biflavonoids

Summary

Summary: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Effect of a polyphenols-enriched chardonnay white wine in diabetic rats
    Nicolas Landrault
    Oenologie et Pharmacologie Départements, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Montpellier I, 15 Avenue Charles Flahault, B P 14 491, France
    J Agric Food Chem 51:311-8. 2003
  2. ncbi Biflavonoids isolated from Selaginella tamariscina regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase in human skin fibroblasts
    Chan Woo Lee
    R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, 314 1, Bora dong, Kiheung Gu, Yongin si, Kyounggi do 449 729, South Korea
    Bioorg Med Chem 16:732-8. 2008
  3. ncbi Inhibition of tumor specific angiogenesis by amentoflavone
    C Guruvayoorappan
    Department of Immunology, Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala State, India
    Biochemistry (Mosc) 73:209-18. 2008
  4. pmc The inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammation by 4 compounds in Hypericum perforatum extract is partially dependent on the activation of SOCS3
    Nan Huang
    The Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, United States
    Phytochemistry 76:106-16. 2012
  5. ncbi Biflavonoids are superior to monoflavonoids in inhibiting amyloid-β toxicity and fibrillogenesis via accumulation of nontoxic oligomer-like structures
    Arjun Thapa
    Department of Biomaterials Engineering, Chosun University, Gwanju 501 759, Republic of Korea
    Biochemistry 50:2445-55. 2011
  6. ncbi The chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents
    Shengmin Sang
    Center for Excellence in Post Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, North Carolina Research Campus, 500 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
    Pharmacol Res 64:87-99. 2011
  7. ncbi Fatty acid synthase inhibition by amentoflavone suppresses HER2/neu (erbB2) oncogene in SKBR3 human breast cancer cells
    Jin Sun Lee
    Department of Surgery, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
    Phytother Res 27:713-20. 2013
  8. ncbi A natural theaflavins preparation inhibits HIV-1 infection by targeting the entry step: potential applications for preventing HIV-1 infection
    Jie Yang
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
    Fitoterapia 83:348-55. 2012
  9. ncbi Antiparasitic activity of some xanthones and biflavonoids from the root bark of Garcinia livingstonei
    Zakaria H Mbwambo
    Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    J Nat Prod 69:369-72. 2006
  10. ncbi Isoginkgetin inhibits tumor cell invasion by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression
    Sang Oh Yoon
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, LHRRB 606, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 5:2666-75. 2006

Detail Information

Publications210 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Effect of a polyphenols-enriched chardonnay white wine in diabetic rats
    Nicolas Landrault
    Oenologie et Pharmacologie Départements, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Montpellier I, 15 Avenue Charles Flahault, B P 14 491, France
    J Agric Food Chem 51:311-8. 2003
    ..In summary, our study indicates that white wine, when enriched in polyphenols, is able to induce ethanol-independent in vivo effects in a model of insulin-deficient diabetes characterized by a major oxidative stress...
  2. ncbi Biflavonoids isolated from Selaginella tamariscina regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase in human skin fibroblasts
    Chan Woo Lee
    R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, 314 1, Bora dong, Kiheung Gu, Yongin si, Kyounggi do 449 729, South Korea
    Bioorg Med Chem 16:732-8. 2008
    ..Using the technique of bioassay-directed chromatographic separation, five biflavonoids were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of S. tamariscina...
  3. ncbi Inhibition of tumor specific angiogenesis by amentoflavone
    C Guruvayoorappan
    Department of Immunology, Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala State, India
    Biochemistry (Mosc) 73:209-18. 2008
    ..These findings indicate that amentoflavone inhibits angiogenesis by disrupting the integrity of endothelial cells and by altering the endogenous factors that are required for the process of neovascularization...
  4. pmc The inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammation by 4 compounds in Hypericum perforatum extract is partially dependent on the activation of SOCS3
    Nan Huang
    The Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, United States
    Phytochemistry 76:106-16. 2012
    ..At the same time, these results also suggest that constituents in H. perforatum extract were alleviating LPS-induced macrophage response through SOCS3 independent mechanisms...
  5. ncbi Biflavonoids are superior to monoflavonoids in inhibiting amyloid-β toxicity and fibrillogenesis via accumulation of nontoxic oligomer-like structures
    Arjun Thapa
    Department of Biomaterials Engineering, Chosun University, Gwanju 501 759, Republic of Korea
    Biochemistry 50:2445-55. 2011
    ..In this study, we investigate the effects of mono- and biflavonoids in Aβ42-induced toxicity and fibrillogenesis and find that the biflavonoid taiwaniaflavone (TF) effectively ..
  6. ncbi The chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents
    Shengmin Sang
    Center for Excellence in Post Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, North Carolina Research Campus, 500 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
    Pharmacol Res 64:87-99. 2011
    ..Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and ring-fission metabolism represent the major metabolic pathways for tea catechins. The present review summarizes the data concerning the chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents...
  7. ncbi Fatty acid synthase inhibition by amentoflavone suppresses HER2/neu (erbB2) oncogene in SKBR3 human breast cancer cells
    Jin Sun Lee
    Department of Surgery, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
    Phytother Res 27:713-20. 2013
    ..These results suggest that amentoflavone modulated FASN expression by regulation of HER2-pathways, and induced cell death to enhance chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic activity in HER2-positive breast cancers...
  8. ncbi A natural theaflavins preparation inhibits HIV-1 infection by targeting the entry step: potential applications for preventing HIV-1 infection
    Jie Yang
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
    Fitoterapia 83:348-55. 2012
    ..It has a potential to be developed as a safe and affordable topical microbicide for preventing sexual transmission of HIV...
  9. ncbi Antiparasitic activity of some xanthones and biflavonoids from the root bark of Garcinia livingstonei
    Zakaria H Mbwambo
    Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    J Nat Prod 69:369-72. 2006
    ..ent-naringeninyl-(I-3alpha,II-8)-4'-O-methylnaringenin (6), along with five known xanthones and two known biflavonoids, was isolated from the root bark of Garcinia livingstonei collected in Tanzania...
  10. ncbi Isoginkgetin inhibits tumor cell invasion by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression
    Sang Oh Yoon
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, LHRRB 606, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 5:2666-75. 2006
    ..This suggests that isoginkgetin could be a potential candidate as a therapeutic agent against tumor invasion...
  11. ncbi Theaflavin derivatives in black tea and catechin derivatives in green tea inhibit HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41
    Shuwen Liu
    Lindsley F Kimball Research Institute, The New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1723:270-81. 2005
    ..These results indicate that tea, especially black tea, may be used as a source of anti-HIV agents and theaflavin derivatives may be applied as lead compounds for developing HIV-1 entry inhibitors targeting gp41...
  12. ncbi Comparative antiplasmodial, leishmanicidal and antitrypanosomal activities of several biflavonoids
    B Weniger
    Pharmacognosie et Biomolécules Naturelles Actives, UMR no 7081, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg, Illkirch, France
    Phytomedicine 13:176-80. 2006
    The antiplasmodial, leishmanicidal and antitrypanosomal activities of eight natural biflavonoids were estimated in vitro on a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, axenically grown Leishmania donovani amastigotes and ..
  13. ncbi Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells by black tea and its polyphenol theaflavin
    Trina Kundu
    Department of Environmental Carcinogenesis and Toxicology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37 S P Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, India
    Cancer Lett 230:111-21. 2005
    ..Such induction was found to be mediated through activation of caspases 3 and 8, particularly caspase 3 and by altering apoptosis related genes as evident by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax proteins...
  14. ncbi Grape seed procyanidin b2 inhibits human aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration induced by advanced glycation end products
    Qian Cai
    Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics of Shandong Province, Department of Geriatrics, Qi Lu Hospital of Shandong University, China
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 75:1692-7. 2011
    ..GSPB2 may therefore have therapeutic potential in preventing and treating vascular complications of diabetes mellitus...
  15. ncbi Anti-inflammatory activity of the synthetic C-C biflavonoids
    Haeil Park
    College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Korea
    J Pharm Pharmacol 58:1661-7. 2006
    To find anti-inflammatory agents based on plant constituents, the effects of six synthetic C-C biflavonoids connecting with different positions of C-C bond between flavone monomers (a: 4'-4', b: 4'-3', c: 4'-6, d: 3'-6, e: 6-6, f: 4'-3) ..
  16. ncbi In vitro anti-influenza virus and anti-inflammatory activities of theaflavin derivatives
    Mian Zu
    Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China
    Antiviral Res 94:217-24. 2012
    ..These findings will provide important information for new drug design and development for the treatment of influenza virus infection...
  17. ncbi Antioxidant effects of a grapeseed procyanidin extract and oleoyl-estrone in obese Zucker rats
    Vanessa M Castrillejo
    Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Spain
    Nutrition 27:1172-6. 2011
    ....
  18. ncbi Biflavonoids from Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits and their effects in inhibiting NF-kappa B activation
    Hai feng Zhou
    Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, 1320 West Beijing Road, Shanghai 200040, PR China
    J Agric Food Chem 59:3060-5. 2011
    ..In this study, two biflavonoids, isoginkgetin, and ginkgetin, together with three other flavonoids, were isolated from caper fruits...
  19. ncbi Amentoflavone inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation in macrophages
    E R Woo
    College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk dong, Dong Gu, Gwangju 501 759, Republic of Korea
    Pharmacol Res 51:539-46. 2005
    ....
  20. ncbi Biflavonoids inhibited phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3)
    Sung Kyu Choi
    Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 52 Uendong, Yusung, Taejon 305 600, Republic of Korea
    Nat Prod Res 20:341-6. 2006
    Two biflavonoids, ginkgetin (1) and sciadopitysin (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of the young branches of Taxus cuspidata, which inhibited phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) with IC50 values of 25.8 and 46...
  21. ncbi Grape seed procyanidin B2 inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial cell apoptosis through regulating GSK3β phosphorylation
    Bao Ying Li
    Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics of Shandong Province, Department of Geriatrics, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, Peoples Republic of China
    Cell Biol Int 35:663-9. 2011
    ..GSPB2 therapy could become an effective approach to battling AGEs-induced endothelial apoptosis...
  22. ncbi beta-Secretase (BACE-1) inhibitory effect of biflavonoids
    Hiroaki Sasaki
    School of Pharmacy, Shujitsu University, Naka ku, Okayama 703 8516, Japan
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 20:4558-60. 2010
    Here, we describe amentoflavone-type biflavonoids, which were isolated from natural sources and were found to inhibit beta-secretase (BACE-1)...
  23. ncbi Antiplasmodial activity of (I-3,II-3)-biflavonoids and other constituents from Ormocarpum kirkii
    Liene Dhooghe
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    Phytochemistry 71:785-91. 2010
    ..The compounds comprised seven (I-3,II-3)-biflavonoids, three (I-3,II-3)-bi-4-phenyldihydrocoumarins, an isoflavanone and a C-glucosylated flavone...
  24. ncbi Neuroprotective effects of naturally occurring biflavonoids
    Sam Sik Kang
    Department of Manufacturing Pharmacy, Seoul National University College of Pharmacy, Seoul 110 460, Republic of Korea
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 15:3588-91. 2005
    We examined neuroprotective effects of naturally occurring biflavonoids on oxidative stress-induced and amyloid beta peptide-induced cell death in neuronal cells...
  25. ncbi Induction of lactadherin mediates the apoptosis of endothelial cells in response to advanced glycation end products and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 and resveratrol
    Bao Ying Li
    Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics of Shandong Province, Department of Geriatrics, Qi Lu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong Province, People s Republic of China
    Apoptosis 16:732-45. 2011
    ..Targeting lactadherin with antioxidant could be translated into clinical application in the fighting against DM complications...
  26. ncbi Anti-inflammatory phenolics isolated from Juniperus rigida leaves and twigs in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells
    Eun Ju Jeong
    College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 27:875-9. 2012
    ..Among the isolated compounds, phenylpropanoid glycosides with p-hydroxy group (2, 4) and massoniaside A (7), (+)-catechin (10), amentoflavone (11) effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells...
  27. ncbi Dimeric procyanidin B2 inhibits constitutively active NF-kappaB in Hodgkin's lymphoma cells independently of the presence of IkappaB mutations
    Gerardo G MacKenzie
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 75:1461-71. 2008
    ..Thus, several signaling pathways should be targeted when designing therapeutics for HL. In this regard, the capacity of B2 to inhibit NF-kappaB could be valuable in a multi-drug approach...
  28. ncbi Bioactivity guided isolation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory constituents of Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) root
    Ismail O Ishola
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, P M B 12003 Lagos, Nigeria
    J Ethnopharmacol 142:383-9. 2012
    ..Cnestis ferruginea (CF) Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) is a shrub widely used in Traditional African Medicine (TAM) for the treatment of various painful and inflammatory conditions...
  29. pmc Proteomic analysis of aorta and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 in db/db mice reveal a critical role of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 in diabetic arterial damage
    Fei Yu
    Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics of Shandong Province, Department of Geriatrics, Qi Lu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e52541. 2012
    ..The aim of this study is to identify the target protein of GSPB2 responsible for the protective effect against atherosclerosis in patients with DM...
  30. pmc Structural identification of mouse fecal metabolites of theaflavin 3,3'-digallate using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
    Huadong Chen
    Center for Excellence in Post Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
    J Chromatogr A 1218:7297-306. 2011
    ..Further studies on the formation of those metabolites in TFDG-treated mice in germ-free conditions are warranted. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biotransformation of TFDG in mice...
  31. ncbi New 3',8''-linked biflavonoids from Selaginella uncinata displaying protective effect against anoxia
    Jun Xia Zheng
    Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
    Molecules 16:6206-14. 2011
    ..All the seven compounds showed protective effect against anoxia in the anoxic PC12 cells assay, in which compound 6 displayed particularly potent activity...
  32. ncbi Isolation and cytotoxic activity of selaginellin derivatives and biflavonoids from Selaginella tamariscina
    Guo Gang Zhang
    College of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, P R China
    Planta Med 78:390-2. 2012
    ..Spring plant. In addition, four known biflavonoids, namely neocryptomerin ( 6), hinokiflavone (7), pulvinatabiflavone (8), and 7''- O-methylamentoflavone (9), ..
  33. ncbi Tea polyphenols and theaflavins are present in prostate tissue of humans and mice after green and black tea consumption
    Susanne M Henning
    Department of Pathology, VA West Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
    J Nutr 136:1839-43. 2006
    ..001) and GT (P = 0.025) consumption relative to baseline serum This is the first human study to show that tea polyphenols and theaflavins are bioavailable in the prostate where they may be active in the prevention of prostate cancer...
  34. ncbi Antiviral amentoflavone from Selaginella sinensis
    S C Ma
    Department of Biology and Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, PR China
    Biol Pharm Bull 24:311-2. 2001
    ..5 microg/ml. The contents of amentoflavone in nine species of Selaginella were determined by reversed-phase HPLC. S. sinensis showed a higher content of 1.13%...
  35. ncbi Procyanidin B1 is detected in human serum after intake of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract
    Atsushi Sano
    Research and Development Division, Kikkoman Corporation, 399 Noda, Noda, Chiba 278 0037, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:1140-3. 2003
    ..Procyanidin B1 [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin] was detected in human serum 2 h after intake. Its concentration was 10.6 +/- 2.5 nmol/l...
  36. ncbi Anti-influenza virus activity of biflavonoids
    Kazuhiko Miki
    Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Noshio 2 522 1, Kiyose shi, Tokyo 204 8588, Japan
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 17:772-5. 2007
    ..Ginkgetin was found to inhibit the influenza virus sialidase. Ginkgetin-sialic acid conjugates showed a significant survival effect in the influenza-virus-infected mice...
  37. ncbi Enzymatic synthesis of tea theaflavin derivatives and their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities
    Shengmin Sang
    Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8020, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 12:459-67. 2004
    ..7 cells. Their cytotoxic activities against KYSE 150 and 510 human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and HT 29 human colon cancer cells were also evaluated...
  38. ncbi Antioxidative properties of black tea
    W Łuczaj
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Białystok, Mickiewicza 2A, P O Box 14, 15 230 Białystok 8, Poland
    Prev Med 40:910-8. 2005
    ..This paper reviews the available literature on the effects of black tea on health with a focus on its antioxidative activity...
  39. ncbi Identification of procyanidins in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and chocolate using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry
    J F Hammerstone
    Analytical and Applied Sciences Group, Hackettstown, New Jersey 07840, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 47:490-6. 1999
    ....
  40. ncbi In vivo antioxidant activity of procyanidin-rich extracts from grape seed and pine (Pinus maritima) bark in rats
    Jérôme Busserolles
    Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d Auvergne, Unité des Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments, INRA, Theix, Saint Genes Champanelle, France
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 76:22-7. 2006
    ..We have evaluated the effects of selected procyanidin-rich extracts on oxidative stress in rats in condition of prolonged consumption of these compounds and also after single administration i.e. in postprandial conditions...
  41. ncbi Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health
    R Corder
    William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Nature 444:566. 2006
    ..These regions also happen to be associated with increased longevity in the population...
  42. ncbi Contribution of p53-mediated Bax transactivation in theaflavin-induced mammary epithelial carcinoma cell apoptosis
    Lakshmishri Lahiry
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P 1 12 CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata 700 054, India
    Apoptosis 13:771-81. 2008
    ..Together these findings suggest that in breast cancer cells, p53 promotes theaflavin-induced apoptosis in a transcription-dependent manner through mitochondrial death cascade...
  43. ncbi Theaflavins from black tea, especially theaflavin-3-gallate, reduce the incorporation of cholesterol into mixed micelles
    Mario A Vermeer
    Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, P O Box 114, 3130 AC, 3133 AT Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
    J Agric Food Chem 56:12031-6. 2008
    ..These results show that theaflavins can play a role in decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption via inhibition of micelle formation...
  44. ncbi Theaflavins in black tea and catechins in green tea are equally effective antioxidants
    L K Leung
    Department of Biochemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, The People's Republic of China
    J Nutr 131:2248-51. 2001
    ....
  45. ncbi Black tea polyphenols-mediated in vivo cellular responses during carcinogenesis
    G Kumar
    Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre TMC, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai 410 210, India
    Mini Rev Med Chem 10:492-505. 2010
    ..Overall, the mechanism(s) implicated in the BTPs-mediated inhibition are diverse and involve effects on multiple molecular pathways and genes...
  46. ncbi Analysis of theaflavins in biological fluids using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry
    T P Mulder
    Unilever Health Institute, Unilever Research Laboratory, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 760:271-9. 2001
    ..The concentration in urine also peaked after 2 h at 4.2 microg l(-1). Hence, only minute amounts of theaflavins can be detected in plasma and urine samples of healthy volunteers after ingestion...
  47. ncbi Synthesis of procyanidin B3 and its anti-inflammatory activity. the effect of 4-alkoxy group of catechin electrophile in the Yb(OTf)(3)-catalyzed condensation with catechin nucleophile
    Yukiko Oizumi
    Sciences of Functional Foods, Graduate School of Agriculture, Shinshu University8304, Minami minowa, Kami ina, Nagano 399 4598, Japan
    J Org Chem 75:4884-6. 2010
    ..The anti-inflammatory activity of 1 was stronger than that of indomethacin and glycyrrhetinic acid, the normally used anti-inflammatory agents...
  48. ncbi Cancer prevention by tea polyphenols is linked to their direct inhibition of antiapoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins
    Marilisa Leone
    The Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Cancer Res 63:8118-21. 2003
    ..These data suggest a strong link between the anticancer activities of these tea polyphenols and their inhibition of a crucial antiapoptotic pathway, which is implicated in the development of many human malignancies...
  49. ncbi Induction of apoptosis by three types of procyanidin isolated from apple (Rosaceae Malus pumila) in human stomach cancer KATO III cells
    Hiroshige Hibasami
    Faculty of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie 514 0001, Japan
    Int J Mol Med 13:795-9. 2004
    ....
  50. ncbi Evaluation of the effect of flavangenol on serum lipid peroxide levels and development of atherosclerosis in spontaneously hyperlipidemic B6.KOR-Apoeshl mice
    Kouichi Sugaya
    Department of Host Defense and Biochemical Research, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Int J Mol Med 27:33-8. 2011
    ....
  51. ncbi Biflavonoids from Torreya nucifera displaying SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibition
    Young Bae Ryu
    Eco Friendly Biomaterial Research Center and AI Control Material Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580 185, Republic of Korea
    Bioorg Med Chem 18:7940-7. 2010
    ..Following bioactivity-guided fractionation, eight diterpenoids (1-8) and four biflavonoids (9-12) were isolated and evaluated for SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibition using fluorescence resonance energy ..
  52. ncbi Inhibitory effects of procyanidin B(2) dimer on lipid-laden macrophage formation
    Dong Mei Chen
    Department of Pharmacology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai, China
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 48:54-70. 2006
    ..Many differentially expressed genes induced by B(2) help to uncover novel targets and may help to target disease interactions in atherosclerosis in the future...
  53. ncbi Osteoblast differentiation stimulating activity of biflavonoids from Cephalotaxus koreana
    Mi Kyeong Lee
    College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, Republic of Korea
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 16:2850-4. 2006
    Six amentoflavone-type biflavonoids, bilobetin (1), ginkgetin (2), 4',7''-di-O-methyl-amentoflavone (3), 7-O-methyl-isoginkgetin (4), sciadopitysin (5), and 7,4',7'',4'''-O-methyl-amentoflavone (6), were isolated from the EtOAc fraction ..
  54. ncbi Highly oligomeric procyanidins ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via suppression of Th1 immunity
    Mika Miyake
    Central Laboratories for Key Technology, Kirin Brewery, 1 13 5 Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama shi, Kanagawa 236 0004, Japan
    J Immunol 176:5797-804. 2006
    ..The results indicate that the suppression of development of EAE by the highly polymerized procyanidins resulted from an inhibition of Th1 and the effects might be associated with depression of Ag-presenting capability...
  55. ncbi Theaflavins induce G2/M arrest by modulating expression of p21waf1/cip1, cdc25C and cyclin B in human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells
    Sahdeo Prasad
    Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, India
    Life Sci 81:1323-31. 2007
    ..Thus, it can be concluded that TF acts as an effective anti-proliferative agent by modulating cell growth regulators in prostate cancer cells...
  56. ncbi In vitro antimalarial activity of biflavonoids from Wikstroemia indica
    Shinyu Nunome
    The Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Kitasato University, Tokyo, Japan
    Planta Med 70:76-8. 2004
    ..Fractionation of the active extract led to the isolation of two biflavonoids, sikokianin B ( 1) and sikokianin C ( 2) with IC (50) values 0.54 microg/mL and 0...
  57. ncbi Hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of the procyanidin fraction from Guazuma ulmifolia bark in normotensive and hypertensive rats
    Gil Alfonso Magos
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal No 70 297, 04510 Mexico, D F, Mexico
    J Ethnopharmacol 117:58-68. 2008
    ..was to investigate the in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular activity of a procyanidin fraction (PCF) obtained from acetone extract of Guazuma ulmifolia bark which has traditionally been used as an antihypertensive agent...
  58. ncbi Polyphenols from peanut skins and their free radical-scavenging effects
    Hongxiang Lou
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, PR China
    Phytochemistry 65:2391-9. 2004
    ....
  59. ncbi Polyphenolic profiles of Basque cider apple cultivars and their technological properties
    Rosa M Alonso-Salces
    Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Pais Vasco Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, P O Box 644, E 48080 Bilbao, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 52:2938-52. 2004
    ....
  60. ncbi Apple procyanidins decrease cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein secretion in Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes
    Romain Vidal
    Unité Mixte de Recherche 505, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Université Pierre et Marie Curie Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, 75006 Paris, France
    J Lipid Res 46:258-68. 2005
    ....
  61. ncbi Sequential fractionation of grape seeds into oils, polyphenols, and procyanidins via a single system employing CO2-based fluids
    Mehdi Ashraf-Khorassani
    Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 0212, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 52:2440-4. 2004
    ..The uniqueness of the study is attested to by the use of CO(2)-based fluids and the employment of a single instrumental extraction system...
  62. ncbi Supplementation with grape seed polyphenols results in increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic Acid, an important metabolite of proanthocyanidins in humans
    Natalie C Ward
    School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, and Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Perth, Australia
    J Agric Food Chem 52:5545-9. 2004
    ..002). The observed increase in 3-HPP is in line with the suggestion that this compound is a major phenolic acid breakdown product of proanthocyanidin metabolism in vivo...
  63. ncbi Ethanol and polyphenolic free wine matrix stimulate the differentiation of human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Influence of their association with a procyanidin-rich grape seed extract
    Caroline Laurent
    Equipe Nutrition et Aliments EA 3762, Universite Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier, France
    J Agric Food Chem 53:5541-8. 2005
    ..These are the first results in support of the notion that moderate concentration of ethanol may stimulate the differentiation of Caco-2 cells, particularly when integrated with a polyphenolic free wine matrix...
  64. ncbi Comparative antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of procyanidin fractions from grape and pine
    Vanessa Ugartondo
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    Chem Res Toxicol 20:1543-8. 2007
    ..Pine fractions presented slightly lower antioxidant activity than grape fractions but are less cytotoxic. This data provides useful information to help design safe antioxidant products that act without altering critical cell functions...
  65. ncbi Oligomeric procyanidins in apple polyphenol are main active components for inhibition of pancreatic lipase and triglyceride absorption
    Hiroshi Sugiyama
    Fundamental Research Laboratory, Asahi Breweries Limited, I 21, Midori 1 chome, Moriya shi, Ibaraki 302 0106, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 55:4604-9. 2007
    ..These results suggested that the oligomeric procyanidins contained in AP inhibited triglyceride absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity in mice and humans...
  66. ncbi Revised structures of gambiriins A1, A2, B1, and B2, chalcane-flavan dimers from gambir (Uncaria gambir extract)
    Shoko Taniguchi
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 55:268-72. 2007
    ..The spectroscopic and chemical data obtained in the present study indicated that their previously proposed structures 6a, 7a, 8a, and 9a should be revised to 6, 7, 8, and 9, respectively...
  67. ncbi Composition and cellular localization of tannins in Cabernet Sauvignon skins during growth
    Séverine Gagné
    Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Physiologie de la Vigne and Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquée, UMR 1219 Oenologie Ampélologie, Faculté d Oenologie Université Victor Segalen, Bordeaux 2 INRA ENITA, Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, Talence, France
    J Agric Food Chem 54:9465-71. 2006
    ..Last, procyanidin composition and organization seemed to be characteristic of the Cabernet Sauvignon variety...
  68. ncbi Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacities of Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) callus extracts
    Theeshan Bahorun
    Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Reduit
    Nahrung 47:191-8. 2003
    ..Crataegus monogyna cell culture represents an important alternative source for natural antioxidants...
  69. ncbi Polyphenolic constituent structures of Zanthoxylum piperitum fruit and the antibacterial effects of its polymeric procyanidin on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Miwako Kusuda
    Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:1423-31. 2006
    ....
  70. ncbi Content of polyphenolic compounds in the Nigerian stimulants Cola nitida ssp. alba, Cola nitida ssp. rubra A. Chev, and Cola acuminata Schott & Endl and their antioxidant capacity
    Sunday Ene Ojo Atawodi
    Division of Toxicology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
    J Agric Food Chem 55:9824-8. 2007
    ....
  71. ncbi Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States
    Kenneth B Miller
    The Hershey Company, P O Box 805, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0805, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 54:4062-8. 2006
    ....
  72. ncbi Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme activity by flavanol-rich foods
    Lucas Actis-Goretta
    Physical Chemistry PRALIB, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Junin 956, 1113 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Agric Food Chem 54:229-34. 2006
    ..The occurrence of such inhibition in vivo needs to be determined, although is supported by the association between the consumption of flavanol-rich foods and reductions in blood pressure observed in several experimental models...
  73. ncbi [The quality specification of grape seed extract]
    Yun dong Shao
    Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product Co, Ltd, Tianjin 300402, China
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 30:1406-8. 2005
    ..The two sets of specifications are: the high purity grape seed extract should contain polyphenol NLT 95%, monomer NLT 10%; and the grape seed extract with ordinary quality should have a procyanidolic value NLT 95, and monomer NLT 6%...
  74. ncbi Inhibitory effect of polyphenol-enriched apple extracts on mast cell degranulation in vitro targeting the binding between IgE and FcepsilonRI
    Tomoko Tokura
    Atopy Allergy Research Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo, Tokyo, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69:1974-7. 2005
    ..This is the first report demonstrating the molecular mechanism for the anti-allergic effect of procyanidin-enriched extracts from apples...
  75. ncbi Isolation and structure elucidation of phenolic antioxidants from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds and pericarp
    Y Sudjaroen
    Department of Tropical Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Food Chem Toxicol 43:1673-82. 2005
    ..The antioxidant capacities of the Soxhlet methanolic extracts were determined, and indicates that Tamarind may be an important source of cancer chemopreventive natural products in tropical regions...
  76. ncbi New approach for the synthesis and isolation of dimeric procyanidins
    Nils Köhler
    Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Braunschweig Institute of Technology, Schleinitzstrasse 20, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
    J Agric Food Chem 56:5374-85. 2008
    ..This approach also afforded gambiriins A1 and A2, which were all isolated and unambiguously identified, and the novel 3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-propan-2-ol-1beta-->8-(-)-epicatechin (gambiriin A4)...
  77. ncbi Chocolate consumption, fecal water antioxidant activity, and hydroxyl radical production
    Ian R Record
    CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, BC Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    Nutr Cancer 47:131-5. 2003
    ..Consumption of either chocolate reduced the production of free radicals in fecal water. This suggests that some component of the chocolate other than the flavanols and related procyanidins may have been effective...
  78. ncbi Effects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humans
    Y Wan
    Graduate Program in Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 74:596-602. 2001
    ....
  79. ncbi Bioavailability of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins: gastrointestinal tract influences and their relevance to bioactive forms in vivo
    J P Spencer
    Antioxidant Research Group, Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, GKT School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College London, UK
    Antioxid Redox Signal 3:1023-39. 2001
    ..Future studies will continue to concentrate on the exact mechanism of action of the bioactive forms of flavan-3-ols in vivo...
  80. ncbi Procyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds prevents cataract formation in hereditary cataractous (ICR/f) rats
    Jun Yamakoshi
    Research and Development Division, Kikkoman Corporation, 399 Noda, Noda City, Chiba 278 0037, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 50:4983-8. 2002
    ..The larger molecular procyanidins in the GSE might contribute this anticataract activity...
  81. ncbi Potential cancer-chemopreventive activities of wine stilbenoids and flavans extracted from grape (Vitis vinifera) cell cultures
    P Waffo-Teguo
    Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Nutr Cancer 40:173-9. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that trans-astringin and trans-piceatannol may function as potential cancer-chemopreventive agents by a mechanism different from that of trans-resveratrol...
  82. ncbi Resveratrol derivatives from the roots of Vitis thunbergii
    Yu Ling Huang
    National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, NO 155 1, Sec 2, Li Nung Street, Peitou, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Nat Prod 68:217-20. 2005
    ..The structures of these 10 compounds were established by spectroscopic (NMR and MS) analyses. All of the isolated compounds, except 1, were tested for their antiplatelet and antioxidative activities...
  83. ncbi Chronic consumption of a flavanol- and procyanindin-rich diet is associated with reduced levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in rat testes
    Timothy J Orozco
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Nutr Biochem 14:104-10. 2003
    ..These results support the concept that a diet rich in flavanols and procyanidins can improve oxidant defense and reduce tissue markers for oxidative stress, although these effects can be tissue specific...
  84. ncbi Studies in polyphenol chemistry and bioactivity. 4.(1) Synthesis of trimeric, tetrameric, pentameric, and higher oligomeric epicatechin-derived procyanidins having all-4beta,8-interflavan connectivity and their inhibition of cancer cell growth through cel
    Alan P Kozikowski
    Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Drug Discovery Laboratory, 3900 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    J Org Chem 68:1641-58. 2003
    ..Subsequent cell death is more likely necrotic rather than apoptotic. Control experiments demonstrate that the polyphenol itself, rather than hydrogen peroxide potentially formed by its autoxidation, is the causative agent...
  85. ncbi Effect of cocoa flavanols and their related oligomers on the secretion of interleukin-5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    T K Mao
    Division of Rheumatology Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Med Food 5:17-22. 2002
    ..This work offers additional data for consideration of the health benefits of dietary FLO from a variety of foods, including those benefits associated specifically with consumption of some cocoas and chocolates...
  86. ncbi Inhibitory effects of cocoa flavanols and procyanidin oligomers on free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis
    Qin Yan Zhu
    Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 8669, USA
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 227:321-9. 2002
    ..Conversely, plasma obtained from rats given the cocoa extract improved the resistance of erythrocytes obtained from rats given water only. These results show cocoa flavanols and procyanidins can provide membrane protective effects...
  87. ncbi Cysteinyl-flavan-3-ol conjugates from grape procyanidins. Antioxidant and antiproliferative properties
    J L Torres
    Department of Peptide and Protein Chemistry, Institute for Chemical and Environmental Research IIQAB CSIC, Jordi Girona 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    Bioorg Med Chem 10:2497-509. 2002
    ..The order of antiradical and antiproliferative efficiency was 7 >5 approximately 6 >1, the same for both assays...
  88. ncbi Valorization of grape (Vitis vinifera) byproducts. Antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content
    Josep Lluis Torres
    Department of Peptide and Protein Chemistry, Department of Surfactant Technology, and Thermal Analysis Laboratory, Institute for Chemical and Environmental Research IIQAB CSIC, Jordi Girona 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 50:7548-55. 2002
    ..A fraction including glycosylated flavonols was also efficient in the emulsion. All the fractions showed low aquatic toxicity and weak influence on proliferation of human melanoma cells...
  89. ncbi Polymeric procyanidins as radical-scavenging components in red-hulled rice
    Tomoyuki Oki
    National Agricultural Research Center for Kyushu Okinawa Region, National Agricultural Research Organization, 2421 Suya, Nishigoshi, Kikuchi, Kumamoto 861 1192, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 50:7524-9. 2002
    ..GPC analysis of the acetylated procyanidins revealed that the average molecular weight is about 5000, in a range of about 500-18,000...
  90. ncbi Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds: in vivo effects on oxidative stress
    Paolo Simonetti
    Department of Food Science and Microbiology, Division of Human Nutrition, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
    J Agric Food Chem 50:6217-21. 2002
    ..On the basis of these results, it may be suggested that dietary procyanidins exert their antioxidant protection in vivo by sparing liposoluble vitamin E and reducing DNA oxidative damage...
  91. ncbi Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4beta-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa
    Roberta R Holt
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616 8669, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 76:798-804. 2002
    ....
  92. ncbi Varietal differences among the polyphenol profiles of seven table grape cultivars studied by LC-DAD-MS-MS
    Emma Cantos
    Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS CSIC, P O Box 4195, Murcia 30080, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 50:5691-6. 2002
    ..These results indicate that the intake of unpeeled table grapes should be recommended in dietary habits as a potential source of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic phenolic compounds...
  93. ncbi Antiviral and antioxidant activity of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins from Crataegus sinaica
    Abdelaaty A Shahat
    Planta Med 68:539-41. 2002
    ..In addition to the previously reported phenolic compounds, the pentacyclic triterpenoid ursolic acid (1) and a tetrameric (2) and pentameric procyanidin (3) are reported for the first time...
  94. ncbi Hawthorn extracts inhibit LDL oxidation
    C Quettier-Deleu
    Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Faculte de Pharmacie, Institut Pasteur, Lille, France
    Pharmazie 58:577-81. 2003
    ..This study suggests that hawthorn could be a source of polyphenols able to inhibit LDL oxidation...
  95. ncbi Study on the inhibitory effects of Korean medicinal plants and their main compounds on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical
    E J Cho
    Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan
    Phytomedicine 10:544-51. 2003
    ....
  96. ncbi Vasorelaxant effects of grape polyphenols in rat isolated aorta. Possible involvement of a purinergic pathway
    Anne Mendes
    Laboratoire de Pharmacodynamie, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux Cedex, France
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 17:673-81. 2003
    ....
  97. ncbi Efficient one pot extraction and depolymerization of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace procyanidins for the preparation of antioxidant thio-conjugates
    Ariadna Selga
    Institute for Chemical and Environmental Research IIQAB CSIC, Jordi Girona 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 52:467-73. 2004
    ..The procedure described here will make the antioxidant thio-derivatives efficiently available directly from raw plant byproducts such as grape pomace...
  98. ncbi Delivery of tea polyphenols to the oral cavity by green tea leaves and black tea extract
    Mao Jung Lee
    Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:132-7. 2004
    ..These results indicate that tea leaves can be used as a convenient, slow-release source of catechins and theaflavins and provide information for the possible use of tea in the prevention of oral cancer and dental caries...
  99. ncbi Inhibition of apple polyphenol oxidase activity by procyanidins and polyphenol oxidation products
    Carine Le Bourvellec
    Unité de Recherches Cidricoles, Biotransformation des Fruits et Legumes, INRA, Domaine de la Motte, BP 35327, 35653 Le Rheu Cedex, France
    J Agric Food Chem 52:122-30. 2004
    ..5, and 1 g/L of the fraction of n 4. The inhibitory effect of oxidized procyanidins was twice that of native procyanidins. Oxidation products of caffeoylquinic acid and (-)-epicatechin also inhibited polyphenol oxidase...
  100. ncbi Comparative study of eight well-known polyphenolic antioxidants
    P Cos
    Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium
    J Pharm Pharmacol 55:1291-7. 2003
    ..In contrast, genistein exhibited a very low antioxidant activity in both the lipid peroxidation and the DPPH(*) scavenging assay, a high cytotoxicity and a low complement-inhibiting activity...
  101. ncbi Effect of the number of flavanol units on the antioxidant activity of procyanidin fractions isolated from chocolate
    Christine Counet
    Unite de Brasserie et des Industries Alimentaires, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud, 2 Bte7, B 1348 Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    J Agric Food Chem 51:6816-22. 2003
    ..A comparison with 10 usual antioxidants indicated that oligomers with three or more (epi)catechin units are by far the most efficient...

Research Grants6

  1. Computer Directed Photodynamic Therapy of Prostate Ca
    Jerzy Jankun; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  2. Influence of Dietary Flavonoids on the Expression of At*
    Carl Keen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, they will examine the effects of the diets on the activation of NFkB and cell signaling pathways. ..
  3. COPPER NUTRITION AND DEVELOPMENT
    Carl Keen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This information should provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying copper deficient pathologies and may contribute to our understanding of this process during human development. ..
  4. Pre & Postdoctoral Training in Nutrition
    Carl Keen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Throughout our training we work to ensure that our graduates have vision and adaptability to work in environments where the skills and views of health professionals trained in nutrition are in urgent demand. ..
  5. Acylation as an Approach to Enhance the Cancer Preventive Effect of EGCG
    Shengmin Sang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..2. To determine the bioavailability and efficacy of acylated EGCG in the prevention of ACF formation in the AOM-treated mouse model. ..
  6. NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN MAMMALIAN DEVELOPMENT
    Carl Keen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..