african trypanosomiasis

Summary

Summary: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the tsetse fly. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Human African trypanosomiasis
    Reto Brun
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    Lancet 375:148-59. 2010
  2. pmc Eliminating human African trypanosomiasis: where do we stand and what comes next?
    Pere P Simarro
    World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Med 5:e55. 2008
  3. ncbi The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei
    Matthew Berriman
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK
    Science 309:416-22. 2005
  4. pmc Options for field diagnosis of human african trypanosomiasis
    Francois Chappuis
    Travel and Migration Medicine Unit, Geneva University Hospital, 24 Rue Micheli du Crest, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:133-46. 2005
  5. ncbi Deletion of a novel protein kinase with PX and FYVE-related domains increases the rate of differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei
    E Vassella
    , Am Klopferspitz 18a, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 41:33-46. 2001
  6. pmc A combined CXCL10, CXCL8 and H-FABP panel for the staging of human African trypanosomiasis patients
    Alexandre Hainard
    Biomedical Proteomics Research Group, Medical University Centre, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e459. 2009
  7. pmc Identification of stage biomarkers for human African trypanosomiasis
    Daniel Ndem Amin
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SE 171 77 Sweden
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:983-90. 2010
  8. pmc The burden of human African trypanosomiasis
    Eric M Fèvre
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e333. 2008
  9. pmc Sleeping sickness in Uganda: a thin line between two fatal diseases
    Kim Picozzi
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH25 9RG
    BMJ 331:1238-41. 2005
  10. pmc The genome sequence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, causative agent of chronic human african trypanosomiasis
    Andrew P Jackson
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e658. 2010

Detail Information

Publications351 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Human African trypanosomiasis
    Reto Brun
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    Lancet 375:148-59. 2010
    Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, transmitted by tsetse flies...
  2. pmc Eliminating human African trypanosomiasis: where do we stand and what comes next?
    Pere P Simarro
    World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Med 5:e55. 2008
  3. ncbi The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei
    Matthew Berriman
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK
    Science 309:416-22. 2005
    ..brucei and the greatest in L. major. Horizontal transfer of genes of bacterial origin has contributed to some of the metabolic differences in these parasites, and a number of novel potential drug targets have been identified...
  4. pmc Options for field diagnosis of human african trypanosomiasis
    Francois Chappuis
    Travel and Migration Medicine Unit, Geneva University Hospital, 24 Rue Micheli du Crest, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:133-46. 2005
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense remains highly prevalent in several rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and is lethal if left untreated...
  5. ncbi Deletion of a novel protein kinase with PX and FYVE-related domains increases the rate of differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei
    E Vassella
    , Am Klopferspitz 18a, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 41:33-46. 2001
    ..This suggests a function of ZFK associated with the trypanosomes' decision between either cell cycle progression, as slender bloodstream form, or differentiation to the non-dividing stumpy form...
  6. pmc A combined CXCL10, CXCL8 and H-FABP panel for the staging of human African trypanosomiasis patients
    Alexandre Hainard
    Biomedical Proteomics Research Group, Medical University Centre, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e459. 2009
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a parasitic tropical disease...
  7. pmc Identification of stage biomarkers for human African trypanosomiasis
    Daniel Ndem Amin
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SE 171 77 Sweden
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:983-90. 2010
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), caused by infection with sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei (T. b.), manifests as a hemolymphatic stage followed by an encephalitic stage...
  8. pmc The burden of human African trypanosomiasis
    Eric M Fèvre
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e333. 2008
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) is a protozoan parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. These are neglected tropical diseases, and T.b...
  9. pmc Sleeping sickness in Uganda: a thin line between two fatal diseases
    Kim Picozzi
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH25 9RG
    BMJ 331:1238-41. 2005
    To determine, through the use of molecular diagnostic tools, whether the two species of parasite that cause human African trypanosomiasis have become sympatric.
  10. pmc The genome sequence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, causative agent of chronic human african trypanosomiasis
    Andrew P Jackson
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e658. 2010
    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is the causative agent of chronic Human African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, a disease endemic across often poor and rural areas of Western and Central Africa...
  11. ncbi A pol I transcriptional body associated with VSG mono-allelic expression in Trypanosoma brucei
    M Navarro
    Present address Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina López Neyra, CSIC, C Ventanilla 11, 18001 Granada, Spain
    Nature 414:759-63. 2001
    ..We propose that the recruitment of a single expression site and the concomitant exclusion of inactive loci from a discrete transcriptional body define the mechanism responsible for VSG mono-allelic expression...
  12. ncbi The effectiveness of active population screening and treatment for sleeping sickness control in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    Jo Robays
    Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Trop Med Int Health 9:542-50. 2004
    The human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) control programme of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) uses mass screening with the card agglutination test for trypanosomes (CATT)...
  13. pmc Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a potential drug target for African trypanosomiasis therapy
    Kayode K Ojo
    Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7185, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3710-7. 2008
    Development of a safe, effective, and inexpensive therapy for African trypanosomiasis is an urgent priority. In this study, we evaluated the validity of Trypanosoma brucei glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) as a potential drug target...
  14. ncbi Quantifying the level of under-detection of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness cases
    M Odiit
    UACP, Kampala, Uganda
    Trop Med Int Health 10:840-9. 2005
    ..The measure of early to late stage presentation provides a tractable measure to determine the level of rhodesiense SS under-detection and to gauge the effects of interventions aimed at increasing treatment coverage...
  15. pmc Human African trypanosomiasis of the CNS: current issues and challenges
    Peter G E Kennedy
    Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Glasgow, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 113:496-504. 2004
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa...
  16. ncbi Efficacy of 10-day melarsoprol schedule 2 years after treatment for late-stage gambiense sleeping sickness
    C Schmid
    Swiss Tropical Institute, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Lancet 364:789-90. 2004
    ..of melarsoprol was not worse than the longer and demanding standard treatment for late-stage human African trypanosomiasis. This alternative schedule was assessed in an open, randomised clinical equivalence trial of 500 patients ..
  17. ncbi Increased CXCL-13 levels in human African trypanosomiasis meningo-encephalitis
    Bertrand Courtioux
    Institut de Neurologie Tropicale, Universite de Limoges, Limoges, France
    Trop Med Int Health 14:529-34. 2009
    ..To determine the role of the B-cell attracting chemokine CXCL-13, which may initiate B-cell trafficking and IgM production in diagnosing HAT meningo-encephalitis...
  18. ncbi Treatment perspectives for human African trypanosomiasis
    Bernard Bouteille
    Institut d Epidémiologie Neurologique et de Neurologie Tropicale UPRES EA 3174, Faculte de Medecine, 2 rue du Docteur Marcland, F 87025 Limoges Cedex, France
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 17:171-81. 2003
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is currently on the rise. HAT develops in two stages, the first involving the hemolymphatic system, and the second, the neurological system...
  19. ncbi How can tsetse population genetics contribute to African trypanosomiasis control?
    Philippe Solano
    Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD Centre International de Recherche pour l Elevage en zones Subhumides CIRDES, IRD UMR 177, CIRDES 01 BP 454 Bobo Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso
    Trends Parasitol 26:255-63. 2010
    ..Implications of these studies for large-scale tsetse control programmes being undertaken in West Africa are important, particularly regarding control strategies (suppression or eradication)...
  20. ncbi A burgeoning epidemic of sleeping sickness in Uganda
    E M Fèvre
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK
    Lancet 366:745-7. 2005
    ..Targeted interventions are urgently needed to control epidemics and reduce the high mortality resulting from sleeping sickness...
  21. ncbi Identification of human-infective trypanosomes in animal reservoir of sleeping sickness in Uganda by means of serum-resistance-associated (SRA) gene
    S C Welburn
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, EH25 9RG, Edinburgh, UK
    Lancet 358:2017-9. 2001
    ..We investigated the use of a simple genetic marker to characterise parasites collected from cattle in villages within the new sleeping sickness focus in Soroti District, Uganda...
  22. ncbi The serum resistance-associated gene as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
    Magdalena Radwanska
    Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:684-90. 2002
    ..b. rhodesiense in 17 of 17 SRA gene-positive strains in which it was tested. These data strongly suggest that expression of the SRA gene is generally involved in resistance to lysis by NHS in T. b. rhodesiense strains...
  23. pmc Spatially and genetically distinct African Trypanosome virulence variants defined by host interferon-gamma response
    Lorna MacLean
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, Scotland
    J Infect Dis 196:1620-8. 2007
    We describe 2 spatially distinct foci of human African trypanosomiasis in eastern Uganda...
  24. ncbi Nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy for second-stage African Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis: a multicentre, randomised, phase III, non-inferiority trial
    Gerardo Priotto
    Epicentre, Paris, France
    Lancet 374:56-64. 2009
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is a fatal disease. Current treatment options for patients with second-stage disease are toxic, ineffective, or impractical...
  25. ncbi The phenomenon of treatment failures in Human African Trypanosomiasis
    R Brun
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    Trop Med Int Health 6:906-14. 2001
    Treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness) relies on a few drugs which are old, toxic and expensive. The most important drug for the treatment of second stage infection is melarsoprol...
  26. pmc Cross-resistance to nitro drugs and implications for treatment of human African trypanosomiasis
    Antoaneta Y Sokolova
    Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2893-900. 2010
    The success of nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT) for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has renewed interest in the potential of nitro drugs as chemotherapeutics...
  27. ncbi African trypanosomiasis: sensitive and rapid detection of the sub-genus Trypanozoon by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of parasite DNA
    Z K Njiru
    School of Nursing Peel Campus, Murdoch University, Carleton Place, 15 17 Mandurah, WA 6210, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 38:589-99. 2008
    Control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is dependent on accurate diagnosis and treatment of infected patients...
  28. ncbi Human African trypanosomiasis, chemotherapy and CNS disease
    Jean Rodgers
    Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
    J Neuroimmunol 211:16-22. 2009
    Trypanosomes have been recognised as human pathogens for over a century. Human African trypanosomiasis is endemic in an area sustaining 60 million people and is fatal without chemotherapeutic intervention...
  29. ncbi Tripartite interactions between tsetse flies, Sodalis glossinidius and trypanosomes--an epidemiological approach in two historical human African trypanosomiasis foci in Cameroon
    Oumarou Farikou
    University of Yaounde I, Faculty of Science, BP 812, Yaounde, Cameroon
    Infect Genet Evol 10:115-21. 2010
    Epidemiological surveys were conducted in two historical human African trypanosomiasis foci in South Cameroon, Bipindi and Campo. In each focus, three sampling areas were defined...
  30. ncbi Cloning of Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major genes encoding the GlcNAc-phosphatidylinositol de-N-acetylase of glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis that is essential to the African sleeping sickness parasite
    Tunhan Chang
    Division of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Microbiology, The Wellcome Trust Biocentre, The School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 277:50176-82. 2002
    ..These results suggest that the stabilities of other glycosylphosphatidylinositol pathway enzymes are not dependent on GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase levels...
  31. pmc Tsetse fly saliva accelerates the onset of Trypanosoma brucei infection in a mouse model associated with a reduced host inflammatory response
    Guy Caljon
    Unit of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Infect Immun 74:6324-30. 2006
    ..We propose that tsetse fly saliva accelerates the onset of trypanosome infection by inhibiting local and systemic inflammatory responses involved in parasite control...
  32. ncbi High prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense group 1 in pigs from the Fontem sleeping sickness focus in Cameroon
    G Simo
    Institut de Recherches Médicales et d Etude de Plantes Médicinales IMPM MINRESI, Yaounde, Cameroon
    Vet Parasitol 139:57-66. 2006
    ..No significant difference was observed between the percentage of T. b. gambiense group 1 single and mixed infections, and between the prevalence of this trypanosome in pigs from villages with and without sleeping sickness patients...
  33. ncbi Wild fauna as a probable animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Cameroon
    F Njiokou
    LRT, OCEAC, BP 288, Yaounde, Cameroon
    Infect Genet Evol 6:147-53. 2006
    ..for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in South Cameroon, blood was collected from wild animals in three human African trypanosomiasis foci and from a nonendemic control area...
  34. pmc Human African trypanosomiasis in a rural community, Democratic Republic of Congo
    Pascal Lutumba
    Programme National de Lutte contre la Trypanosomiase Humaine Africaine, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:248-54. 2007
    According to the World Health Organization, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) (sleeping sickness) caused the loss of approximately 1.5 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2002...
  35. ncbi A multiplex PCR that discriminates between Trypanosoma brucei brucei and zoonotic T. b. rhodesiense
    Kim Picozzi
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK
    Exp Parasitol 118:41-6. 2008
    ..which infects domestic livestock, wildlife, and which in humans, results in the disease known as Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness...
  36. ncbi Risk factors for treatment failure after melarsoprol for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis in Uganda
    D Legros
    Epicentre, Kampala, Uganda
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93:439-42. 1999
    We evaluated the treatment failure rate among late-stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients treated with melarsoprol in Arua, northern Uganda, between September 1995 and August 1996, and identified the risk factors for ..
  37. pmc Dissecting the essentiality of the bifunctional trypanothione synthetase-amidase in Trypanosoma brucei using chemical and genetic methods
    Susan Wyllie
    Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Mol Microbiol 74:529-40. 2009
    ..The synthetase function of TRYS is thus unequivocally validated as a drug target by both chemical and genetic methods...
  38. ncbi Arsenicals (melarsoprol), pentamidine and suramin in the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis
    Andrew Jonathan Nok
    Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
    Parasitol Res 90:71-9. 2003
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), otherwise known as sleeping sickness, has remained a disease with no effective treatment. Recent progress in HAT research suggests that a vaccine against the disease is far from being successful...
  39. pmc Cluster of African trypanosomiasis in travelers to Tanzanian national parks
    Tomas Jelinek
    Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:634-5. 2002
    Game parks in Tanzania have long been considered to be at low risk for African trypanosomiasis; however, nine cases of the disease associated with these parks were recently reported...
  40. ncbi Population structuring of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso
    Jeremy Bouyer
    CIRAD EMVT CIRDES, 01 BP 454, Bobo Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso
    J Med Entomol 44:788-95. 2007
    ..The impact of the fragmentation of riparian landscapes on tsetse population structure is discussed in the context of control campaigns currently promoted by Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign...
  41. ncbi Assessing the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and awareness among sleeping-sickness patients in eastern Uganda
    M Odiit
    Sleeping Sickness Programme, LIRI Hospital, P O Box 96, Tororo, Uganda
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98:339-48. 2004
    ....
  42. ncbi Tsetse fly host preference from sleeping sickness foci in Cameroon: epidemiological implications
    G Simo
    Medical Research Centre, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies IMPM MINRESI, P O Box 6163 Yaoundé, Cameroon
    Infect Genet Evol 8:34-9. 2008
    ..The number of Glossina palpalis palpalis with man blood meals is more important in the Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) focus showing endemic evolution (Campo) than in the focus (Bipindi) presenting a flare up of the ..
  43. ncbi Reanalyzing the 1900-1920 sleeping sickness epidemic in Uganda
    E M Fèvre
    University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:567-73. 2004
    ..b. gambiense cases, but similar to T.b. rhodesiense. These findings suggest that T.b. rhodesiense was present in Uganda and contributed to the epidemic. The historic context is reassessed in the light of these data...
  44. ncbi Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and intrathecal immunoglobulins compared to field diagnosis of central nervous system involvement in sleeping sickness
    S Bisser
    Institut d Epidémiologie Neurologique et de Neurologie Tropicale EA3174, Faculte de Medecine, 2 rue du Docteur Raymond Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex, France
    J Neurol Sci 193:127-35. 2002
    ..Improved criteria including B-CSFB dysfunction and IgM detection are needed in order to provide an adapted treatment regimen...
  45. ncbi Effectiveness of a 10-day melarsoprol schedule for the treatment of late-stage human African trypanosomiasis: confirmation from a multinational study (IMPAMEL II)
    Caecilia Schmid
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel
    J Infect Dis 191:1922-31. 2005
    Treatment of late-stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) with melarsoprol can be improved by shortening the regimen. A previous trial demonstrated the safety and efficacy of a 10-day treatment schedule...
  46. pmc Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with oligochromatography for detection of Trypanosoma brucei in clinical samples
    Claire M Mugasa
    Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Clin Microbiol 47:630-5. 2009
    ..and PCR, have been developed to detect Trypanosoma brucei parasites in blood for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT)...
  47. pmc Vinyl sulfones as antiparasitic agents and a structural basis for drug design
    Iain D Kerr
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158 2550, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:25697-703. 2009
    ....
  48. ncbi Compartmentation of enzymes in a microbody, the glycosome, is essential in Trypanosoma brucei
    Cristina Guerra-Giraldez
    Zentrum fur Molekulare Biologie der Universitat Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Cell Sci 115:2651-8. 2002
    ..brucei. In contrast, yeasts and cultured mammalian cells grow normally in the absence of peroxisomal membranes unless placed on selective media...
  49. pmc Estimates of the duration of the early and late stage of gambiense sleeping sickness
    Francesco Checchi
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E7HT, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 8:16. 2008
    ..of untreated stage 1 (early stage, haemo-lymphatic) and stage 2 (late stage, meningo-encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are poorly quantified, but key to predicting the ..
  50. pmc N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors as new leads to treat sleeping sickness
    Julie A Frearson
    Drug Discovery Unit, Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK
    Nature 464:728-32. 2010
    African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei spp., is responsible for approximately 30,000 deaths each year...
  51. pmc Myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase depletion in trypanosomes causes avirulence and endocytic defects
    Helen P Price
    Centre for Immunology and Infection, Department of Biology, University of York, UK
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 169:55-8. 2010
    ..Critically we show that following NMT knockdown, T. brucei bloodstream form cells are unable to establish an infection in a mouse model, therefore providing further validation of this enzyme as a target for drug development...
  52. pmc Human African trypanosomiasis: pharmacological re-engagement with a neglected disease
    M P Barrett
    Division of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, The Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 152:1155-71. 2007
    This review discusses the challenges of chemotherapy for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). The few drugs registered for use against the disease are unsatisfactory for a number of reasons. HAT has two stages...
  53. ncbi Public-private partnership works to stamp out sleeping sickness in Uganda
    John D Kabasa
    Trends Parasitol 23:191-2. 2007
  54. ncbi Review Article: cerebrospinal fluid in human African trypanosomiasis: a key to diagnosis, therapeutic decision and post-treatment follow-up
    V Lejon
    Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium
    Trop Med Int Health 10:395-403. 2005
    Human African trypanosomiasis is a lethal parasitic infection with neurological involvement. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an essential role in diagnosis, selection of treatment and post-treatment follow-up...
  55. ncbi Characterization of Trypanosoma brucei s.l. infecting asymptomatic sleeping-sickness patients in Côte d'Ivoire: a new genetic group?
    V Jamonneau
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UR 035, Laboratoire de Recherche et de Coordination sur les Trypanosomoses, Programme Santé Animale CIRAD, TA 207 G, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier 5, France
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98:329-37. 2004
    ..b. gambiense group 1. The epidemiological consequences of such co-infections are discussed. The 'new' group of T. brucei had a molecular pattern that differed from those of the classical T. b. gambiense group 1 and the 'bouaflé' group...
  56. ncbi Clinical description of encephalopathic syndromes and risk factors for their occurrence and outcome during melarsoprol treatment of human African trypanosomiasis
    J Blum
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    Trop Med Int Health 6:390-400. 2001
    ..5), headache (RR 2.5), bullous eruptions (RR 4.5) and systolic hypotension (RR 2.6) were associated with an increased risk for the occurrence of encephalopathic syndromes especially of the coma type...
  57. ncbi IL-10 dampens TNF/inducible nitric oxide synthase-producing dendritic cell-mediated pathogenicity during parasitic infection
    Martin Guilliams
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Brussels, Belgium
    J Immunol 182:1107-18. 2009
    ....
  58. ncbi The decline of anti-trypanosomal antibody levels in cattle after treatment with trypanocidal drugs and in the absence of tsetse challenge
    P van den Bossche
    Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Programme RTTCP, P O Box A560, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Acta Trop 77:263-70. 2000
    ..The usefulness of the anti-trypanosomal antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the monitoring of tsetse control operations is discussed...
  59. ncbi Trypanosome lytic factors: novel mediators of human innate immunity
    J Raper
    Department of Medical and Molecular Parasitology, New York University School of Medicine, 341 East 25th Street, New York, NY 10010, USA
    Curr Opin Microbiol 4:402-8. 2001
    ..The mechanism of trypanolysis is unknown; contrary to one hypothesis, TLF does not kill trypanosomes by generating oxygen radicals. However, these trypanosomes become human-infective when they express a serum-resistance-associated gene...
  60. ncbi Scrutinizing the mechanisms underlying the induction of anemia of inflammation through GPI-mediated modulation of macrophage activation in a model of African trypanosomiasis
    Benoit Stijlemans
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
    Microbes Infect 12:389-99. 2010
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that reprogramming macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory state alleviates anemia of inflammation by normalizing iron homeostasis and restoring erythropoiesis...
  61. ncbi [Human African trypanosomiasis in the urban milieu: the example of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic if the Congo, in 1998 and 1999]
    C M Bilengue
    Bureau Central de la Trypanosomiase (BCT, Kinshasa,
    Med Trop (Mars) 61:445-8. 2001
    Human African trypanosomiasis is an essentially rural disease. Occurrence in urban areas is uncommon except in cities that reproduce rural conditions conducive to the survival of glossinidae, i.e., forest and water...
  62. pmc Human African trypanosomiasis transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
    Gustave Simo
    Institute of Medical Research and Study of Medicinal Plants, Yaounde, Cameroon
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1968-70. 2006
    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005...
  63. pmc Towards the Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis
    Giuliano Cecchi
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Animal Production and Health Division, Rome, Italy
    Int J Health Geogr 8:15. 2009
    Updated, accurate and comprehensive information on the distribution of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is critically important to plan and monitor control activities...
  64. pmc Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda
    Nicola A Batchelor
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e563. 2009
    The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease...
  65. ncbi Differential expression of FIZZ1 and Ym1 in alternatively versus classically activated macrophages
    Geert Raes
    Department of Immunology, Parasitology and Ultrastructure, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
    J Leukoc Biol 71:597-602. 2002
    ..Collectively, these results open perspectives for new insights into the functional properties of aaMphi and establish FIZZ1 and Ym1 as markers for aaMphi...
  66. ncbi Migration of African trypanosomes across the blood-brain barrier
    Willias Masocha
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Physiol Behav 92:110-4. 2007
    ....
  67. ncbi [The efficiency of different detection strategies of human African trypanosomiasis by T. b. gambiense]
    Pascal Lutumba
    Programme National de Lutte contre la Trypanosomiase Humaine Africaine, Kinshasa, Republique Democratique du Congo
    Trop Med Int Health 10:347-56. 2005
    Population screening for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is often based on a combination of two screening tests: lymph node palpation (LN) and card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT)...
  68. pmc Use of polymerase chain reaction in human African trypanosomiasis stage determination and follow-up
    P Truc
    , Montpellier, France
    Bull World Health Organ 77:745-8. 1999
    Stage determination of human African trypanosomiasis is based on the detection of parasites and measurements of biological changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (concentration of white blood cells > 5 cells per mm3 and increased ..
  69. ncbi Field evaluation of the CATT/Trypanosoma brucei gambiense on blood-impregnated filter papers for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in southern Sudan
    F Chappuis
    Médecins Sans Frontières MSF Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trop Med Int Health 7:942-8. 2002
    Most Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) control programmes in areas endemic for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense rely on a strategy of active mass screening with the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT)/T. b. gambiense...
  70. ncbi [Human african trypanosomiasis: A history of its therapies and their failures.]
    G Ollivier
    Epicentre, Paris, France
    Trop Med Int Health 6:855-63. 2001
    This paper gives an overview of the treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis from the early 20th century until today.
  71. ncbi Comparison of operational criteria for treatment outcome in gambiense human African trypanosomiasis
    D Mumba Ngoyi
    Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale, Avenue de la Démocratie, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Trop Med Int Health 14:438-44. 2009
    ..a simple and standard operational decision tool for the diagnosis of relapse after treatment for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), by evaluating the performance of several criteria currently used by HAT control programs and ..
  72. ncbi [Role of patient travel in transmission of human African trypanosomiasis in a highly endemic area of the Ivory Coast]
    P Solano
    L IRD UR 035, l Institut Pierre Richet, Paris, France
    Med Trop (Mars) 63:577-82. 2003
    ..This study was performed as a preliminary step for a larger investigation designed to allow specific targeting of HAT hot spots based mainly on a geographic information system...
  73. ncbi Antigenic variation in trypanosomes: secrets surface slowly
    G A Cross
    Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021 6399, USA
    Bioessays 18:283-91. 1996
    ..There is every reason to expect trypanosomes to provide further surprises and insights into the evolution of genetic regulatory mechanisms...
  74. pmc Human African trypanosomiasis: a latex agglutination field test for quantifying IgM in cerebrospinal fluid
    V Lejon
    Department of Parasitology, University of Antwerp, Belgium
    Bull World Health Organ 76:553-8. 1998
    ..agglutination test for the semi-quantitative detection of IgM in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with African trypanosomiasis, is described in this article...
  75. ncbi Parasitological detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in serologically negative sleeping-sickness suspects from north-western Uganda
    J C Enyaru
    Livestock Health Research Institute, Tororo, Uganda
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92:845-50. 1998
    ..This study demonstrates the value of co-ordinated use of serological and parasitological techniques in the diagnosis of Gambian sleeping sickness...
  76. ncbi Drug toxicity and cost as barriers to community participation in HAT control in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    J Robays
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Epidemiology and Disease Control Unit, Antwerp, Belgium
    Trop Med Int Health 12:290-8. 2007
    Active case-finding programmes by mobile teams are the cornerstone of West African Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) control. Low attendance rates of screening and low uptake of treatment after diagnosis are major problems...
  77. ncbi Current chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis
    Roberto Docampo
    Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
    Parasitol Res 90:S10-3. 2003
    Human African trypanosomiasis is a fatal disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense that has re-emerged in recent years...
  78. ncbi The challenge of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness diagnosis outside Africa
    V Lejon
    Interdepartmental Research Group Neglected Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:804-8. 2003
    ..Appropriate drugs for sleeping sickness treatment are also provided by WHO and the CDC...
  79. pmc Kynurenine pathway inhibition reduces central nervous system inflammation in a model of human African trypanosomiasis
    Jean Rodgers
    Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow G41 4TF, UK
    Brain 132:1259-67. 2009
    Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and is a major cause of systemic and neurological disability throughout sub-Saharan ..
  80. ncbi Interferon-gamma and nitric oxide in combination with antibodies are key protective host immune factors during trypanosoma congolense Tc13 Infections
    Stefan Magez
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 193:1575-83. 2006
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that host protective immunity against T. congolense is critically dependent on the combined action of the proinflammatory mediators/effectors IFN- gamma , TNF, and NO and antiparasite IgGs...
  81. ncbi Cerebrospinal fluid B lymphocyte identification for diagnosis and follow-up in human African trypanosomiasis in the field
    Bernard Bouteille
    University of Limoges, France
    Trop Med Int Health 15:454-61. 2010
    In human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), staging of disease and treatment follow-up relies on white cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
  82. ncbi Trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma brucei as a potential target for DNA vaccine development against African trypanosomiasis
    Marcelo Sousa Silva
    Unidade de Ensino e Investigação de Clínica das Doenças Tropicais, Centro de Malaria e Outras Doencas Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, 1349 008 Lisboa, Portugal
    Parasitol Res 105:1223-9. 2009
    b>African trypanosomiasis (AT), also known as sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals, is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei...
  83. pmc Structure-based design of pteridine reductase inhibitors targeting African sleeping sickness and the leishmaniases
    Lindsay B Tulloch
    Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD15EH, UK
    J Med Chem 53:221-9. 2010
    ..We tested two new compounds with known DHFR inhibitors. A synergistic effect was observed for one particular combination highlighting the potential of such an approach for treatment of African sleeping sickness...
  84. ncbi Trypanosoma brucei gambiense African trypanosomiasis: differences between men and women in severity of disease and response to treatment
    Jacques Pepin
    Centre for International Health, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96:421-6. 2002
    ..8%) (P = 0.004), even after adjustment for other independent risk factors in multivariate analysis. The cause of this higher risk of treatment failure among men treated with melarsoprol remains unclear...
  85. ncbi Comparison of cytokine plasma levels in human African trypanosomiasis
    David Courtin
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, santé de la mère et de l enfant en milieu tropical, Paris, France
    Trop Med Int Health 11:647-53. 2006
    Immunological studies suggest that human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is associated with inflammatory responses...
  86. ncbi Sleeping glands? - The role of endocrine disorders in sleeping sickness (T.b. gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis)
    Johannes A Blum
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Acta Trop 104:16-24. 2007
    ..weakness, hypotension or paraesthesia, are frequently reported in the literature in patients with Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), but an endocrine origin for these symptoms has not yet been demonstrated...
  87. pmc Prospects for developing odour baits to control Glossina fuscipes spp., the major vector of human African trypanosomiasis
    Maurice O Omolo
    International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology, ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e435. 2009
    ..The results suggest that identifying kairomones present in lizard odour for G. f. fuscipes and pig odour for G. f. quanzensis may improve the performance of targets for controlling these species...
  88. ncbi T cells and immunopathogenesis of experimental African trypanosomiasis
    Henry Tabel
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
    Immunol Rev 225:128-39. 2008
    ..Here, we review recent work on experimental African trypanosomiasis, especially infections with Trypanosoma congolense, in mice with regard to mechanisms of ..
  89. ncbi Human African trypanosomiasis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in Western Kenya
    G O Matete
    KARI Trypanosomiasis Research Centre, P O Box 362, Kikuyu, Kenya
    East Afr Med J 82:20-3. 2005
    ..To determine possible interaction between infections of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness and HIV/AIDS in Western Kenya...
  90. ncbi Are fitness costs associated with resistance to human serum in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense?
    Paul G Coleman
    Disease Control and Vector Biology Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trends Parasitol 20:311-5. 2004
  91. ncbi Recent developments in human African trypanosomiasis
    Susan C Welburn
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:477-84. 2002
    ..Recently, Rhodesian sleeping sickness has also posed a health risk to travellers visiting game parks in East Africa...
  92. ncbi Trypanosoma brucei brucei crosses the blood-brain barrier while tight junction proteins are preserved in a rat chronic disease model
    C Mulenga
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 27:77-85. 2001
    b>African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness in humans, is caused by the systemic infection of the host by the extracellular parasite, the African trypanosome...
  93. ncbi Expression and role of CXCL10 during the encephalitic stage of experimental and clinical African trypanosomiasis
    Daniel N Amin
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Infect Dis 200:1556-65. 2009
    Human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei, involves an early hemolymphatic stage followed by a late encephalitic stage.
  94. ncbi Diagnosing central nervous system trypanosomiasis: two stage or not to stage?
    Peter G E Kennedy
    Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Glasgow, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow G51 4TF, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:306-7. 2008
    One of the most difficult issues in the management of patients with human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is the reliable distinction between early-stage disease and late-stage disease where the trypanosomes have traversed the blood-brain ..
  95. ncbi Lessons learned from the emergence of a new Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness focus in Uganda
    O C Hutchinson
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:42-5. 2003
    ....
  96. ncbi Card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) end-dilution titer and cerebrospinal fluid cell count as predictors of human African Trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense) among serologically suspected individuals in southern Sudan
    Francois Chappuis
    Medecins Sans Frontieres, Swiss Section, Geneva, Switzerland
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:313-7. 2004
    The diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense relies on an initial serologic screening with the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) for T. b...
  97. ncbi The treatment pathways followed by cases of human African trypanosomiasis in western Kenya and eastern Uganda
    S A Bukachi
    Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies, University of Nairobi, P O Box, 30197 00100, Nairobi, Kenya
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 103:211-20. 2009
    Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering...
  98. pmc Sleeping sickness in Uganda: revisiting current and historical distributions
    Lea Berrang-Ford
    Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Canada
    Afr Health Sci 6:223-31. 2006
    ..The disease continues to pose a public health burden in Uganda, which experienced a widespread outbreak in 1900-1920, and a more recent outbreak in 1976-1989. The disease continues to spread to uninfected districts...
  99. ncbi Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in southern Sudan
    A Moore
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Trop Med Int Health 6:342-7. 2001
    ..Although the situation is improving in sites where trypanosomiasis programmes have been recently implemented, co-ordination and additional international assistance are needed to bring sleeping sickness under control in Sudan...
  100. ncbi Development of drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Treatment of human African trypanosomiasis with natural products (Review)
    Stefanie Gehrig
    Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Int J Mol Med 22:411-9. 2008
    Human African trypanosomiasis is an infectious disease which has resulted in the deaths of thousands of people in Sub-Saharan Africa...
  101. ncbi Clinical aspects of 2541 patients with second stage human African trypanosomiasis
    Johannes Blum
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Medical and Diagnostic Services, Socinstrasse 57, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Acta Trop 97:55-64. 2006
    ..4-61.2%). Fever is most frequently reported in children between 2 and 14 years of age (26.1-28.7%) and malnutrition is significantly more frequently observed in children of all ages (43-56%) than in adults (23.5%)...

Research Grants63

  1. Killed But Metabolically Active Leishmania: a novel protozoan vaccine technology
    Noah Craft; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..infecting humans, such as malaria, Chagas'disease (American Trypanosomiasis), and Sleeping Sickness (African Trypanosomiasis)...
  2. Characterize functions of T. brucei RAP1 and TRF in antigenic variation and telom
    Bibo Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis in humans and nagana in cattle. In mammalian hosts, bloodstream form (BF) T...
  3. The role of polyphosphate and acidocalcisomes in Trypanosoma brucei
    Roberto Docampo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis. According to the World Health Organization, over 60 million persons in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk of ..
  4. Cytosine DNA Methylation and Transcriptional Repression in African Trypanosomes
    KEVIN MILITELLO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Trypanosoma brucei is the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), otherwise known as African Sleeping Sickness...
  5. The Lysosome of Trypanosoma brucei: A Proteomic Analysis
    James D Bangs; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..are parasitic protozoa that cause human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) and nagana in livestock...
  6. Tsetse Transmitted African Trypanosomiasis
    Serap Aksoy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Sleeping sickness, also known as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is one of the most Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) that has plagued human health in sub-Saharan Africa...
  7. Validation and development of trypanosomal phosphodiesterase inhibitors for treat
    Michael P Pollastri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In particular, since the genome for Trypanosoma brucei (the causative parasite for Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT)) and T...
  8. Polyamine and trypanothione metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei
    Margaret A Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei...
  9. Global sumoylation analysis in Trypanosoma brucei
    David A Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..contains several pathogens of medical importance, including the causative agents of human leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease...
  10. Lysosomal biogenesis and function in African trypanosomes
    James D Bangs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are parasitic protozoa that cause human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), as well as nagana in cattle and other livestock...
  11. Parameters that govern initiation of VSG switching in T.brucei
    F Nina Papavasiliou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis which causes sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in farm animals...
  12. Secretion, protein targeting, and lipid metabolism in African Trypanosomes
    James D Bangs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The WHO currently estimates that 60 million people in 36 countries are at risk of acquiring Human African Trypanosomiasis. Only a handful of drugs are in use for treatment, the best of which (eflornithine) is expensive and ..
  13. Targeting Trypanosoma brucei S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase in Drug Discovery
    NAHIR VELEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by single-celled parasites, Trypanosoma brucei, which are transmitted to humans by infected tsetse flies...
  14. RNA CAPPING IN TRYPANOSOMES
    Christian Tschudi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..focuses on African trypanosomes of the Trypanosoma brucei subspecies, the causative agents of human African trypanosomiasis, a fatal disease unless treated, with a calculated disease burden of about two million Disability ..
  15. Targeting S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase for HAT drug discovery
    Margaret A Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei...
  16. Methodology for Identification of Substrate-Competitive Kinase Inhibitors
    Matthew B Soellner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and the Trypanosome PTKs are potential therapeutic targets for African sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT)...
  17. Drug development of orally active anti-trypanosomiasis agents
    Bin Su; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei...
  18. Ribosome profiling of Trypanosoma brucei
    Marilyn Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis ("sleeping sickness"), causes more than 50,000 deaths annually...
  19. Selective Inhibitors of the Hexose Transporter from African Trypansomes
    Scott Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Trypanosoma brucei causes the disease African trypanosomiasis that afflicts an estimated 50,000-70,000 individuals with occasional pandemics resulting in deaths of up to 800,000 individuals...
  20. Evidence based control strategies of Sleeping Sickness vectors
    Serap Aksoy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..award (FIRCA) proposal is on tsetse fly population genetics in order to support the ongoing Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) control activities in East Africa...
  21. Sodalis glossinidius iron acquisition
    LAURA JANE RUNYEN-JANECKY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the trypanosome, and recent research suggests that paratransgenesis may be a useful control strategy for African trypanosomiasis. For these reasons, a more complete understanding of the nature of the Sodalis-tsetse symbiosis will ..
  22. Cross-Protective Immunity to African Trypanosomes
    John M Mansfield; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..achievements in our laboratory have opened a window of opportunity for immunological control or cure of African trypanosomiasis. The first is a discovery that temporally protective VSG-specific T cell responses are directed ..
  23. Structure-based Optimization of T. brucei methionyl tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors
    Erkang Fan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The long term goal is to arrive at new therapeutics for treating human African trypanosomiasis caused by T. brucei infection...
  24. A role for chromatin factors in regulating antigenic variation in T. brucei.
    Danae Schulz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. T...
  25. The role of PhoP-PhoQ in an insect-bacterial symbiosis
    Colin Dale; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in a novel control strategy, aimed at reducing the vectorial capabilities of tsetse flies, which are important vectors of African trypanosomiasis, causing sleeping sickness in man and nagana in domestic livestock.
  26. Protein Kinases of a Trypanosome
    Kojo Mensa Wilmot; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Novel drugs are needed for treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei...
  27. Topoisomerases: Target for Antitrypanosomal Therapy
    Theresa Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>African trypanosomiasis is lethal if not treated and its incidence is increasing. Existing therapies are antique by contemporary standards and no vaccine is available...
  28. Applied Biosystems API5500 Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer
    Walter C Hubbard; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..scientists who are working to develop new preventions and treatments for HIV, tuberculosis, malaria and African trypanosomiasis. The availability of this instrument will greatly increase their ability to study new therapeutic ..
  29. Phosphoinositides in the T. brucei Endomembrane System
    Julia K Gilden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are parasitic protozoa responsible for causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) in humans and nagana in cattle and other livestock...
  30. Host-specific cell surface receptors on African trypanosomes
    Kent L Hill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The flagellated protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is responsible for African trypanosomiasis, which causes widespread mortality and morbidity of humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa...
  31. Signaling GPI-phosphlipase C of a Trypanosome
    Kojo Mensa Wilmot; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..brucei. Trypanosomes cause diseases that affect millions of people world-wide. Work described in this proposal may lead to discovery of new signaling pathways that may be targeted for treatment of human African trypanosomiasis.
  32. Using protein-DNA chimeras for HAT diagnosis
    DENNIS JOHN GRAB; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b. rhodesiense are pathogens responsible for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Death from HAT is inevitable if untreated...
  33. Drug Discovery for Human African Trypanosomiasis
    Richard Tidwell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The overall goal of this project is to identify new pre-clinical drug candidates to treat human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), including stage 2 of the disease when the parasites have entered the central ..
  34. Genome wide assessment of essential genes in Trypanosoma brucei
    Kenneth D Stuart; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): Trypanosoma brucei, a WHO category one pathogen (emerging and uncontrolled), causes human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, aka African Sleeping Sickness), which is invariably fatal unless treated...
  35. Mitochondrial Targeting and Import of Trypanosome Alternative Oxidase (TAO)
    VANAE N HAMILTON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>African trypanosomiasis heavily affects sub-Saharan Africa and parts of India...
  36. Essential PK/PD Relationships of Antimalarial and Antitrypanosomal Drugs
    Theresa A Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Although many fewer patients have African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), this infection is uniformly fatal if not treated and current therapies are toxic, ..
  37. Development of HTS assay and screening paradigm to discover new kinase inhibitors
    David C Swinney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..assay and paradigm to identify protein kinase inhibitors for Trypanosoma brucei that causes Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness...
  38. Diagnosis of gambiense HAT
    DENNIS JOHN GRAB; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are pathogens responsible for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness). Death from HAT is inevitable if untreated...
  39. Mitochondrial inner membrane protein translocase in Trypanosoma brucei
    Minu Chaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the majority of mitochondrial proteins in Trypanosoma brucei, the infectious agent of a fatal disease (African trypanosomiasis) in human and domestic animals, are nuclear-encoded and need to be imported into mitochondria...
  40. Next generation sequencing of East African trypanosomes to expand the molecular e
    Adalgisa Caccone; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a zoonotic disease affecting thousands of people across sub-Saharan Africa and periodic epidemics have caused significant social and ..
  41. Dynamic Ecological Simulation Model of Tsetse Transmitted Trypanosomosis in Kenya
    Joseph P Messina; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..change, social systems, and ecological disturbance on the ecological distribution of tsetse flies and African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness across Kenya...
  42. ANALYSIS OF THE TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI GENOME USING TILING ARRAYS
    Christian Tschudi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..provided by applicant): This application focuses on African trypanosomes, the causative agents of African trypanosomiasis. The World Health Organization conservatively estimates that the disease burden of human African ..
  43. Controlling Fatty Acid Synthesis in African Trypanosomes
    KIMBERLY SUE PAUL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: New drugs for Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) are desperately needed, but an incomplete understanding of this disease's pathogenesis limits ..
  44. Curaxins: Lead Drugs and Target Discovery in the African Trypanosome
    Kojo Mensa-Wilmot; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..brucei-infected mice, using models of both acute form and chronic stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Proteins that bind Curaxins in the African trypanosome have not been identified...
  45. Evolutionary genetics of tsetse and its symbionts
    Serap Aksoy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) kills thousands of people each year in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by African trypanosomes transmitted by the tsetse fly...
  46. Molecular Aspects of Tsetse and Trypanosome Transmission
    Serap Aksoy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary This application is on preventing Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), which kills thousands of people each year in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by African trypanosomes transmitted by the tsetse fly...
  47. TRYPANOSOME VARIANT SURFACE GLYCOPROTEIN CARBOHYDRATES
    Herman van Halbeek; Fiscal Year: 1993
    b>African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting large areas of the African continent. It presents a threat to man and drastically impedes effective cattle-rearing...
  48. Trypanosoma brucei-induced dyshematopoiesis: blocked B lymphopoiesis
    Samuel Black; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to make protective antibody responses and consequently to control parasitemia is a common feature of African trypanosomiasis in people, domestic and laboratory animals...
  49. Regulation of mRNA Turnover in Trypanosomes
    Vivian Bellofatto; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In these areas 100,000 people are currently infected with trypanosomes. Human illness includes African trypanosomiasis ("sleeping sickness"), Chagas' disease (endemic in regions of South and Central America) and cutaneous, ..
  50. Factors In Emergence of New Sleeping Sickness Foci In Uganda
    Serap Aksoy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Summary: Uganda is the only country in Africa where both forms of the Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) disease exist;chronic gambiense disease in the northwest and acute rhodesiense disease in the southeast...
  51. EXPRESSION OF GLYCOLIPID ANCHORED PRIONS IN TRYPANOSOMES
    GEORGE CROSS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Trypanosoma brucei causes a disease of animals and humans that is commonly called African Trypanosomiasis, Nagana or Sleeping Sickness...
  52. Automated analysis of cell cycle genes in Trypanosoma brucei
    LAWRENCE RUBEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a WHO Category I disease (emerging or out of control). New therapies are sorely needed...
  53. Telomere structure and function in Trypanosoma brucei
    GEORGE CROSS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..brucei and (2) to characterize the telomerase complex of T. brucei. African trypanosomiasis has two major manifestations: the human disease known as Sleeping Sickness and the animal disease Nagana (..
  54. CATIONIC TRYPANOCIDES: POLYAMINES AND LETHALITY
    SEYMOUR HUTNER; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Likewise, penetration of the blood-brain barrier would favor cures of late stages of African trypanosomiasis. The measures tried would include development of physiologically minimal media, i.e...
  55. NOVEL PRODRUGS FOR TREATMENT OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS
    James Allen; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..carinii and African trypanosomiasis, with markedly reduced toxicity compared to pentamidine...
  56. Developing a new rapid test for human African trypanosomiasis
    Darrick Carter; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a severe disease caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei...
  57. GLUTATHIONE METABOLISM IN TRYPANOSOMATIDS
    Alan Fairlamb; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral Leishmaniasis) and T.rhodesiense or T.gambiense (human African trypanosomiasis)...
  58. Tsetse-Trypanosome Interactions
    Serap Aksoy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) kills thousands of people each year in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by the protozoan African trypanosomes, and is transmitted to the mammalian host by the tsetse fly...
  59. Topoisomerases: Target for Antitrypanosomal Therapy
    Theresa Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>African trypanosomiasis is lethal if not treated and its incidence is increasing. Existing therapies are antique by contemporary standards and no vaccine is available...
  60. Aromatic Dication Prodrugs for CNS Trypanosomiasis
    Lawrence Potempa; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..long-range research goal is to develop a new drug to treat secondary (central nervous system) stage human African trypanosomiasis. Previous SBIR supported research identified DB289, a methoxime prodrug of the aromatic dication ..
  61. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS
    John Mansfield; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The immunobiological relationship between host and parasite in African trypanosomiasis is the focus of this proposal...
  62. NINTH ANNUAL TROPICAL DISEASES SYMPOSIUM
    George Hill; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..will include seven invited lecturers in various areas in tropical diseases covering areas such as African trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis, malaria, leishmaniasis, leprosy and Chagas' disease...
  63. Novel Immunotherapy of African Trypanosomiasis
    John Mansfield; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..applicant): This is an exploratory research grant that develops a novel therapeutic approach for treating African trypanosomiasis, a fatal human parasitic disease that has proven intractable to conventional immunotherapy...