phenylalanine ammonia lyase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of L-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia. It may also act on L-tyrosine. Since the enzyme deprives neoplastic tissue of phenylalanine, it has been used experimentally in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The enzyme is obtained from many plants. EC 4.3.1.5.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in disease resistance in tobacco
    K Y Yang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, 117 Schweitzer Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:741-6. 2001
  2. pmc The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in raspberry. Structure, expression, and evolution
    A Kumar
    The Biotechnology Laboratory and Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Plant Physiol 127:230-9. 2001
  3. ncbi Metabolic consequences of susceptibility and resistance (race-specific and broad-spectrum) in barley leaves challenged with powdery mildew
    Philip J Swarbrick
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK
    Plant Cell Environ 29:1061-76. 2006
  4. ncbi A modern view of phenylalanine ammonia lyase
    M Jason MacDonald
    Department of Chemistry, Cape Breton University, 1250 Grand Lake Road, Sydney, NS B1P 6L2, Canada
    Biochem Cell Biol 85:273-82. 2007
  5. pmc Genome-wide characterization of the lignification toolbox in Arabidopsis
    Jeroen Raes
    Department of Plant Systems Biology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, B 9052 Gent, Belgium
    Plant Physiol 133:1051-71. 2003
  6. pmc Biochemical characterization of a prokaryotic phenylalanine ammonia lyase
    Longkuan Xiang
    College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 0207, USA
    J Bacteriol 187:4286-9. 2005
  7. ncbi Modeling and optimization of phenylalanine ammonia lyase stabilization in recombinant Escherichia coli for the continuous synthesis of l-phenylalanine on the statistical-based experimental designs
    Bing Zhu Zhang
    Department of Scientific Research, Hebei University of Science and Technology, 70 Yuhua East Road, Shijiazhang 050018, People s Republic of China
    J Agric Food Chem 58:2795-800. 2010
  8. ncbi The Arabidopsis phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene family: kinetic characterization of the four PAL isoforms
    Fiona C Cochrane
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University, Clark Hall 467, Pullman, WA 99164 6340, USA
    Phytochemistry 65:1557-64. 2004
  9. pmc Structural and biochemical characterization of the therapeutic Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase
    Lin Wang
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Mol Biol 380:623-35. 2008
  10. ncbi Suppression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase expression in sugar beet by the fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola is mediated at the core promoter of the gene
    Klaus Schmidt
    PLANTA Angewandte Pflanzengenetik und Biotechnologie GmbH, Grimsehlstrasse 31, D 37555 Einbeck, Germany
    Plant Mol Biol 55:835-52. 2004

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications230 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in disease resistance in tobacco
    K Y Yang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, 117 Schweitzer Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:741-6. 2001
    ..cascade appears to control the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and l-phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), two defense genes encoding key enzymes in the phytoalexin and salicylic acid biosynthesis ..
  2. pmc The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in raspberry. Structure, expression, and evolution
    A Kumar
    The Biotechnology Laboratory and Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Plant Physiol 127:230-9. 2001
    ..The two RiPAL genes therefore appear to be controlled by different regulatory mechanisms...
  3. ncbi Metabolic consequences of susceptibility and resistance (race-specific and broad-spectrum) in barley leaves challenged with powdery mildew
    Philip J Swarbrick
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK
    Plant Cell Environ 29:1061-76. 2006
    ..These results are consistent with a role for invertase in the generation of hexoses, which may supply energy for defence reactions and/or act as signals inducing defence gene expression...
  4. ncbi A modern view of phenylalanine ammonia lyase
    M Jason MacDonald
    Department of Chemistry, Cape Breton University, 1250 Grand Lake Road, Sydney, NS B1P 6L2, Canada
    Biochem Cell Biol 85:273-82. 2007
    b>Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; E.C.4.3.1.5), which catalyses the biotransformation of L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, was first described in 1961 by Koukol and Conn...
  5. pmc Genome-wide characterization of the lignification toolbox in Arabidopsis
    Jeroen Raes
    Department of Plant Systems Biology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, B 9052 Gent, Belgium
    Plant Physiol 133:1051-71. 2003
    ..Together, these data describe the full complement of monolignol biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis, provide a unified nomenclature, and serve as a basis for further functional studies...
  6. pmc Biochemical characterization of a prokaryotic phenylalanine ammonia lyase
    Longkuan Xiang
    College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 0207, USA
    J Bacteriol 187:4286-9. 2005
    ..A in the marine bacterium "Streptomyces maritimus" is carried out by the novel prokaryotic phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) EncP, which converts the primary amino acid L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid...
  7. ncbi Modeling and optimization of phenylalanine ammonia lyase stabilization in recombinant Escherichia coli for the continuous synthesis of l-phenylalanine on the statistical-based experimental designs
    Bing Zhu Zhang
    Department of Scientific Research, Hebei University of Science and Technology, 70 Yuhua East Road, Shijiazhang 050018, People s Republic of China
    J Agric Food Chem 58:2795-800. 2010
    Some approaches for improving recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) stability in Escherichia coli during the enzymatic methods of l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) production were developed following preliminary studies by means of ..
  8. ncbi The Arabidopsis phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene family: kinetic characterization of the four PAL isoforms
    Fiona C Cochrane
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University, Clark Hall 467, Pullman, WA 99164 6340, USA
    Phytochemistry 65:1557-64. 2004
    ..thaliana spanning various cell types, tissues and organs...
  9. pmc Structural and biochemical characterization of the therapeutic Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase
    Lin Wang
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Mol Biol 380:623-35. 2008
    ..observed promising success in a mouse model for treating the metabolic disorder phenylketonuria with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodosporidium toruloides and Anabaena variabilis...
  10. ncbi Suppression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase expression in sugar beet by the fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola is mediated at the core promoter of the gene
    Klaus Schmidt
    PLANTA Angewandte Pflanzengenetik und Biotechnologie GmbH, Grimsehlstrasse 31, D 37555 Einbeck, Germany
    Plant Mol Biol 55:835-52. 2004
    ..leaves with the phytopathogenic fungus Cercospora beticola , a reduction in the expression of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BvPAL) and cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (BvC4H) genes was observed...
  11. ncbi Organization of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), acidic PR-5 and osmotin-like (OSM) defence-response gene families in the potato genome
    Rosa A Castillo Ruiz
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl von Linne Weg 10, 50829 Cologne, Germany
    Mol Genet Genomics 274:168-79. 2005
    ..The organization of three DR gene families encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), acidic PR-(pathogenesis-related) protein 5, and basic PR-5, or osmotin-like (OSM), proteins was ..
  12. ncbi Differential expression of four Arabidopsis PAL genes; PAL1 and PAL2 have functional specialization in abiotic environmental-triggered flavonoid synthesis
    Kristine M Olsen
    Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway
    J Plant Physiol 165:1491-9. 2008
    ..PAL1, PAL2 and PAL4 have previously been shown to be related with tissue-specific lignin synthesis, and the present work shows that PAL1 and PAL2 also have functional specialization in abiotic environmental-triggered flavonoid synthesis...
  13. pmc Biosynthesis of salicylic acid in plants
    Zhixiang Chen
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    Plant Signal Behav 4:493-6. 2009
    ..isotope feeding have suggested that plants synthesize SA from cinnamate produced by the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)...
  14. pmc Preclinical evaluation of multiple species of PEGylated recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase for the treatment of phenylketonuria
    Christineh N Sarkissian
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 1B1
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20894-9. 2008
    ..PKU mouse model in short- and long-term studies of enzyme substitution therapy with PEGylated phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PEG-PAL conjugates) from 4 different species...
  15. ncbi Differential regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and protein level by light in tomato seedlings
    Yellamaraju Sreelakshmi
    School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Central University PO, Hyderabad, India
    Plant Physiol Biochem 46:444-51. 2008
    Red light, acting via phytochrome, stimulates phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity in cotyledons and hypocotyls of tomato seedlings...
  16. pmc Phenylpropanoids, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidases in elicitor-challenged cassava (Manihot esculenta) suspension cells and leaves
    Rocío Gómez-Vásquez
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Ann Bot 94:87-97. 2004
    ..Control of diseases in the key tropical staple, cassava, is dependent on resistant genotypes, but the innate mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to study phenylpropanoids and associated enzymes as possible defence components...
  17. ncbi Crystal structure of phenylalanine ammonia lyase: multiple helix dipoles implicated in catalysis
    Joseph C Calabrese
    DuPont Central Research and Development, Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware 19880 0228, USA
    Biochemistry 43:11403-16. 2004
    The first three-dimensional structure of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) has been determined at 2.1 A resolution for PAL from Rhodosporidium toruloides...
  18. ncbi Potassium phosphate induces systemic protection in barley to powdery mildew infection
    Anne F Mitchell
    Crop and Soil Research Group, Scottish Agricultural College, Ayr Campus, Auchincruive Estate, Ayr KA6 5HW, UK
    Pest Manag Sci 60:126-34. 2004
    ..Phosphate treatment of the first leaves led to significant increases in activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase and lipoxygenase in second leaves...
  19. ncbi Detection of the putative cis-region involved in the induction by a Pyricularia oryzae elicitor of the promoter of a gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in rice
    L Wang
    National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, 100871 Beijing, PR China
    Plant Cell Rep 22:513-8. 2004
    ..Results from both elicitor-inducible reporter gene and gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that the sequence -349 to -256 of the rPAL-P5 promoter includes a cis-element involved in the induction of P. oryzae...
  20. ncbi [Isolation and characterization of two closely linked phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes from wheat]
    He Ping Li
    College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    Yi Chuan Xue Bao 30:907-12. 2003
    ..These results demonstrated that wheat PAL played an important role in the induced resistance response upon infection with stem rust fungus at transcription level...
  21. ncbi Flagellin from an incompatible strain of Acidovorax avenae mediates H2O2 generation accompanying hypersensitive cell death and expression of PAL, Cht-1, and PBZ1, but not of Lox in rice
    Noriko Tanaka
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916 5, Takayama Ikoma, Nara 630 0101, Japan
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 16:422-8. 2003
    ..Thus, the incompatible flagellin of A. avenae is a specific elicitor in rice, but it is not the only factor capable of inducing the rice defense system...
  22. ncbi Activation of flavonoid biosynthesis by solar radiation in bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L) leaves
    Laura Jaakola
    Department of Biology Botany, University of Oulu, POB 3000, 90014, Oulu, Finland
    Planta 218:721-8. 2004
    ..Also, the roles of different flavonoid compounds as a defense against stress caused by sun exposure is discussed...
  23. pmc N-acylethanolamine signaling in tobacco is mediated by a membrane-associated, high-affinity binding protein
    Swati Tripathy
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton 76203, USA
    Plant Physiol 131:1781-91. 2003
    ..We propose that plants possess an NAE-signaling pathway with functional similarities to the "endocannabinoid" pathway of animal systems and that this pathway, in part, participates in xylanase elicitor perception in tobacco...
  24. ncbi Induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression by paraquat and stress-related hormones in Rehmannia glutinosa
    Byoung Kook Lee
    Faculty of Biological Resources Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561 756, Korea
    Mol Cells 16:34-9. 2003
    ..Induction of RgPAL1 by paraquat and stress-related phytohormones suggests that it is involved in the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway under oxidative stress...
  25. ncbi Chitosan and chitin oligomers increase phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities in soybean leaves
    Wajahatullah Khan
    Department of Plant Science, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21, 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9, Canada
    J Plant Physiol 160:859-63. 2003
    ..Total phenolic content of soybean leaves increased following chitosan and chitin oligomer treatments, showing a positive correlation between enzyme activity and total phenolic content...
  26. ncbi Phenylpropanoid compounds and disease resistance in transgenic tobacco with altered expression of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
    Gail L Shadle
    Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73402, USA
    Phytochemistry 64:153-61. 2003
    ..These results are consistent with a recent report questioning the role of PAL in SA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and highlight the importance of phenylpropanoid compounds such as CGA in plant disease resistance...
  27. ncbi Cyclopentenone isoprostanes induced by reactive oxygen species trigger defense gene activation and phytoalexin accumulation in plants
    Ingeborg Thoma
    Julius von Sachs Institute of Biosciences, Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Wuerzburg, Julius von Sachs Platz 2, Germany
    Plant J 34:363-75. 2003
    ..We propose that phytoprostanes are components of an oxidant-injury-sensing, archaic signaling system that serves to induce several plant defense mechanisms...
  28. ncbi Arabidopsis local resistance to Botrytis cinerea involves salicylic acid and camalexin and requires EDS4 and PAD2, but not SID2, EDS5 or PAD4
    Simone Ferrari
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Plant J 35:193-205. 2003
    ..Furthermore, plants expressing a nahG transgene or treated with a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) inhibitor showed enhanced symptoms, suggesting that SA synthesized via PAL, and not via ..
  29. ncbi Changes in specific activities of peroxidase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and phenolic content in cucumber leaves inoculated with Podosphaera fusca, the causal agent of powdery mildew
    A H Jamali Zavareh
    Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Shahrekord, Iran
    Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 69:545-53. 2004
    ....
  30. ncbi Post-stress metabolism involves umbelliferone production in anthocyanin-producing and nonproducing cells of Glehnia littoralis suspension cultures
    Aya Ishikawa
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo machi 1 14, Nagasaki 852 8521, Japan
    J Plant Physiol 162:703-10. 2005
    ....
  31. ncbi Stress stimulus induced resistance to Cladosporium cucumerinum in cucumber seeding
    Huan Zhao
    Key Lab of Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering, The State Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, PR China
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 44:36-40. 2005
    ....
  32. ncbi Salicylic acid accumulation under O3 exposure is regulated by ethylene in tobacco plants
    Daisuke Ogawa
    Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1 1 1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 8572 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 46:1062-72. 2005
    ..These results indicate that ethylene promotes SA accumulation by regulating the expression of the CM and PAL genes in O3-exposed tobacco...
  33. ncbi Hydrogen peroxide is required for abscisic acid-induced NH4+ accumulation in rice leaves
    Kuo Tung Hung
    Department of Agronomy, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Plant Physiol 162:1022-9. 2005
    ..Our results suggest that H2O2 is involved in ABA-induced NH4+ accumulation in rice leaves...
  34. ncbi Bacterial non-host resistance: interactions of Arabidopsis with non-adapted Pseudomonas syringae strains
    Tatiana E Mishina
    Julius von Sachs Institute of Biological Sciences, Department of Botany II, University of Wurzburg, Julius von Sachs Platz 3, D 97082 Wurzburg, Germany
    Physiol Plant 131:448-61. 2007
    ..Possible roles for early inducible, cell wall-based defences and the glucosinolate/myrosinase system in bacterial non-host resistance are discussed...
  35. ncbi 3-Acetonyl-3-hydroxyoxindole: a new inducer of systemic acquired resistance in plants
    Yanmei Li
    State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming 650204, Yunnan, China
    Plant Biotechnol J 6:301-8. 2008
    ..Our data suggest that AHO may represent a novel class of inducer that stimulates SA-mediated defence responses...
  36. ncbi Construction of cryptogein mutants, a proteinaceous elicitor from Phytophthora, with altered abilities to induce a defense reaction in tobacco cells
    Jan Lochman
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
    Biochemistry 44:6565-72. 2005
    ..The second type of interaction is mediated by phospholipase C and protein kinase C. It triggers the synthesis of active oxygen species and pH changes. This interaction depends on the ability of elicitins to bind sterols...
  37. ncbi [Response of winter wheat to cold: production of phenolic compounds and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity]
    N A Olenichenko
    Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 41:681-5. 2005
    The formation of soluble and polymeric (lignin) phenolic compounds, activity of L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), and content of free L-phenylalanine during cold hardening of winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L...
  38. ncbi Contributions of PIP(2)-specific-phospholipase C and free salicylic acid to heat acclimation-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves
    Hong Tao Liu
    College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
    J Plant Physiol 163:405-16. 2006
    ..On the basis of these results, we conclude that the involvement of free SA may function as the upstream event in the stimulation of PIP(2)-PLC in response to heat acclimation treatment...
  39. ncbi Stress induced plant resistance and enzyme activity varying in cucumber
    Bochu Wang
    Key Lab for Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering, State Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 48:138-42. 2006
    ..We speculated that mechanical signal transduction in plants depend on the adhesion of plasma membrane-cell wall...
  40. ncbi Suppression of defense response in plants by the avrBs3/pthA gene family of Xanthomonas spp
    Takashi Fujikawa
    Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422 8529, Japan
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:342-9. 2006
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that avrXa7, avrXa10, and apl1, when delivered to plant cells by the P. syringae pv. syringae hrp secretion system, can suppress nonhost HR and associated phenotypes...
  41. ncbi A novel R2R3 MYB transcription factor NtMYBJS1 is a methyl jasmonate-dependent regulator of phenylpropanoid-conjugate biosynthesis in tobacco
    Ivan Galis
    RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1 7 22 Suehiro cho, Tsurumi ku, Yokohama 230 0045, Japan
    Plant J 46:573-92. 2006
    ....
  42. ncbi Methyl jasmonate and yeast elicitor induce differential transcriptional and metabolic re-programming in cell suspension cultures of the model legume Medicago truncatula
    Hideyuki Suzuki
    Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA
    Planta 220:696-707. 2005
    ..This work establishes Medicago cell cultures as an excellent model for future genomics approaches to understand the regulation of legume secondary metabolism...
  43. ncbi (Z)-3-Hexenol induces defense genes and downstream metabolites in maize
    Mohamed A Farag
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 1061, USA
    Planta 220:900-9. 2005
    ..These data indicate that (Z)-3-hexenol can serve as a signaling molecule that triggers defense responses in maize and can rapidly be turned over in planta...
  44. ncbi Hydrogen peroxide mediates defence responses induced by chitosans of different molecular weights in rice
    Wuling Lin
    Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
    J Plant Physiol 162:937-44. 2005
    ..These results indicate that CHNs of low MWs have a greater capacity to induce the production of H2O2, thus resulting in stronger defence responses, than those with higher MWs...
  45. ncbi Methyl jasmonate alters polyamine metabolism and induces systemic protection against powdery mildew infection in barley seedlings
    Dale Walters
    Department of Plant Biology, Plant and Crop Science Division, Scottish Agricultural College, Ayr Campus, Auchincruive Estate, Ayr KA6 5HW, UK
    J Exp Bot 53:747-56. 2002
    ..sp. hordei) infection on the second leaves and also resulted in significant increases in activities of the plant defence-related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase.
  46. ncbi Treatment of chickpea with Rhizobium isolates enhances the expression of phenylpropanoid defense-related genes in response to infection by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris
    A Arfaoui
    Laboratoire de Phytopathologie, Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, 43 Avenue Charles Nicolle, Cité Mahragène, 1082 Tunis, Tunisia
    Plant Physiol Biochem 45:470-9. 2007
    ....
  47. ncbi [Primary and secondary metabolism of winter wheat under cold hardening and treatment with antioxidants]
    N A Olenichenko
    Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 44:589-94. 2008
    ..Treatment with antioxidants also increased the content of saccharides and phenolic compounds (primarily flavonoids) and PAL activity. These changes were more pronounced in cultivar Inna, which is less frost resistant than Moskovskaya 39...
  48. ncbi Progress of lignification mediated by intercellular transportation of monolignols during tracheary element differentiation of isolated Zinnia mesophyll cells
    M Hosokawa
    Department of Biology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama, 790-8577 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 42:959-68. 2001
    ..These results indicated that lignification on TEs progresses by supply of monolignols from not only TEs themselves but also surrounding xylem parenchyma-like cells through medium in vitro...
  49. ncbi Regulation of CDPKs, including identification of PAL kinase, in biotically stressed cells of French bean
    Ellen G Allwood
    Division of Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK
    Plant Mol Biol 49:533-44. 2002
    ..In contrast, intracellular acidification brought about by forskolin brings about slight activation of MAPkinase...
  50. ncbi Characterization and isolation of some genes of the shikimate pathway in sensitive and resistant Centaurea jacea plants after ozone exposure
    A Francini
    Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose Giovanni Scaramuzzi, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa, Italy
    Environ Pollut 151:272-9. 2008
    ..On the contrary, the transcripts of CHS, in resistant and sensitive plants, did not change after treatment. Total phenols were not affected by ozone, while anthocyanins were quickly utilised by resistant clone as antioxidant compounds...
  51. ncbi OARE-1, a Ty1-copia retrotransposon in oat activated by abiotic and biotic stresses
    Y Kimura
    Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kobe University, Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 42:1345-54. 2001
    ..These results suggest that OARE-1 is highly sensitive to various abiotic and biotic stimuli leading to plant defense responses...
  52. ncbi Expression of genes encoding chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase correlates with flavanol accumulation during heartwood formation in Juglans nigra
    Isacco Beritognolo
    INRA Unité Amélioration, Génétique et Physiologie Forestières, av de la Pomme de Pin, BP 20619 Ardon, F 45166 Olivet Cedex, France
    Tree Physiol 22:291-300. 2002
    ..We conclude that flavanols are synthesized de novo in J. nigra sapwood cells that are undergoing transformation to heartwood...
  53. ncbi Characterization and differential expression analysis of artichoke phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-coding sequences
    Angelo De Paolis
    Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Unit of Lecce CNR, via prov le Lecce Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
    Physiol Plant 132:33-43. 2008
    ..Moreover, after leaf mechanical injury, all of them were differentially regulated. The possible involvement of the single pal genes in different physiological processes is discussed...
  54. pmc Abscisic acid determines basal susceptibility of tomato to Botrytis cinerea and suppresses salicylic acid-dependent signaling mechanisms
    Kris Audenaert
    Laboratory of Phytopathology, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, Ghent University, Coupure Links, 653, B 9000 Gent, Belgium
    Plant Physiol 128:491-501. 2002
    ..In addition, upon infection with B. cinerea, sitiens plants showed a clear increase in phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, which was not observed in infected WT plants, indicating that the ABA levels in healthy WT ..
  55. pmc Expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in relation to anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin, and flavonol levels during bilberry fruit development
    Laura Jaakola
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu, FIN 90014 Oulu, Finland
    Plant Physiol 130:729-39. 2002
    ..In accordance with this, models for the connection between flavonol and anthocyanin syntheses in fruit tissues are presented...
  56. pmc Differential expression of two distinct phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes in condensed tannin-accumulating and lignifying cells of quaking aspen
    Yu Ying Kao
    Plant Biotechnology Research Center, School of Forestry and Wood Products, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
    Plant Physiol 130:796-807. 2002
    ..The absence of PAL2 in most CT-accumulating cells provides in situ support for the idea that PAL isoforms function in specific metabolic milieus...
  57. ncbi Expression of the 12-oxophytodienoic acid 10,11-reductase gene in the compatible interaction between pea and fungal pathogen
    Yasuhiro Ishiga
    Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Okayama University, Tsushima Naka, 1 1 1 Okayama, 700 8530 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 43:1210-20. 2002
    ....
  58. ncbi Effect of methyl jasmonate on harpin-induced hypersensitive cell death, generation of hydrogen peroxide and expression of PAL mRNA in tobacco suspension cultured BY-2 cells
    S Andi
    Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama, 700-8530 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 42:446-9. 2001
    ..These results suggest that MeJA may act as an endogenous suppressor for plant defense response including hypersensitive reaction...
  59. ncbi Sulfated fucan oligosaccharides elicit defense responses in tobacco and local and systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus
    Olivier Klarzynski
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes du CNRS, 67084 Strasbourg, France
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 16:115-22. 2003
    ..The use of transgenic plants unable to accumulate SA indicated that, as in the SAR primed by TMV, SA is required for the establishment of oligofucan-induced resistance...
  60. pmc Herbivory rapidly activates MAPK signaling in attacked and unattacked leaf regions but not between leaves of Nicotiana attenuata
    Jianqiang Wu
    Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, D 07745 Jena, Germany
    Plant Cell 19:1096-122. 2007
    ....
  61. ncbi Immunomodulating effect of elicitors and suppressors upon infection of potato with Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber, 1923) Beherens, 1975
    N I Vasyukova
    Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr 33, Moscow, 119071 Russia
    Dokl Biol Sci 411:449-51. 2006
  62. ncbi Phenylalanine ammonia lyase functions as a switch directly controlling the accumulation of calycosin and calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plants
    Haiyun Pan
    Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
    J Exp Bot 59:3027-37. 2008
    ..by examining the changes in CGs content, as well as the expression of related genes, including phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL1), cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone reductase (CHR), chalcone ..
  63. ncbi Proteomic analysis reveals a novel set of cell wall proteins in a transformed tobacco cell culture that synthesises secondary walls as determined by biochemical and morphological parameters
    K A Blee
    Division of Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK
    Planta 212:404-15. 2001
    ..However an Mr-32,000 chitinase, an Mr-34,000 peroxidase, an Mr-65,000 polyphenoloxidase/laccase and possibly an Mr-68,000 xylanase could be identified as well as structural proteins...
  64. ncbi Copper uptake is differentially modulated by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibition in diploid and tetraploid chamomile
    Jozef Kováčik
    Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P J Šafárik University, Mánesova 23, 041 67 Košice, Slovak Republic
    J Agric Food Chem 58:10270-6. 2010
    ..The present findings are discussed in the context of available data about AIP effects and with respect to the role of phenols in metal uptake...
  65. ncbi Molecular characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria that enhance peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities in chile (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
    Alok Sharma
    Department of Microbiology, CBS and H, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttaranchal, 263145, India
    Arch Microbiol 188:483-94. 2007
    ..Thus, we conclude that treatment with potential bacterial plant growth promoting agents help plants against pathogen invasion by modulating plant peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities...
  66. ncbi Differential accumulation of monolignol-derived compounds in elicited flax (Linum usitatissimum) cell suspension cultures
    C Hano
    Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures, UPRES EA 1207, Antenne Scientifique Universitaire de Chartres, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, 28000 Chartres, France
    Planta 223:975-89. 2006
    ..Several hypotheses are proposed to explain the putative role of these compounds in the defence response of flax cells against pathogens...
  67. ncbi Growth and antioxidant responses in Jatropha curcas seedling exposed to mercury toxicity
    Shun Gao
    Key Laboratory of Bio resources and Eco environment, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu, PR China
    J Hazard Mater 182:591-7. 2010
    ....
  68. ncbi Efficient production of (2S)-flavanones by Escherichia coli containing an artificial biosynthetic gene cluster
    Ikuo Miyahisa
    Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, 113 8657, Japan
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 68:498-504. 2005
    ..The fermentative production of flavanones in E. coli is the first step in the construction of a library of flavonoid compounds and un-natural flavonoids in bacteria...
  69. ncbi Mutational analysis of phenylalanine ammonia lyase to improve reactions rates for various substrates
    Sebastian Bartsch
    Department of Biotechnology and Enzyme Catalysis, Institute of Biochemistry, Greifswald University, Felix Hausdorff Str 4, D 17487 Greifswald, Germany
    Protein Eng Des Sel 23:929-33. 2010
    ..Focused-directed evolution around the carboxylic acid- and amine-binding site always decreased PAL activity, due to a sensitive H-bond network...
  70. ncbi Inheritance of partial resistance against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Phaseolus vulgaris and co-localization of quantitative trait loci with genes involved in specific resistance
    V Geffroy
    LPPM, IBP, Université de Paris XI, Orsay, France
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 13:287-96. 2000
    ..lindemuthianum and 11 polymorphic fragments revealed with a RGA probe. The possible relationship between genes underlying specific and partial resistance is discussed...
  71. pmc Expression of cell wall related genes in basal and ear internodes of silking brown-midrib-3, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) down-regulated, and normal maize plants
    Sabine Guillaumie
    INRA, Unité de Génétique et d Amélioration des Plantes Fourragères, BP6, F 86600 Lusignan, France
    BMC Plant Biol 8:71. 2008
    ..The greatest lignin reduction and the highest cell wall digestibility were observed in the brown-midrib-3 (bm3) mutant, which is disrupted in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene...
  72. ncbi Cloning and molecular analysis of structural genes involved in flavonoid and stilbene biosynthesis in grape (Vitis vinifera L.)
    F Sparvoli
    Dipartimento di Genetica e di Biologia dei Microorganismi, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Italia
    Plant Mol Biol 24:743-55. 1994
    ..The steady-state level of mRNAs encoded by the flavonoid biosynthetic genes as determined in young seedlings is coordinately induced by light, except for PAL and StSy, which appear to be constitutively expressed...
  73. ncbi Role of ploidy in cadmium and nickel uptake by Matricaria chamomilla plants
    Jozef Kováčik
    Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, PJ Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice, Slovak Republic
    Food Chem Toxicol 48:2109-14. 2010
    ..Present findings in the context of our previous studies and limited available literature about ploidy effect on metal accumulation are discussed...
  74. ncbi Purification of novel protein elicitor from Botrytis cinerea that induces disease resistance and drought tolerance in plants
    Yunhua Zhang
    Key Laboratory for Biological Control of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, PR China
    Microbiol Res 165:142-51. 2010
    ..PAL activity was increased by 46.84% at 24h post-treatment, while POD and PPO activity increased by 109.5% and 111.0% at 72 h, respectively over the control...
  75. ncbi Effects of biotic and abiotic elicitors on cell growth and tanshinone accumulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza cell cultures
    Jiang Lin Zhao
    Department of Plant Pathology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:137-44. 2010
    ..1-5.5 g l(-1) versus 8.9 g l(-1) in control). The elicitors also stimulated the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity of cells and transient increases in the medium pH and conductivity...
  76. ncbi Ultraviolet A-specific induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the swollen hypocotyls of turnip (Brassica rapa)
    Bo Zhou
    College of Life Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
    J Exp Bot 58:1771-81. 2007
    ..The expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H; EC 1.14.11...
  77. ncbi Biochemical changes in Glomus fasciculatum colonized roots of Lycopersicon esculentum in presence of Meloidogyne incognita
    M Nagesh
    Project Directorate of Biological Control ICAR, Post Box No 2491, H A Farm P O, Bellary Road, Bangalore 560 024, India
    Indian J Exp Biol 42:721-7. 2004
    ..with respect to total proteins, total phenols, indole acetic acid, activities of polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and indole acetic acid oxidase...
  78. ncbi p-Coumaroylnoradrenaline, a novel plant metabolite implicated in tomato defense against pathogens
    Edda von Roepenack-Lahaye
    Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Colney Lane, Norwich, NR4 7UH, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:43373-83. 2003
    ..and p-coumaroylnoradrenaline were accompanied by elevated mRNA levels of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase, p-coumarate CoA ligase, and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase (THT), ..
  79. ncbi Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism
    Aldwin M Anterola
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 6340, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:18272-80. 2002
    ..20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-..
  80. ncbi Infection processes and involvement of defense-related genes in the expression of resistance in cultivars of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) to Phytophthora clandestina
    X Ma
    The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia
    Phytopathology 100:551-9. 2010
    ..b>Phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase genes were activated 4 h postinoculation (hpi) and cytochrome P450 trans-cinnamic ..
  81. ncbi Cadmium and nickel uptake are differentially modulated by salicylic acid in Matricaria chamomilla plants
    Jozef Kováčik
    Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P J Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice, Slovak Republic
    J Agric Food Chem 57:9848-55. 2009
    ..The effects of SA on phenolic metabolism, and the signaling role of ROS in the accumulation of phenols, are discussed...
  82. ncbi Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding an elicitor of Phytophthora colocasiae
    Ajay Kumar Mishra
    Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram 695017, Kerala, India
    Microbiol Res 165:97-107. 2010
    ..It may also be useful to engineer broad disease protection in taro plant against Phytophthora leaf blight...
  83. ncbi Expression of caffeine biosynthesis genes in tea (Camellia sinensis)
    Yeyun Li
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, 112 8610, Japan
    Z Naturforsch C 63:267-70. 2008
    ..We propose that marked caffeine biosynthesis in young leaves is dependent on a greater expression of the TCS1 gene in the organ...
  84. ncbi Tolerance of Silene vulgaris to copper: population-related comparison of selected physiological parameters
    Jozef Kováčik
    Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P J Safarik University, Manesova 23, 04167 Kosice, Slovak Republic
    Environ Toxicol 25:581-92. 2010
    ..This study revealed the highest tolerance in population from the locality with the highest soil Cu content. Present findings as complex metabolic responses to Cu stress with special emphasis on phenolic metabolism are discussed...
  85. pmc Purification of histidase from Streptomyces griseus and nucleotide sequence of the hutH structural gene
    P C Wu
    Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210 1292
    J Bacteriol 174:1647-55. 1992
    ..The deduced amino acid sequence of hutH shows significant relatedness with histidase from bacteria and a mammal as well as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from plants and fungi...
  86. ncbi Effect of aluminium uptake on physiology, phenols and amino acids in Matricaria chamomilla plants
    Jozef Kováčik
    Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P J Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice, Slovak Republic
    J Hazard Mater 178:949-55. 2010
    ..Our results indicate that phenols in shoots and free amino acids in roots are influenced by Al excess in chamomile plants. Possible mechanisms in the context of available literature are suggested and discussed...
  87. ncbi Induction of hydroxycinnamoyl-tyramine conjugates in pepper by Xanthomonas campestris, a plant defense response activated by hrp gene-dependent and hrp gene-independent mechanisms
    M A Newman
    The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 14:785-92. 2001
    ..campestris pv. vesicatoria failed to elicit the production of FT and CT. These observations suggest the existence of hrp gene-dependent and -independent activation mechanisms of a defense response involving hydroxycinnamoyltyramines...
  88. ncbi Up-regulation of licochalcone A biosynthesis and secretion by Tween 80 in hairy root cultures of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch
    Hai Chao Zhang
    Department of Breeding and Genetics, China Pharmaceutical University, 210038, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China
    Mol Biotechnol 47:50-6. 2011
    ..These results clearly demonstrated that Tween 80 treatment permeabilized the roots to enhance secretion, but also acted as an efficient elicitor of licochalcone A and total flavonoid production in hairy roots of G. uralensis Fisch...
  89. ncbi Activation of a diverse set of genes during the tobacco resistance response to TMV is independent of salicylic acid; induction of a subset is also ethylene independent
    A Guo
    Waksman Institute and Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8020, USA
    Plant J 21:409-18. 2000
    ..However, analyses of infected NahG plants treated with ethylene action and/or synthesis inhibitors indicated that the TMV-induced expression of several SIS genes is independent of ethylene as well as SA...
  90. pmc Ozone-induced cell death in tobacco cultivar Bel W3 plants. The role of programmed cell death in lesion formation
    Stefania Pasqualini
    Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX Giugno, 74 06121 Perugia, Italy
    Plant Physiol 133:1122-34. 2003
    ..We, therefore, provide evidence that ozone-induced oxidative stress triggers a cell death program in tobacco cv Bel W3...
  91. ncbi Characterization of cDNAs associated with lignification and their expression profiles in loquat fruit with different lignin accumulation
    Lan Lan Shan
    Zhejiang University, Huajiachi Campus, 310029, Hangzhou, China
    Planta 227:1243-54. 2008
    ..Six cDNAs associated with the lignification pathway, i.e. EjPAL1, EjPAL2 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), Ej4CL (4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase, 4CL, EC 6.2.1...
  92. ncbi Trade-off between synthesis of salicylates and growth of micropropagated Salix pentandra
    Teija Ruuhola
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, P O Box 111 FIN 80101 Joensuu, Finland
    J Chem Ecol 29:1565-88. 2003
    ..pentandra were not subject to turnover, implying that the maintenance of salicylates does not demand high resources of plants, although their initial construction is costly...
  93. ncbi Cyclic GMP acts as a common regulator for the transcriptional activation of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in soybean
    Kenji Suita
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Rokkodai cho 1 1, Nada Ku, Kobe, 657 8501, Japan
    Planta 229:403-13. 2009
    ..Together, these results suggest that cGMP acts as a second messenger to activate the expression of genes for enzymes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in soybean...
  94. ncbi Methyl jasmonate induces defense responses in grapevine and triggers protection against Erysiphe necator
    Assia Belhadj
    Laboratoire de Mycologie et Biotechnologie Végétale, EA 3675, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, UFR Sciences Pharmaceutiques, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    J Agric Food Chem 54:9119-25. 2006
    ..protein, and beta-1,3-glucanase) and coding enzymes involved in phytoalexin biosynthesis (one phenylalanine ammonia lyase and one stilbene synthase)...
  95. ncbi Combined effects of Psoralens and ultraviolet-B on growth, pigmentation and biochemical parameters of Abelmoschus esculentus L
    Rima Kumari
    Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:1129-36. 2009
    ..sUV-B) were studied on plant growth, photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pigments, protein, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and antioxidative defense potential as well as their ultimate effects on biomass ..
  96. ncbi Xanthone biosynthesis in Hypericum perforatum cells provides antioxidant and antimicrobial protection upon biotic stress
    Gregory Franklin
    Departamento de Biologia, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 057 Braga, Portugal
    Phytochemistry 70:60-8. 2009
    ..a rapid up-regulation of genes encoding important enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway (PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and 4CL, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase) and xanthone biosynthesis (BPS, benzophenone synthase)...
  97. ncbi Bioreactor production of secondary metabolites from cell cultures of periwinkle and sandalwood
    Jagan V Valluri
    Cell Biology Laboratory, Division of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 547:325-35. 2009
    ..The use of trans-cinnamic acid, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, results in significant increase in the alkaloid production of periwinkle cell cultures...
  98. ncbi Precursor-directed biosynthesis of stilbene methyl ethers in Escherichia coli
    Yohei Katsuyama
    Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Biotechnol J 2:1286-93. 2007
    ..coli system carrying the steps of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, stilbene synthase, and OsPMT were converted to stilbene dimethyl ethers with the corresponding carboxylic moiety...
  99. pmc Active changes of lignification-related enzymes in pepper response to Glomus intraradices and/or Phytophthora capsici
    Hu zhe Zheng
    Division of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, School of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500 757, Korea
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 6:778-86. 2005
    ..capsici. The results suggested that G. intraradices is a potentially effective protection agent against P. capsici...
  100. ncbi Light conditions influence specific defence responses in incompatible plant-pathogen interactions: uncoupling systemic resistance from salicylic acid and PR-1 accumulation
    Jürgen Zeier
    Julius von Sachs Institute of Biological Science, University of Wurzburg, Julius von Sachs Platz 3, 97082, Germany
    Planta 219:673-83. 2004
    ....
  101. ncbi Secondary metabolism and antioxidants are involved in environmental adaptation and stress tolerance in lettuce
    Myung Min Oh
    Division of Horticulture, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    J Plant Physiol 166:180-91. 2009
    ..These results suggest that activation of secondary metabolism as well as the antioxidative metabolism is an integral part of plant adaptation to normal growing conditions in lettuce plants...

Research Grants3

  1. Augmented Phenylalanine Clearance by Muscles as Novel Therapy for Phenylketonuria
    Cary O Harding; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..synthetic pathway, to provide the BH4 cofactor necessary to support Phe hydroxylation or expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a Phe-metabolizing enzyme that does not require any external cofactors...
  2. Anaplerotic therapy in Propionic Acidemia
    Nicola Longo; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This approach, if effective, could be extended to a number of other diseases, including other organic acidemias and mitochondrial disorders. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  3. THE CARNITINE TRANSPORTER IN HUMAN DISEASE
    Nicola Longo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....