II intron-encoded maturase functions preferentially in cis and requires both the reverse transcriptase and X domains to promote RNA splicing
    Xiaoxia Cui
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Section of Molecular, Genetics and Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    J Mol Biol 340:211-31. 2004
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that the intron-encoded protein adapted to function in splicing by using, at least in part, interactions used initially to recognize the intron RNA as a template for reverse transcription...
  22. pmc A bacterial group II intron encoding reverse transcriptase, maturase, and DNA endonuclease activities: biochemical demonstration of maturase activity and insertion of new genetic information within the intron
    M Matsuura
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 1292, USA
    Genes Dev 11:2910-24. 1997
    ..Expression in E. coli facilitates the use of group II introns for the targeting of specific foreign sequences to a desired site in DNA...
  23. pmc Fidelity of two retroviral reverse transcriptases during DNA-dependent DNA synthesis in vitro
    J D Roberts
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
    Mol Cell Biol 9:469-76. 1989
    ..The overall error rate of RT in vitro is sufficient to account for the estimated mutation rate of these viruses...
  24. ncbi The solution structure of the simian foamy virus protease reveals a monomeric protein
    Maximilian J Hartl
    Lehrstuhl für Struktur und Chemie der Biopolymere, Universitat Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
    J Mol Biol 381:141-9. 2008
    ..Dimerization might therefore be triggered by additional viral or cellular factors...
  25. ncbi Evolutionary dynamics and evolutionary history in the RTE clade of non-LTR retrotransposons
    V Zupunski
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Mol Biol Evol 18:1849-63. 2001
    ....
  26. ncbi Reverse transcriptase template switching and false alternative transcripts
    Julie Cocquet
    INSERM U709, Hopital Cochin, Pavillon Baudelocque, 123 Bd de Port Royal, 75014 Paris, France
    Genomics 88:127-31. 2006
    ..However, care should be taken in the annotation of alternative transcripts, especially when the RT used is poorly thermostable and when the putative intron is flanked by direct repeats, which are the substrate for template switching...
  27. pmc In vitro reconstitution of a functional duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase: posttranslational activation by Hsp90
    J Hu
    Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Virol 74:11447-55. 2000
    ..It is anticipated that the reconstitution system established here will facilitate the isolation of additional host factors required for RT functions and further elucidation of the mechanisms of RT activation...
  28. ncbi Zidovudine resistance predicted by direct detection of mutations in DNA from HIV-infected lymphocytes
    B A Larder
    Molecular Sciences Department, Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham, Kent, UK
    AIDS 5:137-44. 1991
    ..This should make it possible to test large numbers of individuals receiving zidovudine therapy, with the aim of establishing the clinical significance of the resistant isolates...
  29. pmc The duck hepatitis B virus polymerase is activated by its RNA packaging signal, epsilon
    J E Tavis
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63104, USA
    J Virol 72:5789-96. 1998
    ..Finally, analysis of 15 mutations throughout the duck hepatitis B virus polymerase demonstrated that the epsilon-dependent alteration to the polymerase was a prerequisite for DNA priming, reverse transcription, and the trans reaction...
  30. pmc A bacterial group II intron-encoded reverse transcriptase localizes to cellular poles
    Junhua Zhao
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16133-40. 2005
    ..coli chromosome, may facilitate access to exposed DNA in these regions, and could potentially link group II intron mobility to the host DNA replication and/or cell division machinery...
  31. ncbi Footprint of the retrotransposon R2Bm protein on its target site before and after cleavage
    Shawn Christensen
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Hutchinson Hall 334, Rochester, NY 14627 0211, USA
    J Mol Biol 336:1035-45. 2004
    ..We suggest that this increased protection after cleavage is the RT domain that is positioned over the free DNA end to begin reverse transcription on the nicked DNA substrate...
  32. ncbi Continuous RT-PCR using AMV-RT and Taq DNA polymerase: characterization and comparison to uncoupled procedures
    F Mallet
    CNRS bioMerieux, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, France
    Biotechniques 18:678-87. 1995
    ..The procedure was shown to be reliable and to have the sensitivity to detect one HTLV-IIIB-infected H9 cell in a million uninfected H9 cells...
  33. pmc Identification of an essential molecular contact point on the duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase
    Feng Cao
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1402 S Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    J Virol 79:10164-70. 2005
    ..Therefore, small-molecule ligands that compete for binding to T3 with its natural ligand could form a novel class of antiviral drugs...
  34. ncbi Staying straight with A-tracts: a DNA analog of the HIV-1 polypurine tract
    Marie L Coté
    Waksman Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8020, USA
    J Mol Biol 330:57-74. 2003
    ..On the basis of our analysis, we suggest that the specific topology of long pure A-tracts is remarkably comparable across a wide array of biological environments...
  35. ncbi Kinetics of deoxyribonucleotide insertion and extension at abasic template lesions in different sequence contexts using HIV-1 reverse transcriptase
    H Cai
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90089 1340
    J Biol Chem 268:23567-72. 1993
    ..A striking result was that while primers were extended past an abasic lesion by HIV-1 RT in both direct and misalignment modes, avian myeloblastosis virus RT failed to catalyze significant extension by either mode...
  36. pmc Evidence for activation of the hepatitis B virus polymerase by binding of its RNA template
    J E Tavis
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, St Louis University School of Medicine, Missouri 63104, USA
    J Virol 70:5741-50. 1996
    ....
  37. ncbi Functional reverse transcriptases encoded by A-type mouse LINE-1: defining the minimal domain by deletion analysis
    S L Martin
    University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Cellular, Structural Biology, Program in Molecular Biology, 4200 E Ninth Avenue, Box B111, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Gene 215:69-75. 1998
    ....
  38. ncbi Reverse transcriptase template switching: a SMART approach for full-length cDNA library construction
    Y Y Zhu
    CLONTECH Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    Biotechniques 30:892-7. 2001
    ..cDNA libraries generated using this method will be useful for accelerating the collection of mRNA 5' end sequence information, which is currently very limited in GenBank...
  39. ncbi Impact of hepatitis B virus rtA181V/T mutants on hepatitis B treatment failure
    Stephanie Villet
    INSERM U871, Laboratoire des virus hépatiques et pathologies associées, 151 Cours Albert Thomas, Lyon Cedex 03, France
    J Hepatol 48:747-55. 2008
    ..In this study, we characterized the main variants harboring the rtA181T/V mutation isolated from 10 consecutive patients who developed lamivudine and/or adefovir resistance...
  40. pmc Clinical emergence of entecavir-resistant hepatitis B virus requires additional substitutions in virus already resistant to Lamivudine
    D J Tenney
    Bristol Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, 5 Research Pkwy, Wallingford, CT 06492, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3498-507. 2004
    ..In summary, infrequent ETV resistance can emerge during prolonged therapy, with selection of additional RT substitutions within a 3TC(r) HBV background, leading to reduced ETV susceptibility and treatment failure...
  41. pmc In vitro reconstitution of functional hepadnavirus reverse transcriptase with cellular chaperone proteins
    Jianming Hu
    Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Virol 76:269-79. 2002
    ..Furthermore, this defined in vitro reconstitution system has now paved the way for future biochemical and structural studies to elucidate the mechanisms of RT activation and chaperone functions...
  42. ncbi Efficient Hsp90-independent in vitro activation by Hsc70 and Hsp40 of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase, an assumed Hsp90 client protein
    Jürgen Beck
    Department of Internal Medicine II Molecular Biology, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, Freiburg D 79106, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:36128-38. 2003
    ..Thus Hsc70, mostly known for its role in general protein folding, is able to effect activation of a highly specialized target protein...
  43. ncbi Low efficiency of the Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase during reverse transcription of rare t(8;21) fusion gene transcripts
    John Curry
    Department of Immunology, Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3200, USA
    Biotechniques 32:768, 770, 772, 754-5. 2002
    ..Levels of nonspecific or background RNA present in the RT reaction reduced the reverse transcriptase's conversion efficiency. This background effect was particularly pronounced when the specific template was present in rare amounts...
  44. pmc The non-LTR retrotransposons in Ciona intestinalis: new insights into the evolution of chordate genomes
    Jon Permanyer
    Departament de Genetica, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 645, E 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Genome Biol 4:R73. 2003
    ..Knowledge of the types and abundance of non-LTR elements in urochordates is a key step in understanding their contribution to the structure and function of vertebrate genomes...
  45. ncbi Polymerization and RNase H activities of the reverse transcriptases from avian myeloblastosis, human immunodeficiency, and Moloney murine leukemia viruses are functionally uncoupled
    J J DeStefano
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Rochester, New York 14642
    J Biol Chem 266:7423-31. 1991
    ..Results demonstrate that the RNase H function is much less active than the polymerization function during processive DNA synthesis and that the activities are not strictly coupled...
  46. ncbi Retroviral mutation rates and reverse transcriptase fidelity
    Evguenia S Svarovskaia
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, CCR, NCI Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Front Biosci 8:d117-34. 2003
    ....
  47. ncbi Nonpolar thymine isosteres in the Ty3 polypurine tract DNA template modulate processing and provide a model for its recognition by Ty3 reverse transcriptase
    Daniela Lener
    Resistance Mechanisms Laboratory, HIV Drug Resistance Program, NCI Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:26526-32. 2003
    ....
  48. ncbi When good transcripts go bad: artifactual RT-PCR 'splicing' and genome analysis
    Scott William Roy
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Bioessays 30:601-5. 2008
    ..Supplementary material for this article can be found on the BioEssays website (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0265-9247/suppmat/index.html)...
  49. ncbi Multiple mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confer high-level resistance to zidovudine (AZT)
    B A Larder
    Molecular Sciences Department, Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham, Kent, United Kingdom
    Science 246:1155-8. 1989
    ....
  50. ncbi Sequence analysis of transposable elements in the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis
    M W Simmen
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland
    Mol Biol Evol 17:1685-94. 2000
    ..This study provides the first systematic characterization of the families of transposable elements in a lower chordate...
  51. pmc Identification of a gene encoding a functional reverse transcriptase within a highly variable locus in the P2-like coliphages
    Richard Odegrip
    Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Bacteriol 188:1643-7. 2006
    ..The product of one of them exhibits reverse transcriptase activity and blocks infection of phage T5...
  52. pmc Hepadnavirus assembly and reverse transcription require a multi-component chaperone complex which is incorporated into nucleocapsids
    J Hu
    Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    EMBO J 16:59-68. 1997
    ....
  53. pmc Cooperation between reverse transcriptase and integrase during reverse transcription and formation of the preintegrative complex of Ty1
    Marcelle Wilhelm
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue R Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, France
    Eukaryot Cell 5:1760-9. 2006
    ..Our data support a model in which IN not only interacts closely with RT during reverse transcription but also remains associated with RT during the formation of the preintegrative complex...
  54. ncbi The basic loop of the RNase H domain of MLV RT is important both for RNase H and for polymerase activity
    P L Boyer
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201, USA
    Virology 282:206-13. 2001
    ..The DeltaC mutant is impaired in both polymerase and RNase H activity; the pattern of defects suggests that the basic loop is involved in the binding of MLV RT to a heteropolymeric template-primer...
  55. pmc Molecular modeling and biochemical characterization reveal the mechanism of hepatitis B virus polymerase resistance to lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC)
    K Das
    Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 088854, USA
    J Virol 75:4771-9. 2001
    ....
  56. ncbi Comparisons of the HBV and HIV polymerase, and antiviral resistance mutations
    Angeline Bartholomeusz
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Antivir Ther 9:149-60. 2004
    ..In addition, the antiviral resistance mutations including potential compensatory mutations were mapped to determine their effect on the HBV polymerase model, especially in the nucleotide binding site...
  57. pmc Heat shock protein 90-independent activation of truncated hepadnavirus reverse transcriptase
    Xingtai Wang
    Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Virol 77:4471-80. 2003
    ..These results have important implications for RT folding and conformational maturation, Hsp90 chaperone function, and potential inhibition of RT functions by host cell factors...
  58. ncbi The kissing hairpin sequence promotes recombination within the HIV-I 5' leader region
    M Balakrishnan
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:36482-92. 2001
    ..Overall, these results suggest that template dimerization facilitated by the unique geometry of the DIS-promoted kissing interactions effectively promotes recombination within the HIV-I 5'-UTR...
  59. pmc Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition of PCR at low concentrations of template and its implications for quantitative RT-PCR
    D P Chandler
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 64:669-77. 1998
    ..Hence, enumerations of RNA templates below 10(5) to 10(6) copies will be relative to an internal standard and will not be an absolute measure of RNA abundance in situ...
  60. ncbi Reverse transcriptase motifs in the catalytic subunit of telomerase
    J Lingner
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0215, USA
    Science 276:561-7. 1997
    ..Thus, the reverse transcriptase protein fold, previously known to be involved in retroviral replication and retrotransposition, is essential for normal chromosome telomere replication in diverse eukaryotes...
  61. pmc Role of the foamy virus Pol cleavage site in viral replication
    Jacqueline Roy
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    J Virol 81:4956-62. 2007
    ..Interestingly, Pol encapsidation is significantly reduced in some of the mutants...
  62. ncbi Binding of a group II intron-encoded reverse transcriptase/maturase to its high affinity intron RNA binding site involves sequence-specific recognition and autoregulates translation
    Ravindra N Singh
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, 78712, USA
    J Mol Biol 318:287-303. 2002
    ..The recognition of the DIVa loop-stem-loop structure accounts, in part, for the intron specificity of group II intron maturases and has parallels in template-recognition mechanisms used by other reverse transcriptases...
  63. ncbi Polymorphism and drug-selected mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV-2 from patients living in southeastern France
    Philippe Colson
    Féedération Hospitalière de Microbiologie Clinique et d Hygiène, Laboratoire de Virologie, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Timone, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille, France
    J Med Virol 75:381-90. 2005
    ..As in HIV-1, substitution M184V was found in 3TC-treated patients. In conclusion, these findings highlight the need for specific guidelines for determining genotypic resistance and treatment of HIV-2...
  64. ncbi Comparison of reverse transcriptases in gene expression analysis
    Anders Ståhlberg
    Department of Chemistry and Biosciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Clin Chem 50:1678-80. 2004
  65. ncbi Natural resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 to zidovudine
    Patrick Reid
    Laboratory Branch, Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Virology 336:251-64. 2005
    ..Our results demonstrate that the activity of AZT on HIV-2 is lower than previously thought, and emphasize the need for novel antiretroviral drugs specific for HIV-2...
  66. pmc Mutation of the catalytic domain of the foamy virus reverse transcriptase leads to loss of processivity and infectivity
    Carolyn S Rinke
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    J Virol 76:7560-70. 2002
    ..The V313M mutant RT is also relatively resistant to 3TC. These results suggest that the decrease in RT activity and processivity of FV RT-V313M prevents completion of reverse transcription and greatly diminishes viral replication...
  67. pmc 2'-Deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates modified at alpha-, beta- and gamma-phosphates as substrates for DNA polymerases
    L A Alexandrova
    Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 32 Vavilov Str, Moscow 117984, Russia
    Nucleic Acids Res 26:778-86. 1998
    ..HIV reverse transcriptase utilized these compounds 1 order of magnitude less efficiently than AMV reverse transcriptase; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase did not recognize them at all...
  68. pmc An actively retrotransposing, novel subfamily of mouse L1 elements
    T P Naas
    Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    EMBO J 17:590-7. 1998
    ..Together, our data indicate that the TF subfamily of L1s contains a major class of mobile elements that is expanding in the mouse genome...
  69. pmc Hepatitis B virus replication
    Juergen Beck
    Department of Internal Medicine II Molecular Biology, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Street 55, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    World J Gastroenterol 13:48-64. 2007
    ..The ultimate, though most challenging goal, will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development...
  70. ncbi A population of thermostable reverse transcriptases evolved from Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I by phage display
    Sophie Vichier-Guerre
    Unité de Chimie Organique URA 2128 CNRS, Departement de Biologie Structurale et Chimie, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris 15, France
    Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 45:6133-7. 2006
  71. ncbi Directed evolution of DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase activity in a single polypeptide
    Jennifer L Ong
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK
    J Mol Biol 361:537-50. 2006
    ..Our results suggest that spCSR will be a powerful strategy for the generation of polymerases with altered substrate specificity for applications in nano- and biotechnology and in the enzymatic synthesis of antisense and RNAi probes...
  72. ncbi Insights into the role of an active site aspartate in Ty1 reverse transcriptase polymerization
    Manjula Pandey
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:47840-8. 2004
    ..These results provide insights to specific roles for the Asp(211) residue during polymerization and indicate unusual enzymatic properties that bear on the Ty1 replication pathway...
  73. ncbi Coupling ribose selection to fidelity of DNA synthesis. The role of Tyr-115 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase
    C E Cases-Gonzalez
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Biol Chem 275:19759-67. 2000
    ....
  74. pmc Ty1 proteolytic cleavage sites are required for transposition: all sites are not created equal
    G V Merkulov
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 75:638-44. 2001
    ..Of the three cleavage sites in the Gag-Pol precursor, the Gag/PR site is processed first. Thus, Ty1 Gag-Pol processing proceeds by an ordered pathway...
  75. ncbi New BEL-like LTR-retrotransposons in Fugu rubripes, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster
    I G Frame
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Gene 263:219-30. 2001
    ..The previously known Roo, TRAM and Telemac are also BEL-like retrotransposons. Some BEL-like elements have captured an envelope gene, probably from other retroelements in some cases but from a phlebovirus in one case...
  76. ncbi Evolving thermostable reverse transcriptase activity in a DNA polymerase scaffold
    Katharina B M Sauter
    Fachbereich Chemie, Universitat Konstanz, Universitatsstrasse 10, M 726, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
    Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 45:7633-5. 2006
  77. pmc An allosteric-feedback mechanism for protein-assisted group I intron splicing
    Mark G Caprara
    Center for RNA Molecular Biology, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106 4960, USA
    RNA 13:211-22. 2007
    ..The linkage of these changes to stable binding ensures that the protein and RNA do not get sequestered in nonfunctional complexes...
  78. ncbi Reverse transcriptase adds nontemplated nucleotides to cDNAs during 5'-RACE and primer extension
    D Chen
    National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Biotechniques 30:574-80, 582. 2001
    ....
  79. pmc Palindromic sequence plays a critical role in human foamy virus dimerization
    D Cain
    Department of G.U. Medicine and Communicable Diseases, Jefferiss Research Trust Laboratories, Wright-Fleming Institute, Imperial College School of Medicine at St. Mary's, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    J Virol 75:3731-9. 2001
    ..Thus, efficient dimerization is a critical step for HFV to generate infectious virus, but HFV RNA dimerization is not a prerequisite for packaging...
  80. pmc Temperature-dependent template switching during in vitro cDNA synthesis by the AMV-reverse transcriptase
    M Ouhammouch
    CNRS Centre de Génétique Moléculaire, Laboratoire propre associe a l Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Gif sur Yvette, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 20:5443-50. 1992
    ..Such products are detectable only after much longer incubation times when primer extension reactions are carried out at lower temperatures (90 min at 37 degrees C)...
  81. pmc Why do HIV-1 and HIV-2 use different pathways to develop AZT resistance?
    Paul L Boyer
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, NCI Frederick, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Pathog 2:e10. 2006
    ..Thus, each RT usually chooses the pathway best suited to extend the properties of the respective wild-type enzymes...
  82. pmc Reverse transcriptase inhibits Taq polymerase activity
    L N Sellner
    Department of Microbiology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands
    Nucleic Acids Res 20:1487-90. 1992
    ..In addition, the effect is not limited to AMV RT, Moloney murine leukaemia virus RT also affects Taq activity...
  83. ncbi APOBEC-mediated interference with hepadnavirus production
    Christine Rösler
    Department of Medicine II, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Hepatology 42:301-9. 2005
    ..In contrast to HIV and other retroviruses, however, APOBEC3G/3F-mediated editing of nucleic acids does not seem to represent an effective innate defense mechanism for hepadnaviruses...
  84. pmc A host-guest approach for determining drug-DNA interactions: an example using netropsin
    Kristie D Goodwin
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, IN 46202, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:4106-16. 2005
    ....
  85. ncbi Comparison of HIV-1 and avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase fidelity on RNA and DNA templates
    H Yu
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90089 1340
    J Biol Chem 267:10888-96. 1992
    ....
  86. ncbi Reverse transcriptase and integrase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 element
    F X Wilhelm
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Strasbourg, France
    Cytogenet Genome Res 110:269-87. 2005
    ..A focus of this review is to discuss some of the results obtained thus far with these two recombinant proteins and to propose future directions...
  87. pmc Functional organization of the murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: characterization of a bacterially expressed AKR DNA polymerase deficient in RNase H activity
    J G Levin
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 62:4376-80. 1988
    ..The results provide additional experimental evidence for the localization of polymerase and RNase H domains to the N- and C-terminal regions of reverse transcriptase, respectively...
  88. ncbi Intrinsic properties of reverse transcriptase in reverse transcription. Associated RNase H is essentially regarded as an endonuclease
    F Oyama
    Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
    J Biol Chem 264:18808-17. 1989
    ..We propose a possible model to explain the mode of action of RNase H and RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activities in reverse transcription...
  89. ncbi Reverse transcriptase activity of hepatitis B virus polymerase in eukaryotic cell extracts in vitro
    Daniel Favre
    Helpatitis, Lausanne, Switzerland
    ALTEX 25:197-211. 2008
    ....
  90. ncbi Quantitative reverse transcription strand displacement amplification: quantitation of nucleic acids using an isothermal amplification technique
    C M Nycz
    Department of Molecular Biology, Becton Dickinson Research Center, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Anal Biochem 259:226-34. 1998
    ..QRT-SDA potentially represents a convenient alternative for viral load testing in a clinical setting...
  91. ncbi Mutagenesis of a hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase yields temperature-sensitive virus
    C Seeger
    Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA C
    Virology 222:430-9. 1996
    ..In addition, we report the isolation of a thermosensitive variant of a hepadnavirus that will permit investigations of individual steps of the viral replication cycle under synchronized conditions...
  92. pmc Secondary structure models of the 3' untranslated regions of diverse R2 RNAs
    Amy M Ruschak
    Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 0216, USA
    RNA 10:978-87. 2004
    ..The structures appear to have common helices that are likely important for function...
  93. ncbi Structural and phylogenetic analysis of TRAS, telomeric repeat-specific non-LTR retrotransposon families in Lepidopteran insects
    Y Kubo
    Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Mol Biol Evol 18:848-57. 2001
    ..We found a highly conserved region that resembles the Myb-like DNA-binding structure, between the EN and RT domains. These regions may be involved in site-specific integration of TRAS elements into the (TTAGG)(n) telomeric repeats...
  94. pmc Cross-clade inhibition of recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVcpz reverse transcriptases by RNA pseudoknot aptamers
    Daniel M Held
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA
    J Virol 81:5375-84. 2007
    ..RNA structural diversity therefore translates into a nonoverlapping spectrum of mutations that confer resistance, likely due to differences in atomic-level contacts with RT...
  95. pmc A novel mechanism for protein-assisted group I intron splicing
    Amanda Solem
    Center for RNA Molecular Biology, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4960, USA
    RNA 8:412-25. 2002
    ..The active intron conformation is then "locked in" by specific binding of I-Anil to its intron interaction site...
  96. ncbi Molecular basis of fidelity of DNA synthesis and nucleotide specificity of retroviral reverse transcriptases
    Luis Menéndez-Arias
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Spain
    Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 71:91-147. 2002
    ..Implications of these studies include the design of novel therapeutic strategies leading to virus extinction, by increasing the viral mutation rate beyond a tolerable threshold...
  97. ncbi Yeast tRNA(Phe) expressed in human cells can be selected by HIV-1 for use as a reverse transcription primer
    Nathan J Kelly
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Virology 313:354-63. 2003
    ..The results of these studies demonstrate that intracellular levels of primer tRNA can have a direct effect on HIV-1 infectivity and further support the role for PBS-tRNA complementarity in the primer selection process...
  98. ncbi The reverse transcriptase of the R2 non-LTR retrotransposon: continuous synthesis of cDNA on non-continuous RNA templates
    Arkadiusz Bibiłło
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 4627 0211, USA
    J Mol Biol 316:459-73. 2002
    ....
  99. pmc A C-terminal fragment of an intron-encoded maturase is sufficient for promoting group I intron splicing
    Maureen E Downing
    Center for RNA Molecular Biology, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 4960, USA
    RNA 11:437-46. 2005
    ..This fragment of I-AniI represents the smallest group I intron splicing cofactor described to date...
  100. pmc Insertion of a small peptide of six amino acids into the beta7-beta8 loop of the p51 subunit of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase perturbs the heterodimer and affects its activities
    Pradeep K Pandey
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    BMC Biochem 3:18. 2002
    ....
  101. pmc Mutations proximal to the minor groove-binding track of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase differentially affect utilization of RNA versus DNA as template
    Timothy S Fisher
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Virol 77:5837-45. 2003
    ....

Research Grants55

  1. RNA DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE & 70S RNA OF ONCORNAVIRUSES
    ANTHONY FARAS; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..to employ to achieve these objectives are, for the most part, already implemented in our laboratory and include a variety of physicochemical, enzymological, and hybridization techniques available for the analysis of DNA, RNA, and protein,..
  2. MAMMALIAN RNA TUMOR VIRUS REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION
    Gary Gerard; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ....
  3. Roles of Nemo-like kinase in CaP and its effects on androgen receptor signaling
    Eva Corey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..By studying the ability of nemo-like kinase to kill even prostate-cancer cells that are resistant to other treatments, we hope to point the way to new and promising therapeutic approaches for advanced prostate cancer. ..
  4. Resolution of Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infections in Chimpanzees
    Robert Lanford; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Our long-term objective is to apply our understanding of the resolution of acute HBV infection to the development of effective new immunotherapies for chronic HBV infections. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. GBV-B: A SMALL PRIMATE MODEL FOR HEPATITIS C INFECTION
    Robert Lanford; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. Structural studies of protein-nucleic acid interactions
    Millie Georgiadis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies provide a unique opportunity to compare biologically relevant nucleic acid interactions of the CTh with different proteins. ..
  7. Mechanism of Redox Regulation by Ape1/Ref-1
    Millie M Georgiadis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose here to elucidate the mechanism of the redox function of Ape1 and explore its role in tumor cell response following treatment with DNA damaging agents. ..
  8. Gene Expression Analyses During IFN Antiviral Therapy
    Robert Lanford; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These data will help determine why interferon therapy is often unsuccessful for chronic HCV infections and provide cellular targets for future therapies. ..
  9. International Conference on Hepatitis B Viruses
    Jianming Hu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  10. Propeptide-Mediated Protein Folding
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Another emphasis is to investigate how the nascent folding intermediate can be activated with small peptide substrates. ..
  11. In vivo significance of T-reg cells during FIV infection
    Gregg Dean; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Results from these studies will provide a clinical understanding of Treg function in HIV infection and will guide future approaches to modulate Treg function. ..
  12. Cell Wall Components' Role in Enterococcal Endocarditis
    Gary Dunny; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..faecalis virulence. 2) Determine the functional domains of Asc10 that confer the activities identified in Aim 1. 3) Examine the expression of bacterial and host genes during the course of infections. ..
  13. Altering Fate of Hematopoietic and Neural Stem Cells
    Dennis Steindler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Screen for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (RMI)
    E White; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..tuberculosis. 3) To study the effect of these novel inhibitors on the pantothenate pathway in M. smegmatis. 4) To co-crystallize these compounds with pantothenate synthetase to study their mode of binding ..
  15. STUDIES OF ADULT BRAIN NEUROPOIESIS
    Dennis Steindler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  16. Protein-Facilitated Group I Intron Splicing
    Mark Caprara; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A co-crystal of IAniI and its DNA target site diffracts to high resolution and the resulting structure will provide a powerful reference to establish structure-function relationships. ..
  17. Etiology of mastitis in HIV-1 infected women
    Lisa Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. GENOME TARGETED INHIBITORS OF RETROVIRUSES
    VIRENDRA PANDEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Do _t use suffixes such as 3a, 3b, ..
  19. Reservoirs of drug-resistant HIV-1
    Lisa Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These data assist in establishing complementary MTCT prophylaxis regimens and HAART for women and children. ..
  20. Mechanism/predictors of genital/rectal HIV shedding during ART w/plasma <50c/mL
    Lisa M Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A better understanding of this discordant genital tract and rectal shedding should allow us to develop better treatment strategies that should reduce HIV transmission. ..
  21. ANALYSIS OF TELOMERASE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE
    Neal F Lue; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  22. BASIS AND MODULATION OF THE INNATE IMMUNE DEFECT IN FIV
    Gregg A Dean; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together these studies will elucidate the cellular mechanisms that underlie the innate immune defect and investigate potential molecular mechanisms. ..
  23. Signal Transduction by Histidine Kinases and their Response Regulators
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. Uptake and Processing of Foreign DNA by Mitochondria, a Model System
    MICHAEL SCHMALE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. Telomerase function and regulation in a new model system
    Neal Lue; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We anticipate that our findings will contribute to a detailed molecular understanding of telomerase function and regulation. ..
  26. Studies of DNA Pol I and Pol E2 of M. tuberculosis
    MUKUND MODAK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. Animal Model of Transmissable Neurofibromas
    MICHAEL SCHMALE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed studies should yield information on mechanisms of tumor development in the peripheral nervous system applicable to understanding these processes in human disorders such as neurofibromatosis type 1. ..
  28. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ORAL DRUG FOR SMALLPOX TREATMENT
    George Painter; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Upon FDA approval, a Phase I trial will be initiated to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of a single, escalating dose in human volunteers. ..
  29. RNA aptamers to inhibit natural and evolved RT variants
    Donald Burke; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. A role for p53/MyoD redundancy in myogenesis?
    SANDRA SHARP; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..To the extent that MyoD and p53 are redundant, it will be important to consider relevant domains of MyoD for applications in cancer treatment. ..
  31. Retrotransposons as site-specific gene delivery vectors
    JOHN GOODIER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In addition, I will assay in cell culture the efficiency of the L1 at integrating increasing lengths of exogenous DNA. ..
  32. CONFERENCE--AQUATIC ANIMAL MODELS OF HUMAN DISEASE
    MICHAEL SCHMALE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The investigators strongly believe the forum provided by this type of interdisciplinary meeting is unique and is critical to the advancement of these diverse model systems as useful resources for the biomedical research community. ..
  33. AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS
    Lisa Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The PACTG site reports and regulatory evaluations of the UW PACTU which have generally been excellent are discussed. This proposal requests funds for the continuation of the successful UW PACTU. ..
  34. Immunization by HIV exposure during chemoprophylaxis
    Lisa Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In the absence of an effective vaccine, the use of antiretrovirals should be optimized to prevent the spread of HIV-1 infection. This proposal works toward this goal. ..
  35. CYTOKINE RESPONSE IN FIV AND SIV IMMUNODEFICIENCY
    Gregg Dean; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..ft. of laboratory space, startup funds, access to the central equipment laboratory, and three years of support for a technical assistant. ..
  36. A BACTERIAL GROUP II INTRON INVOLVED IN CONJUGATION
    Gary Dunny; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Identification and analysis of small molecule splicing inhibitors using a splicing-dependent conjugation assay. ..
  37. RNA-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS
    Donald Burke; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition, experiments will be carried out to see what kinds of RT resistant mutants arise in response to various candidate aptamers. ..
  38. DELETION MUTAGENESIS WITHIN NONCODING SEGMENTS OF HIV1
    Mark Wainberg; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..6. To determine whether these attenuated SIV constructs may protect against subsequent challenge with virulent forms of SIV and SIV/HIV hybrids. ..
  39. THERAPY EFFECTS ON HIV 1 POPULATION DYNAMICS IN CHILDREN
    Lisa Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  40. STRESS RESPONSE AND ADAPTATION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed research will provide important insight into the fundamental principles of stress response and adaptation in prokaryotes. ..
  41. MOLECULAR EFFECTORS OF ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF DNA
    MUKUND MODAK; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The molecular mechanism and functional anatomy of DNA polymerase clarified in this manner will lead to a better understanding of DNA replication, DNA repair and mutagenic effects of chemicals and carcinogenesis. ..
  42. Rational Design of HIV Entry Inhibitors
    MONIQUE FERGUSON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Since our peptides will be targeting viral structures, we expect them to have low toxicity, and no cross-resistance with the current antiretroviral drugs. ..
  43. The Role of Telomeres and Telomerase in Cancer
    Jerry Shay; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  44. Recombinant Listeria: A Biologic Vaccine Vector For FIV
    Gregg Dean; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These studies will be performed in the FIV/cat model that allows challenge by vaginal exposure to cell-associated and cell-free virus. ..
  45. Interacton of HIV with Toll-like Receptors
    Gregg Dean; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Through these studies we will learn if HIV/TLR interaction contribute to the immunodeficiency caused by HIV-1. ..
  46. REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASES IN THE PROKARYOTES
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  47. Cold Shock Vectors for Single Protein Production
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed vector-host system will be highly useful not only for structural biology but also for medicinal research involving human proteins, which can not be obtained by conventional expression systems. ..
  48. Genome Wide Mapping of in-vivo protein: DNA interactions
    SANDRA SHARP; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  49. CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF RETROVIRUS MUTANTS
    Stephen Goff; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In each case, these tests will be applied to existing panels of mutants to help localize the regions needed for these activities. ..
  50. Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression
    Robert Martienssen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..It is in a cross-disciplinary environment such as this that intellectual leaps occur and innovative ideas flourish. ..
  51. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION RELATIONSHIP IN HIV1 RT
    VIRENDRA PANDEY; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..to determine the in vivo effect of RT mutations on HIV-1 replication/infectivity, 3). to determine the correlation between mutational hotspots and the architecture of HIV-1 genomic RNA ..
  52. A Bioinformatic Approach to Inferring Protein Contacts
    MARCELLA MCCLURE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Several experimental laboratories have agreed to test the residue contact predictions resulting from these studies for Ebola, VSV and measles. ..