adrenal medulla

Summary

Summary: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Top Publications

  1. Nostramo R, Tillinger A, Serova L, Kvetnansky R, Sabban E. Bradykinin B2 receptor in the adrenal medulla of male rats and mice: glucocorticoid-dependent increase with immobilization stress. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3729-38 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effects of stress on the expression of this receptor in the adrenal medulla are currently unclear...
  2. Moulin P, Guiot Y, Jonas J, Rahier J, Devuyst O, Henquin J. Identification and subcellular localization of the Na+/H+ exchanger and a novel related protein in the endocrine pancreas and adrenal medulla. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007;38:409-22 pubmed
    ..diffusely stained the cytoplasm of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin cells as well as endocrine cells of the adrenal medulla. Electron microscopy localized the NHE1 immunoreactivity in the membrane of secretory granules, an unexpected ..
  3. Ely D, Milsted A, Bertram J, Ciotti M, Dunphy G, Turner M. Sry delivery to the adrenal medulla increases blood pressure and adrenal medullary tyrosine hydroxylase of normotensive WKY rats. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2007;7:6 pubmed
    ..A potential candidate for this Y chromosome hypertension locus is Sry, a gene that encodes a transcription factor that is responsible for testes development and the Sry protein may affect other target genes...
  4. Moura E, Afonso J, Hein L, Vieira Coelho M. Alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes involved in the regulation of catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla of mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;149:1049-58 pubmed
    This study was carried out to elucidate which alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes mediated the inhibition of noradrenaline and adrenaline release from the adrenal medulla of mice.
  5. Santodomingo J, Vay L, Camacho M, Hernández SanMiguel E, Fonteriz R, Lobaton C, et al. Calcium dynamics in bovine adrenal medulla chromaffin cell secretory granules. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data show that chromaffin cell secretory granules have the machinery required for rapid uptake and release of Ca2+, and this strongly supports the hypothesis that granular Ca2+ may contribute to its own secretion...
  6. Ehrhart Bornstein M, Bornstein S. Cross-talk between adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex in stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the endocrine system to stress is characterized by the concomitant release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex...
  7. Fenwick N, Martin C, Llewellyn Smith I. Immunoreactivity for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in rat sympathetic preganglionic neurons projecting to sympathetic ganglia and the adrenal medulla. J Comp Neurol. 2006;495:422-33 pubmed
    ..34% projecting to the major pelvic ganglion, and about 15% projecting to the superior cervical ganglion or adrenal medulla contained CART...
  8. Colomer C, Desarménien M, Guerineau N. Revisiting the stimulus-secretion coupling in the adrenal medulla: role of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication. Mol Neurobiol. 2009;40:87-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental clues supporting this hypothesis are presented and discussed with regards to both interaction with the excitatory cholinergic synaptic transmission and physiopathology of the adrenal medulla.
  9. Oberle S, Schober A, Meyer V, Holtmann B, Henderson C, Sendtner M, et al. Loss of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor beta or cardiotrophin-1 causes similar deficits in preganglionic sympathetic neurons and adrenal medulla. J Neurosci. 2006;26:1823-32 pubmed
    ..as suggested by its capacity to prevent their death after destruction of one of their major targets, the adrenal medulla. Although somatic motoneurons and PSNs share a common embryonic origin, they are distinct in several respects,..
  10. Lim D, Park H, Miwa S. CCCP enhances catecholamine release from the perfused rat adrenal medulla. Auton Neurosci. 2006;128:37-47 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results demonstrate that CCCP causes the catecholamine secretion from the perfused rat adrenal medulla in a calcium-dependent fashion...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Nostramo R, Tillinger A, Serova L, Kvetnansky R, Sabban E. Bradykinin B2 receptor in the adrenal medulla of male rats and mice: glucocorticoid-dependent increase with immobilization stress. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3729-38 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effects of stress on the expression of this receptor in the adrenal medulla are currently unclear...
  2. Moulin P, Guiot Y, Jonas J, Rahier J, Devuyst O, Henquin J. Identification and subcellular localization of the Na+/H+ exchanger and a novel related protein in the endocrine pancreas and adrenal medulla. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007;38:409-22 pubmed
    ..diffusely stained the cytoplasm of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin cells as well as endocrine cells of the adrenal medulla. Electron microscopy localized the NHE1 immunoreactivity in the membrane of secretory granules, an unexpected ..
  3. Ely D, Milsted A, Bertram J, Ciotti M, Dunphy G, Turner M. Sry delivery to the adrenal medulla increases blood pressure and adrenal medullary tyrosine hydroxylase of normotensive WKY rats. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2007;7:6 pubmed
    ..A potential candidate for this Y chromosome hypertension locus is Sry, a gene that encodes a transcription factor that is responsible for testes development and the Sry protein may affect other target genes...
  4. Moura E, Afonso J, Hein L, Vieira Coelho M. Alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes involved in the regulation of catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla of mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;149:1049-58 pubmed
    This study was carried out to elucidate which alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes mediated the inhibition of noradrenaline and adrenaline release from the adrenal medulla of mice.
  5. Santodomingo J, Vay L, Camacho M, Hernández SanMiguel E, Fonteriz R, Lobaton C, et al. Calcium dynamics in bovine adrenal medulla chromaffin cell secretory granules. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data show that chromaffin cell secretory granules have the machinery required for rapid uptake and release of Ca2+, and this strongly supports the hypothesis that granular Ca2+ may contribute to its own secretion...
  6. Ehrhart Bornstein M, Bornstein S. Cross-talk between adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex in stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the endocrine system to stress is characterized by the concomitant release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex...
  7. Fenwick N, Martin C, Llewellyn Smith I. Immunoreactivity for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in rat sympathetic preganglionic neurons projecting to sympathetic ganglia and the adrenal medulla. J Comp Neurol. 2006;495:422-33 pubmed
    ..34% projecting to the major pelvic ganglion, and about 15% projecting to the superior cervical ganglion or adrenal medulla contained CART...
  8. Colomer C, Desarménien M, Guerineau N. Revisiting the stimulus-secretion coupling in the adrenal medulla: role of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication. Mol Neurobiol. 2009;40:87-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental clues supporting this hypothesis are presented and discussed with regards to both interaction with the excitatory cholinergic synaptic transmission and physiopathology of the adrenal medulla.
  9. Oberle S, Schober A, Meyer V, Holtmann B, Henderson C, Sendtner M, et al. Loss of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor beta or cardiotrophin-1 causes similar deficits in preganglionic sympathetic neurons and adrenal medulla. J Neurosci. 2006;26:1823-32 pubmed
    ..as suggested by its capacity to prevent their death after destruction of one of their major targets, the adrenal medulla. Although somatic motoneurons and PSNs share a common embryonic origin, they are distinct in several respects,..
  10. Lim D, Park H, Miwa S. CCCP enhances catecholamine release from the perfused rat adrenal medulla. Auton Neurosci. 2006;128:37-47 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results demonstrate that CCCP causes the catecholamine secretion from the perfused rat adrenal medulla in a calcium-dependent fashion...
  11. Chung K, Sicard F, Vukicevic V, Hermann A, Storch A, Huttner W, et al. Isolation of neural crest derived chromaffin progenitors from adult adrenal medulla. Stem Cells. 2009;27:2602-13 pubmed publisher
    Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are neural crest-derived cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage. Unlike the closely-related sympathetic neurons, a subpopulation of proliferation-competent cells exists even in the adult...
  12. Majewski Ł, Sobczak M, Redowicz M. Myosin VI is associated with secretory granules and is present in the nucleus in adrenal medulla chromaffin cells. Acta Biochim Pol. 2010;57:109-14 pubmed
    ..The presented data indicate that MVI in adrenal medulla cells is engaged in secretory vesicle trafficking within the cytoplasm and possibly also involved in ..
  13. Fliedner S, Breza J, Kvetnansky R, Powers J, Tischler A, Wesley R, et al. Tyrosine hydroxylase, chromogranin A, and steroidogenic acute regulator as markers for successful separation of human adrenal medulla. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;340:607-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This is difficult to obtain from pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), rare chromaffin tumors derived from adrenal medulla. The two options for obtaining adrenal tissue are: (1) whole organ removal post-mortem or during radical ..
  14. Bobrovskaya L, Damanhuri H, Ong L, Schneider J, Dickson P, Dunkley P, et al. Signal transduction pathways and tyrosine hydroxylase regulation in the adrenal medulla following glucoprivation: an in vivo analysis. Neurochem Int. 2010;57:162-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we explored the effects on, TH phosphorylation and synthesis, and upstream signalling pathways, in the adrenal medulla evoked by the glucoprivic stimulus, 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) administered intraperitoneally to conscious rats...
  15. Raghuraman G, Kalari A, Dhingra R, Prabhakar N, Kumar G. Enhanced neuropeptide Y synthesis during intermittent hypoxia in the rat adrenal medulla: role of reactive oxygen species-dependent alterations in precursor peptide processing. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;14:1179-90 pubmed publisher
    ..CAs) in rats via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent enhanced synthesis and secretion from the adrenal medulla (AM)...
  16. Feng J, Li X, Hu C, Wang J, Nie H. Neural plasticity occurs in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:1333-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to monitor the neuroendocrine alteration in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats.
  17. Ohno N, Terada N, Komada M, Saitoh S, Costantini F, Pace V, et al. Dispensable role of protein 4.1B/DAL-1 in rodent adrenal medulla regarding generation of pheochromocytoma and plasmalemmal localization of TSLC1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:506-15 pubmed publisher
    ..1B-knockout mice. Although plasmalemmal immunolocalization of 4.1B was shown in chromaffin cells of rodent adrenal medulla, expression of 4...
  18. Laborie C, Molendi Coste O, Breton C, Montel V, Vandenbulcke F, Grumolato L, et al. Maternal perinatal undernutrition has long-term consequences on morphology, function and gene expression of the adrenal medulla in the adult male rat. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011;23:711-24 pubmed publisher
    ..disturbs chromaffin cells organisation and activity in male rats at weaning, its long-term effects on adrenal medulla in adult animals are unknown...
  19. Jakowski J, Wakely P, Jimenez R. An uncommon type of adrenal incidentaloma: a case report of a schwannoma of the adrenal medulla with cytological, histological, and ultrastructural correlation. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008;12:356-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of a schwannoma of the adrenal medulla in an asymptomatic 51-year-old woman, which was discovered incidentally on a computed tomography scan after ..
  20. Wu X, Hu C, Li X, Zou Y, Zou J, Li Y, et al. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20337 pubmed publisher
    Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown.
  21. He R, Feng J, Xun Q, Qin Q, Hu C. High-intensity training induces EIB in rats through neuron transdifferentiation of adrenal medulla chromaffin cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;304:L602-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of NGF-associated genes in rat adrenal medulla was tested...
  22. Buttigieg J, Brown S, Zhang M, Lowe M, Holloway A, Nurse C. Chronic nicotine in utero selectively suppresses hypoxic sensitivity in neonatal rat adrenal chromaffin cells. FASEB J. 2008;22:1317-26 pubmed
    ....
  23. D Amato F, Noli B, Brancia C, Cocco C, Flore G, Collu M, et al. Differential distribution of VGF-derived peptides in the adrenal medulla and evidence for their selective modulation. J Endocrinol. 2008;197:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..A differential processing of the VGF precursor encompassing many areas of its primary sequence and selective modulations of its derived peptides occur in adrenal medullary cells, possibly relevant to adaptive homeostatic responses...
  24. Kee Y, Lim D. Influence of polyphenolic compounds isolated from Rubus coreanum on catecholamine release in the rat adrenal medulla. Arch Pharm Res. 2007;30:1240-51 pubmed
    ..from Rubus coreanum MIQUEL (PCRC) may affect the release of catecholamine (CA) from the isolated perfused rat adrenal medulla, and to establish its mechanism of action...
  25. Hawlitschka A, Haas S, Schmitt O, Weiss D, Wree A. Effects of systemic PSI administration on catecholaminergic cells in the brain, adrenal medulla and carotid body in Wistar rats. Brain Res. 2007;1173:137-44 pubmed
    ..The proteasome inhibitor effect on the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, the adrenal medulla and the carotid body was examined...
  26. Baquedano M, Saraco N, Berensztein E, Pepe C, Bianchini M, Levy E, et al. Identification and developmental changes of aromatase and estrogen receptor expression in prepubertal and pubertal human adrenal tissues. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2215-22 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms of postnatal adrenal zonation remain unclear...
  27. Yanagihara N, Liu M, Toyohira Y, Tsutsui M, Ueno S, Shinohara Y, et al. Stimulation of catecholamine synthesis through unique estrogen receptors in the bovine adrenomedullary plasma membrane by 17beta-estradiol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;339:548-53 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that E(2) acutely stimulates catecholamine synthesis via activation of p44/42MAPK through unique estrogen receptors in the plasma membrane of bovine adrenal medulla.
  28. Kishimoto T, Kimura R, Liu T, Nemoto T, Takahashi N, Kasai H. Vacuolar sequential exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles in adrenal medulla. EMBO J. 2006;25:673-82 pubmed
    Individual exocytic events in intact adrenal medulla were visualized by two-photon extracellular polar-tracer imaging...
  29. Kvetnansky R, Kubovcakova L, Tillinger A, Micutkova L, Krizanova O, Sabban E. Gene expression of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout mice during stress exposure. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2006;26:735-54 pubmed
    ..1.1.28) is primarily localized in the adrenal medulla (AM)...
  30. Kumar G, Rai V, Sharma S, Ramakrishnan D, Peng Y, Souvannakitti D, et al. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces hypoxia-evoked catecholamine efflux in adult rat adrenal medulla via oxidative stress. J Physiol. 2006;575:229-39 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined whether CIH induces hypoxic sensitivity in the adult rat adrenal medulla and, if so, by what mechanism(s)...
  31. Sabban E, Liu X, Serova L, Gueorguiev V, Kvetnansky R. Stress triggered changes in gene expression in adrenal medulla: transcriptional responses to acute and chronic stress. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2006;26:845-56 pubmed
    ..changes in levels of phospho-CREB (P-CREB), phospho-ERK1/2 (P-ERK1/2) and Fra-2 by Western Blot analysis in adrenal medulla of Sprague Dawley male rats exposed to single or repeated immobilization stress (IMO)...
  32. Truman L, Bentley K, SMITH E, Massaro S, Gonzalez D, Haberman A, et al. ProxTom lymphatic vessel reporter mice reveal Prox1 expression in the adrenal medulla, megakaryocytes, and platelets. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:1715-25 pubmed publisher
    ..fluorescent mice revealed the expression of Prox1 in three novel sites: the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla, megakaryocytes, and platelets. The novel sites identified herein suggest previously unknown roles for Prox1...
  33. Colomer C, Martin A, Desarménien M, Guerineau N. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in the adrenal medulla: an additional ingredient of stimulus-secretion coupling regulation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1818:1937-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Communicating junctions, composition, structure and characteristics...
  34. Moura E, Pinto C, Caló A, Serrão M, Afonso J, Vieira Coelho M. α₂-Adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla of spontaneously hypertensive rats is preserved in the early stages of hypertension. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011;109:253-60 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we evaluated the effect of α(2) -adrenoceptor activation on catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla of pre-hypertensive (6-week-old) and hypertensive (16-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and of age-..
  35. Trevenzoli I, Pinheiro C, Conceição E, Oliveira E, Passos M, Lisboa P, et al. Programming of rat adrenal medulla by neonatal hyperleptinemia: adrenal morphology, catecholamine secretion, and leptin signaling pathway. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E941-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, high leptin levels on lactation program the activity of the sympathoadrenal system at adulthood that may contribute to the development of adult chronic diseases such as hypertension...
  36. Zhou H, Aziza J, Sol J, Courtade Saidi M, Chatelin S, Evra C, et al. Cell therapy of pain: Characterization of human fetal chromaffin cells at early adrenal medulla development. Exp Neurol. 2006;198:370-81 pubmed
    ..These observations on the expression of these biological factors indicate that 9-10 GW would be the best stage for sampling these cells for preclinical transplantation experiments...
  37. Xu L, Chen X, Sun B, Sterling C, Tank A. Evidence for regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA translation by stress in rat adrenal medulla. Brain Res. 2007;1158:1-10 pubmed
    Long-term stress leads to the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and enzymatic activity in the adrenal medulla. This adaptive response is necessary to maintain the catecholamine biosynthetic capacity of adrenal chromaffin ..
  38. Colomer C, Lafont C, Guerineau N. Stress-induced intercellular communication remodeling in the rat adrenal medulla. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..secretion, we examined the effects of 5-day cold exposure on cell-cell communication pathways in the rat adrenal medulla. Upon stress, the neurosecretory tissue undergoes dramatic morphofunctional changes resulting in increased ..
  39. Liu X, Serova L, Kvetnansky R, Sabban E. Identifying the stress transcriptome in the adrenal medulla following acute and repeated immobilization. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:1-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The full repertoire of genes whose expression in the adrenal medulla is altered by stress has not been previously determined. In this study, gene profiling (RAE 230 2...
  40. de Diego A, Gandia L, Garcia A. A physiological view of the central and peripheral mechanisms that regulate the release of catecholamines at the adrenal medulla. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2008;192:287-301 pubmed
    ..This, together with the use of adrenal slices and transmural electrical stimulation of splanchnic nerves will provide new physiologically sound data on the regulation of adrenal medullary secretion...
  41. Diaz Flores L, Gutierrez R, Varela H, Valladares F, Alvarez Arguelles H, Borges R. Histogenesis and morphofunctional characteristics of chromaffin cells. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2008;192:145-63 pubmed
    ..status of research about the histogenesis and morphofunctional characteristics of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. First, this study reports the selective migration, transcription and activation factors, and the ..
  42. Yamaguchi Shima N, Okada S, Shimizu T, Usui D, Nakamura K, Lu L, et al. Adrenal adrenaline- and noradrenaline-containing cells and celiac sympathetic ganglia are differentially controlled by centrally administered corticotropin-releasing factor and arginine-vasopressin in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;564:94-102 pubmed
    ..The adrenal medulla has two separate populations of chromaffin cells, adrenaline-containing cells (A-cells) and noradrenaline-..
  43. Kang L, Sanders N, Dunn Meynell A, Gaspers L, Routh V, Thomas A, et al. Prior hypoglycemia enhances glucose responsiveness in some ventromedial hypothalamic glucosensing neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R784-92 pubmed
    ..5 mmol/l glucose. These data suggest that the increased VMH glucokinase after IIH may contribute to the increased responsiveness of VMH glucosensing neurons to glucose and the associated blunting of the AMR...
  44. Scomparin D, Grassiolli S, Marçal A, Gravena C, Andreazzi A, Mathias P. Swim training applied at early age is critical to adrenal medulla catecholamine content and to attenuate monosodium L-glutamate-obesity onset in mice. Life Sci. 2006;79:2151-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that metabolic changes imposed by early exercise, leading to an attenuation of MSG-hypothalamic obesity onset, are at least in part due to sympathoadrenal activity modulation...
  45. Seki M, Kageyama H, Takenoya F, Hirayama M, Kintaka Y, Inoue S, et al. Neuropeptide W is expressed in the noradrenalin-containing cells in the rat adrenal medulla. Regul Pept. 2008;145:147-52 pubmed
    ..of NPW mRNA in these tissues, while in situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of NPW mRNA in the adrenal medulla. When immunohistochemistry was performed on sections of adrenal gland, NPW-like immunoreactivity (NPW-LI) was ..
  46. Ehrhart Bornstein M, Vukicevic V, Chung K, Ahmad M, Bornstein S. Chromaffin progenitor cells from the adrenal medulla. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:1417-23 pubmed publisher
    Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are neural crest-derived cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage...
  47. Tai T, Claycomb R, Siddall B, Bell R, Kvetnansky R, Wong D. Stress-induced changes in epinephrine expression in the adrenal medulla in vivo. J Neurochem. 2007;101:1108-18 pubmed
    Immobilization (IMMO) stress was used to examine how stress alters the stress hormone epinephrine (EPI) in the adrenal medulla in vivo. In rats subjected to IMMO for 30 or 120 min, adrenal corticosterone increased to the same extent...
  48. Ilias I, Pacak K. Diagnosis and management of tumors of the adrenal medulla. Horm Metab Res. 2005;37:717-21 pubmed
    The adrenal medulla consists of chromaffin cells, the site of catecholamine biosynthesis...
  49. Huber K, Kalcheim C, Unsicker K. The development of the chromaffin cell lineage from the neural crest. Auton Neurosci. 2009;151:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ....
  50. Silva J, Bianco S. Thyroid-adrenergic interactions: physiological and clinical implications. Thyroid. 2008;18:157-65 pubmed publisher
    The sympathoadrenal system, including the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla, interacts with thyroid hormone (TH) at various levels...
  51. Kvetnansky R, Sabban E, Palkovits M. Catecholaminergic systems in stress: structural and molecular genetic approaches. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:535-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Data summarized here indicate that catecholaminergic systems are activated in different ways following exposure to distinct stressful stimuli...
  52. Molendi Coste O, Laborie C, Scarpa M, Montel V, Vieau D, Breton C. Maternal perinatal undernutrition alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the male rat adrenal medulla. Neuroendocrinology. 2009;90:54-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This might contribute to the long-lasting malprogramming of the adrenal medulla and to the development of chronic adult diseases.
  53. Chatterjee O, Taylor L, Ahmed S, Nagaraj S, Hall J, Finckbeiner S, et al. Social stress alters expression of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel subunits in mouse adrenal medulla and pituitary glands. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In younger animals, Slo-alpha mRNA levels were elevated 44% and 116% in the adrenal medulla and pituitary, respectively, compared to individually-housed controls...
  54. Tank A, Xu L, Chen X, Radcliffe P, Sterling C. Post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in adrenal medulla and brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:238-48 pubmed publisher
    ..well established that long-term stress leads to induction of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and TH protein in adrenal medulla and brain. This induction is usually associated with stimulation of the TH gene transcription rate...
  55. Keating D, Rychkov G, Giacomin P, Roberts M. Oxygen-sensing pathway for SK channels in the ovine adrenal medulla. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;32:882-7 pubmed
    ..In a heterologous expression system, SK2 and SK3 channels, the channels that initiate hypoxia-evoked changes in AMCC function, are modulated appropriately by changes in cellular redox state...
  56. Li L, Lu G, Yao H, Zhao Y, Feng Z, Yew D. Postmortem changes in the central nervous system and adrenal medulla of the heroin addicts. Int J Neurosci. 2005;115:1443-9 pubmed
    ..The central nervous system (including the pituitary body) and the adrenal medulla were studied, along with those from age-matched controls who died from traffic accidents...
  57. Mravec B. A new focus on interoceptive properties of adrenal medulla. Auton Neurosci. 2005;120:10-7 pubmed
    The adrenal medulla is an important part of the sympathoadrenal system. Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla respond to a broad spectrum of stressful situations by releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine...
  58. Akiyama T, Yamazaki T, Mori H, Sunagawa K. Inhibition of cholinesterase elicits muscarinic receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the rat adrenal medulla. Auton Neurosci. 2003;107:65-73 pubmed
    To determine the role of acetylcholinesterase in cholinergic synaptic transmission in the adrenal medulla in vivo, we applied a dialysis technique to the adrenal medulla of anesthetized rats and examined the effect of ..
  59. Wilson J, Coderre E, Renaud L, Spanswick D. Active and passive membrane properties of rat sympathetic preganglionic neurones innervating the adrenal medulla. J Physiol. 2002;545:945-60 pubmed
    ..properties expressed by AD-SPN may be key determinants of neurotransmitter release from SPN innervating the adrenal medulla. However, factors other than active membrane conductances of AD-SPN must ultimately regulate the differential ..
  60. Katterle B, Gvozdev R, Abudu N, Ljones T, Andersson K. A continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (X-band) study of the Cu2+ sites of particulate methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M) in membrane and pure dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase of the adrenal medulla. Biochem J. 2002;363:677-86 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the resting EPR visible Cu in pMMO is not part of a trinuclear cluster, as has been suggested previously...
  61. Hentall I, Noga B, Sagen J. Spinal allografts of adrenal medulla block nociceptive facilitation in the dorsal horn. J Neurophysiol. 2001;85:1788-92 pubmed
    ..Rats were given adrenal medulla allografts, or, as controls, striated-muscle allografts...
  62. Schober A, Minichiello L, Keller M, Huber K, Layer P, Roig Lopez J, et al. Reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in adrenal medulla and loss of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in TrkA-deficient, but not TrkB-deficient, mice. J Neurosci. 1997;17:891-903 pubmed
    ..Paravertebral sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla share an ontogenetic origin, responsiveness to NGF, and expression of TrkA...