endocrine glands

Summary

Summary: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.

Top Publications

  1. Sobotnik J, Sillam Dussès D, Weyda F, Dejean A, Roisin Y, Hanus R, et al. The frontal gland in workers of Neotropical soldierless termites. Naturwissenschaften. 2010;97:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the defensive role of the frontal gland in workers remains to be confirmed...
  2. Lin J, Gu S. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by the prothoracicotropic hormone in prothoracic gland cells and its developmental regulation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:622-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that development-specific changes in ERK phosphorylation may play a role in PTTH stimulation of ecdysteroidogenesis...
  3. Rucinski M, Ziolkowska A, Neri G, Trejter M, Zemleduch T, Tyczewska M, et al. Expression of neuromedins S and U and their receptors in the hypothalamus and endocrine glands of the rat. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20:255-9 pubmed
    ..The marked differences in the level of expression of NMU, NMS and their receptors in the hypothalamus and endocrine glands of the rat suggest that in this species such neuromedins may play different roles in the functional ..
  4. Hochol A, Belloni A, Rucinski M, Ziolkowska A, Di Liddo R, Nussdorfer G, et al. Expression of neuropeptides B and W and their receptors in endocrine glands of the rat. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:1101-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings allow us to suggest that NPB and NPW play a role in the autocrine-paracrine functional regulation of the endocrine system in the rat...
  5. Nakatsuji T, Lee C, Watson R. Crustacean molt-inhibiting hormone: structure, function, and cellular mode of action. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;152:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The PDE isotype (PDE1) present in Y-organs of C. sapidus is calcium/calmodulin dependent. Thus, calcium may regulate ecdysteroidogenesis through activation of glandular PDE...
  6. Rubio Gozalbo M, Panis B, Zimmermann L, Spaapen L, Menheere P. The endocrine system in treated patients with classical galactosemia. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;89:316-22 pubmed
    ..Hypoglycosylation in galactosemia is diet dependent and could worsen when galactose intake increases either because of poor compliance or diet liberalization...
  7. Gu S, Lin J, Lin P, Chen C. Insulin stimulates ecdysteroidogenesis by prothoracic glands in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that in silkworm prothoracic glands, in addition to the PTTH and an autocrine factor, ecdysteroidogenesis is also stimulated by insulin during development...
  8. Gerendai I, Tóth I, Boldogkoi Z, Halász B. Recent findings on the organization of central nervous system structures involved in the innervation of endocrine glands and other organs; observations obtained by the transneuronal viral double-labeling technique. Endocrine. 2009;36:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..innervating exclusively a given organ; (2) left-sided predominance in the supraspinal innervation of the endocrine glands (adrenal, ovary) studied, so far; (3) viral co-infection of neurons, i.e...
  9. Marchal E, Vandersmissen H, Badisco L, Van de Velde S, Verlinden H, Iga M, et al. Control of ecdysteroidogenesis in prothoracic glands of insects: a review. Peptides. 2010;31:506-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The complex secretory pattern of ecdysteroids as observed in vivo is the result of the delicate balance and interplay between these ecdysiotropic and ecdysiostatic factors...
  10. Mirth C, Truman J, Riddiford L. The role of the prothoracic gland in determining critical weight for metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1796-807 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that in Drosophila, a component of the ring gland, the prothoracic gland (PG), assesses growth to determine when critical weight has been achieved...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Sobotnik J, Sillam Dussès D, Weyda F, Dejean A, Roisin Y, Hanus R, et al. The frontal gland in workers of Neotropical soldierless termites. Naturwissenschaften. 2010;97:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the defensive role of the frontal gland in workers remains to be confirmed...
  2. Lin J, Gu S. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by the prothoracicotropic hormone in prothoracic gland cells and its developmental regulation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:622-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that development-specific changes in ERK phosphorylation may play a role in PTTH stimulation of ecdysteroidogenesis...
  3. Rucinski M, Ziolkowska A, Neri G, Trejter M, Zemleduch T, Tyczewska M, et al. Expression of neuromedins S and U and their receptors in the hypothalamus and endocrine glands of the rat. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20:255-9 pubmed
    ..The marked differences in the level of expression of NMU, NMS and their receptors in the hypothalamus and endocrine glands of the rat suggest that in this species such neuromedins may play different roles in the functional ..
  4. Hochol A, Belloni A, Rucinski M, Ziolkowska A, Di Liddo R, Nussdorfer G, et al. Expression of neuropeptides B and W and their receptors in endocrine glands of the rat. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:1101-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings allow us to suggest that NPB and NPW play a role in the autocrine-paracrine functional regulation of the endocrine system in the rat...
  5. Nakatsuji T, Lee C, Watson R. Crustacean molt-inhibiting hormone: structure, function, and cellular mode of action. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;152:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The PDE isotype (PDE1) present in Y-organs of C. sapidus is calcium/calmodulin dependent. Thus, calcium may regulate ecdysteroidogenesis through activation of glandular PDE...
  6. Rubio Gozalbo M, Panis B, Zimmermann L, Spaapen L, Menheere P. The endocrine system in treated patients with classical galactosemia. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;89:316-22 pubmed
    ..Hypoglycosylation in galactosemia is diet dependent and could worsen when galactose intake increases either because of poor compliance or diet liberalization...
  7. Gu S, Lin J, Lin P, Chen C. Insulin stimulates ecdysteroidogenesis by prothoracic glands in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that in silkworm prothoracic glands, in addition to the PTTH and an autocrine factor, ecdysteroidogenesis is also stimulated by insulin during development...
  8. Gerendai I, Tóth I, Boldogkoi Z, Halász B. Recent findings on the organization of central nervous system structures involved in the innervation of endocrine glands and other organs; observations obtained by the transneuronal viral double-labeling technique. Endocrine. 2009;36:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..innervating exclusively a given organ; (2) left-sided predominance in the supraspinal innervation of the endocrine glands (adrenal, ovary) studied, so far; (3) viral co-infection of neurons, i.e...
  9. Marchal E, Vandersmissen H, Badisco L, Van de Velde S, Verlinden H, Iga M, et al. Control of ecdysteroidogenesis in prothoracic glands of insects: a review. Peptides. 2010;31:506-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The complex secretory pattern of ecdysteroids as observed in vivo is the result of the delicate balance and interplay between these ecdysiotropic and ecdysiostatic factors...
  10. Mirth C, Truman J, Riddiford L. The role of the prothoracic gland in determining critical weight for metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1796-807 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that in Drosophila, a component of the ring gland, the prothoracic gland (PG), assesses growth to determine when critical weight has been achieved...
  11. Charmandari E, Tsigos C, Chrousos G. Endocrinology of the stress response. Annu Rev Physiol. 2005;67:259-84 pubmed
    ....
  12. Gibbens Y, Warren J, Gilbert L, O Connor M. Neuroendocrine regulation of Drosophila metamorphosis requires TGFbeta/Activin signaling. Development. 2011;138:2693-703 pubmed publisher
    ..As steroid hormone production in C. elegans and mammals is also influenced by TGFβ/Activin signaling, this family of secreted factors may play a general role in regulating developmental transitions across phyla...
  13. Smith W, Priester J, Morais J. PTTH-stimulated ecdysone secretion is dependent upon tyrosine phosphorylation in the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:1317-25 pubmed
    ..These findings point to an important role for a Src-family tyrosine kinase at a very early step in the PTTH signaling pathway, prior to the activation of adenylyl cyclase...
  14. Habib K, Gold P, Chrousos G. Neuroendocrinology of stress. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2001;30:695-728; vii-viii pubmed
    ..Moreover, the promise of nonpeptide CRH type-1 receptor antagonists to directly target the stress system in the brain is highlighted...
  15. Rybczynski R, Bell S, Gilbert L. Activation of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by the insect prothoracicotropic hormone. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;184:1-11 pubmed
    ..PTTH-stimulated ERK activity may be important for both rapid regulation of ecdysteroid synthesis and for longer-term changes in the size and function of prothoracic gland cells...
  16. Gurevich P, Ben Hur H, Moldavsky M, Szvalb S, Shperling I, Zusman I. An immunohistochemical study of the secretory immune system in human fetal endocrine glands and their precursors. Early Pregnancy. 2001;5:191-200 pubmed
    ..They are the major mechanism of endocrine cell defense during the early prenatal period when the common immune system is still structurally and functionally incompetent...
  17. Hnasko R, McFarland M, Ben Jonathan N. Distribution and characterization of plasmalemma vesicle protein-1 in rat endocrine glands. J Endocrinol. 2002;175:649-61 pubmed
    ..Since endocrine glands are enriched with fenestrated endothelium, we examined the distribution of PV-1 mRNA and protein in endocrine ..
  18. Katoh R. Angiogenesis in endocrine glands: special reference to the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;60:181-5 pubmed
    ..factors are produced and secreted by normal endocrine cells and are increased in pathological states of endocrine glands, including inflammation, hyperplasia, and neoplasia...
  19. Martinez R, Honegger J, Fahlbusch R, Buchfelder M. Endocrine findings in patients with optico-hypothalamic gliomas. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2003;111:162-7 pubmed
    ..Visual impairment and hydrocephalus are the most frequent findings at presentation. However, only limited data are available about endocrine disturbances in these lesions...
  20. Scippo M, Argiris C, Van de Weerdt C, Muller M, Willemsen P, Martial J, et al. Recombinant human estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors for detection of potential endocrine disruptors. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004;378:664-9 pubmed
    ..We propose to use binding assays using recombinant human steroid receptors as screening tools for the detection of endocrine disruptors in various samples...
  21. Sigurdson C, Spraker T, Miller M, Oesch B, Hoover E. PrP(CWD) in the myenteric plexus, vagosympathetic trunk and endocrine glands of deer with chronic wasting disease. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:2327-34 pubmed
    ....
  22. Goi T, Fujioka M, Satoh Y, Tabata S, Koneri K, Nagano H, et al. Angiogenesis and tumor proliferation/metastasis of human colorectal cancer cell line SW620 transfected with endocrine glands-derived-vascular endothelial growth factor, as a new angiogenic factor. Cancer Res. 2004;64:1906-10 pubmed
    b>Endocrine glands-derived-vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) was recently cloned as a new angiogenic factor that selectively acts on the endothelium of endocrine gland cells...
  23. Niwa R, Matsuda T, Yoshiyama T, Namiki T, Mita K, Fujimoto Y, et al. CYP306A1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, is essential for ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the prothoracic glands of Bombyx and Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:35942-9 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that CYP306A1 functions as a carbon 25 hydroxylase and has an essential role in ecdysteroid biosynthesis during insect development...
  24. Wira C, Patel M, Ghosh M, Mukura L, Fahey J. Innate immunity in the human female reproductive tract: endocrine regulation of endogenous antimicrobial protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011;65:196-211 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this review is to examine the spectrum of antimicrobials in the FRT and the ways in which they are regulated to provide protection against pathogens that compromise reproductive health and threaten the lives of women...
  25. McDonald E, Krishnamurthy M, Goodyer C, Wang R. The emerging role of SOX transcription factors in pancreatic endocrine cell development and function. Stem Cells Dev. 2009;18:1379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Interrelationships between the SOX family and other pancreatic transcription factors specific to endocrine lineages will also be discussed in light of islet cell-based therapies for the treatment of diabetes...
  26. Verma Y, Rana S. Endocrinal toxicity of industrial solvents--a mini review. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47:537-49 pubmed
    ..An attempt has been made to offer a historical and general information on solvent toxicity in endocrine glands. Possible mechanisms, in brief, have also been discussed...
  27. Gasco V, Beccuti G, Marotta F, Benso A, Granata R, Broglio F, et al. Endocrine and metabolic actions of ghrelin. Endocr Dev. 2010;17:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In all, the products of the GRLN gene, i.e. acylated and nonacylated GRLN, as well as obestatin, play a major role in regulating peripheral metabolism and it is not by chance that their secretion is mostly under metabolic regulation...
  28. Zheng J, Nakatsuji T, Roer R, Watson R. Studies of a receptor guanylyl cyclase cloned from Y-organs of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and its possible functional link to ecdysteroidogenesis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;155:780-8 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that the biological action of CsGC-YO1 in Y-organs is likely to be most pronounced during intermolt. The combined results are consistent with the hypothesis that CsGC-YO1 is an MIH receptor...
  29. Guarraci F, Holifield C, Morales Valenzuela J, Greene K, Brown J, Lopez R, et al. Exposure to methylphenidate during peri-adolescence affects endocrine functioning and sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2016;142:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli. ..
  30. Kang J, Asai D, Aasi D, Katayama Y. Bisphenol A in the aquatic environment and its endocrine-disruptive effects on aquatic organisms. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2007;37:607-25 pubmed
    ..This report reviews the literature concerning contamination routes and degradation of BPA in the aquatic environment and its endocrine-disruptive effects on aquatic organisms...
  31. Jing X, Zhang J, Luo Y, Zong S, Liu P, Jia J. Identification and field evaluation of the female sex pheromone of the sand Salix carpenterworm, Holcocerus arenicola Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Z Naturforsch C. 2010;65:403-11 pubmed
    ..4:0.25 ratio at 825 microg/trap dosage can be effectively used to monitor the H. arenicola population level and catch the males within the desert regions in China...
  32. Hashimoto M, Okuda C, Sakurai C, Seki K, Matsuda M, Nagao G, et al. Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: differentiation of the endocrine component. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:141-2 pubmed
  33. Koska J, Ksinantova L, Kvetnansky R, Hamar D, Martinkovic M, Vigas M. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1018:569-75 pubmed
    ..01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest...
  34. Thigpen J, Setchell K, Saunders H, Haseman J, Grant M, Forsythe D. Selecting the appropriate rodent diet for endocrine disruptor research and testing studies. ILAR J. 2004;45:401-16 pubmed
    ....
  35. Stockhorst U, de Fries D, Steingrueber H, Scherbaum W. Insulin and the CNS: effects on food intake, memory, and endocrine parameters and the role of intranasal insulin administration in humans. Physiol Behav. 2004;83:47-54 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, initial data indicate that states of central insulin deficiencies (DAT and obesity) are accompanied by olfactory deviations. Thus, the nose-to-brain pathway deserves further attention...
  36. Broadhurst M, Lee R, Hawkins S, Wheeler T. The p100 EBNA-2 coactivator: a highly conserved protein found in a range of exocrine and endocrine cells and tissues in cattle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1681:126-33 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the p100 protein plays a fundamental role in eukaryotic biology, and functions in secretory cells, at least in cattle...
  37. McKeever K. The endocrine system and the challenge of exercise. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2002;18:321-53, vii pubmed
    ....
  38. Choi K, Kim S, Kim C, Kim S. Effects of activated carbon types and service life on removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals: amitrol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol-A. Chemosphere. 2005;58:1535-45 pubmed
    ..The adsorption parameters for nonylphenol and bisphenol-A provided by this study could be valuable when GAC adsorption was considered to handle an accidental spill of nonylphenol and bisphenol-A...
  39. Hutley L, Prins J. Fat as an endocrine organ: relationship to the metabolic syndrome. Am J Med Sci. 2005;330:280-9 pubmed
    ....
  40. Kwek J, Wijesundera C, Digby M, Nicholas K. The endocrine regulation of milk lipid synthesis and secretion in tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:48-54 pubmed
    ..These results provide new information identifying the role of insulin and prolactin in regulating milk lipid synthesis and secretion in the tammar...
  41. LeBaron M, Ahonen T, Nevalainen M, Rui H. In vivo response-based identification of direct hormone target cell populations using high-density tissue arrays. Endocrinology. 2007;148:989-1008 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, PRL but not GH activated Stat5 in nearly all of the endocrine glands. In mammary glands, PRL activated Stat5 in a majority of luminal epithelial cells but not myoepithelial cells,..
  42. Perez Cadahia B, Lafuente A, Cabaleiro T, Pasaro E, Mendez J, Laffon B. Initial study on the effects of Prestige oil on human health. Environ Int. 2007;33:176-85 pubmed
    ..In addition, data obtained point to the importance of using protective devices in preventing the effects related to the exposure...
  43. Grigoryev S, Shukanov R. Morphophysiology of endocrine glands in young hogs during postnatal ontogeny under conditions of treatment with biogenic compounds. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;147:661-3 pubmed
    ....
  44. Huang X, Zhou Y, Ma J, Wang N, Zhang Z, Ji J, et al. Nitric oxide mediated effects on reproductive toxicity caused by carbon disulfide in male rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;34:679-87 pubmed publisher
    ..SNP reduced some of the toxic effects of CS(2), while L-NMMA treatment showed no effect. The results suggests that NO mediates compromised reproductive system function caused by CS(2) exposure...
  45. Ou Q, Magico A, King Jones K. Nuclear receptor DHR4 controls the timing of steroid hormone pulses during Drosophila development. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001160 pubmed publisher
    ....
  46. Tropea C, Hermida G, López Greco L. Effects of androgenic gland ablation on growth and reproductive parameters of Cherax quadricarinatus males (Parastacidae, Decapoda). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;174:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in the present study support and complement those from intersexes of the same species...
  47. Gürtler T, Weber M. [Current operative techniques and strategies in endocrine surgery]. Ther Umsch. 2011;68:279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other side more precise techniques allow a more complete and radical removal of endocrine tissue, especially in thyroid surgery. This article presents a summary of current operative techniques and strategies in endocrine surgery...
  48. Felix T, Puga A, Cestari T, Cartell A, Cerski M. Infantile Systemic Hyalinosis: report of three unrelated Brazilian children and review of the literature. Clin Dysmorphol. 2004;13:231-6 pubmed
    ..Skin biopsy performed in all three patients showed diffuse deposits of hyaline material, confirming the diagnosis of ISH...
  49. Dimitrov N, Colucci P, Nagpal S. Some aspects of the endocrine profile and management of hormone-dependent male breast cancer. Oncologist. 2007;12:798-807 pubmed
    ..This could be accomplished by the development of a specific multi-institutional tumor registry and execution of prospective clinical trials...
  50. Navarro V, Tena Sempere M. The KiSS-1/GPR54 system: putative target for endocrine disruption of reproduction at hypothalamic-pituitary unit?. Int J Androl. 2008;31:224-32 pubmed
    ..We review herein the physiological basis and initial, albeit so far scarce, experimental evidence supporting such possibility...
  51. Hsieh Y, Hsu S, Gu S. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;43:859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that mitochondria-derived, but not membrane NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated ROS signaling, is involved in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis of PGs in B. mori. ..
  52. Pereira O, Bernardi M, Gerardin D. Could neonatal testosterone replacement prevent alterations induced by prenatal stress in male rats?. Life Sci. 2006;78:2767-71 pubmed
    ..In this way, testosterone replacement probably through increasing neonatal level of this hormone was able to prevent the later alterations caused by the prenatal stress during the period of brain sexual differentiation...
  53. Lee Y, Chan Y, Chow W, Ng E, Lee K, Yeung W, et al. Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates proliferation and tube formation in human uterine microvascular endothelial cell through the mitogen-activated protein kinase but not through the Akt pathway. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:2163-71 pubmed publisher
    ....
  54. Edgar A, Morris E, Kelnar C, Wallace W. Long-term follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer. Endocr Dev. 2009;15:159-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we describe the chronic health problems encountered by survivors and discuss the development of a long-term follow-up service for childhood cancer survivors...
  55. Yang T, Fu M, Pestell R, Sauve A. SIRT1 and endocrine signaling. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006;17:186-91 pubmed
    ....
  56. Arai Y, Takayama M, Gondo Y, Inagaki H, Yamamura K, Nakazawa S, et al. Adipose endocrine function, insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and exceptional survival beyond 100 years of age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63:1209-18 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to determine whether hormonal pathways potentially involved in energy homeostasis contribute to survival beyond 100 years of age...
  57. Pedersen B, Febbraio M. Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6. Physiol Rev. 2008;88:1379-406 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the myokine IL-6, its regulation by exercise, its signaling pathways in skeletal muscle, and its role in metabolism in both health and disease...
  58. Monnat R. From broken to old: DNA damage, IGF1 endocrine suppression and aging. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:1386-90 pubmed
    ..This endocrine signaling pathway is of particular interest as it is a key regulator of metabolism and longevity in many organisms...
  59. Gathercole L, Lavery G, Morgan S, Cooper M, Sinclair A, Tomlinson J, et al. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1: translational and therapeutic aspects. Endocr Rev. 2013;34:525-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the data are preliminary, therapeutic inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is also an exciting prospect for the treatment of a variety of other disorders such as osteoporosis, glaucoma, intracranial hypertension, and cognitive decline. ..
  60. Yang Z, Zhao Y, Li N, Yang J, Hua X. Effects of water-borne copper on the Y-organ and content of 20-hydroxyecdysone in Eriocheir sinensis. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;54:69-74 pubmed
    ..Therefore, molting frequency as well as the growth of E. sinensis is inhibited when exposed to high concentrations of water-borne Cu2+...
  61. Miller D, Harrison J, Brown Y, Doyle U, Lindsay A, Adam C, et al. Immunohistochemical evidence for an endocrine/paracrine role for ghrelin in the reproductive tissues of sheep. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;3:60 pubmed
    ..e. stem cell factor (SCF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)...
  62. Zhang L, Song A, Wang Z, Lu Y. [Effects of the needling method for regulating kidney and smoothing liver on endocrine and immune functions in the patient with hyperplasia of mammary glands]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2008;28:648-52 pubmed
    ..To probe into a better acupoint association for treatment of hyperplasia of mammary glands and the mechanism...