zona fasciculata

Summary

Summary: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.

Top Publications

  1. Danthi S, Enyeart J, Enyeart J. Modulation of native TREK-1 and Kv1.4 K+ channels by polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysophospholipids. J Membr Biol. 2003;195:147-64 pubmed
    ..4 voltage-gated K+ channels by fatty acids and lysophospholipids was studied in bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells...
  2. Wang S, Pu H, Kan S, Tseng C, Lo M, Wang P. Inhibitory effects of digoxin and digitoxin on corticosterone production in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:1123-30 pubmed
    ..The concentration of corticosterone in the rat plasma samples was measured by radioimmunoassay. Zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells in male rats were prepared and then incubated with or without digoxin or digitoxin in ..
  3. Raza F, Takemori H, Tojo H, Okamoto M, Vinson G. Identification of the rat adrenal zona fasciculata/reticularis specific protein, inner zone antigen (IZAg), as the putative membrane progesterone receptor. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:2141-7 pubmed
    ..More detailed examination of the distribution of this protein, not only in the zona fasciculata/reticularis of the adrenal cortex, but also in the Leydig cell, kidney and liver, suggest it may have a role ..
  4. Koldzic Zivanovic N, Tu H, Juelich T, Rady P, Tyring S, Hudnall S, et al. Regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis by interleukin-10: a preponderance of IL-10 receptor in the adrenal zona fasciculata. Brain Behav Immun. 2006;20:460-8 pubmed
    ..shows that the region of the adrenal gland responsible for the vast majority of corticosterone synthesis, the zona fasciculata, predominantly expresses the IL-10 receptor 1 (IL-10R1), with little expression in the zona glomerulosa and ..
  5. Milosevic V, Trifunovic S, Sekulic M, Sosic Jurjevic B, Filipovic B, Negić N, et al. Chronic exposure to constant light affects morphology and secretion of adrenal zona fasciculata cells in female rats. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2005;24:299-309 pubmed
    ..of chronic exposure to light of adult Wistar rats on growth and function of adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata (ZF) were examined...
  6. Liu H, Enyeart J, Enyeart J. Angiotensin II inhibits native bTREK-1 K+ channels through a PLC-, kinase C-, and PIP2-independent pathway requiring ATP hydrolysis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C682-95 pubmed
    ..Whole cell patch-clamp recording from bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells was used to characterize the ATP-dependent signaling mechanism for inhibition of bTREK-1 by ANG ..
  7. Frederiks W, Kümmerlin I, Bosch K, Vreeling Sindelárová H, Jonker A, Van Noorden C. NADPH production by the pentose phosphate pathway in the zona fasciculata of rat adrenal gland. J Histochem Cytochem. 2007;55:975-80 pubmed
    ..The four enzymes have similar localization patterns in adrenal gland with highest activities in the zona fasciculata of the cortex...
  8. Omura M, Suematsu S, Nishikawa T. Role of calcium messenger systems in ACTH-induced cortisol production in bovine adrenal fasciculo-reticularis cells. Endocr J. 2007;54:585-92 pubmed
    ..A phospholipase A2-dependent process may partly play a crucial role in the regulation of cortisol biosynthesis, when stimulated by low and high concentrations of ACTH...
  9. Chang L, Kau M, Wun W, Ho L, Wang P. Effects of fasting on corticosterone production by zona fasciculata-reticularis cells in ovariectomized rats. J Investig Med. 2002;50:86-94 pubmed
    To investigate the function and mechanism of fasting on the production of corticosterone in vitro by zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells from ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
  10. Fang V, Juan C, Won J, Ho L. Further study of aldosterone secretion-inhibitory factor and brain natriuretic peptide on cortisol production of guinea pig zona fasciculata cells. Chin J Physiol. 2000;43:141-7 pubmed
    ..BNP-32) on the basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a primary culture enriched with guinea pig Zona Fasciculata (ZF) cells was further studied...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Danthi S, Enyeart J, Enyeart J. Modulation of native TREK-1 and Kv1.4 K+ channels by polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysophospholipids. J Membr Biol. 2003;195:147-64 pubmed
    ..4 voltage-gated K+ channels by fatty acids and lysophospholipids was studied in bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells...
  2. Wang S, Pu H, Kan S, Tseng C, Lo M, Wang P. Inhibitory effects of digoxin and digitoxin on corticosterone production in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:1123-30 pubmed
    ..The concentration of corticosterone in the rat plasma samples was measured by radioimmunoassay. Zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells in male rats were prepared and then incubated with or without digoxin or digitoxin in ..
  3. Raza F, Takemori H, Tojo H, Okamoto M, Vinson G. Identification of the rat adrenal zona fasciculata/reticularis specific protein, inner zone antigen (IZAg), as the putative membrane progesterone receptor. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:2141-7 pubmed
    ..More detailed examination of the distribution of this protein, not only in the zona fasciculata/reticularis of the adrenal cortex, but also in the Leydig cell, kidney and liver, suggest it may have a role ..
  4. Koldzic Zivanovic N, Tu H, Juelich T, Rady P, Tyring S, Hudnall S, et al. Regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis by interleukin-10: a preponderance of IL-10 receptor in the adrenal zona fasciculata. Brain Behav Immun. 2006;20:460-8 pubmed
    ..shows that the region of the adrenal gland responsible for the vast majority of corticosterone synthesis, the zona fasciculata, predominantly expresses the IL-10 receptor 1 (IL-10R1), with little expression in the zona glomerulosa and ..
  5. Milosevic V, Trifunovic S, Sekulic M, Sosic Jurjevic B, Filipovic B, Negić N, et al. Chronic exposure to constant light affects morphology and secretion of adrenal zona fasciculata cells in female rats. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2005;24:299-309 pubmed
    ..of chronic exposure to light of adult Wistar rats on growth and function of adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata (ZF) were examined...
  6. Liu H, Enyeart J, Enyeart J. Angiotensin II inhibits native bTREK-1 K+ channels through a PLC-, kinase C-, and PIP2-independent pathway requiring ATP hydrolysis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C682-95 pubmed
    ..Whole cell patch-clamp recording from bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells was used to characterize the ATP-dependent signaling mechanism for inhibition of bTREK-1 by ANG ..
  7. Frederiks W, Kümmerlin I, Bosch K, Vreeling Sindelárová H, Jonker A, Van Noorden C. NADPH production by the pentose phosphate pathway in the zona fasciculata of rat adrenal gland. J Histochem Cytochem. 2007;55:975-80 pubmed
    ..The four enzymes have similar localization patterns in adrenal gland with highest activities in the zona fasciculata of the cortex...
  8. Omura M, Suematsu S, Nishikawa T. Role of calcium messenger systems in ACTH-induced cortisol production in bovine adrenal fasciculo-reticularis cells. Endocr J. 2007;54:585-92 pubmed
    ..A phospholipase A2-dependent process may partly play a crucial role in the regulation of cortisol biosynthesis, when stimulated by low and high concentrations of ACTH...
  9. Chang L, Kau M, Wun W, Ho L, Wang P. Effects of fasting on corticosterone production by zona fasciculata-reticularis cells in ovariectomized rats. J Investig Med. 2002;50:86-94 pubmed
    To investigate the function and mechanism of fasting on the production of corticosterone in vitro by zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells from ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
  10. Fang V, Juan C, Won J, Ho L. Further study of aldosterone secretion-inhibitory factor and brain natriuretic peptide on cortisol production of guinea pig zona fasciculata cells. Chin J Physiol. 2000;43:141-7 pubmed
    ..BNP-32) on the basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a primary culture enriched with guinea pig Zona Fasciculata (ZF) cells was further studied...
  11. Liu H, Enyeart J, Enyeart J. ACTH inhibits bTREK-1 K+ channels through multiple cAMP-dependent signaling pathways. J Gen Physiol. 2008;132:279-94 pubmed publisher
    Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express bTREK-1 K(+) channels that set the resting membrane potential and function pivotally in the physiology of cortisol secretion...
  12. Wang W, Wang L, Endoh A, Hummelke G, Hawks C, Hornsby P. Identification of alpha-enolase as a nuclear DNA-binding protein in the zona fasciculata but not the zona reticularis of the human adrenal cortex. J Endocrinol. 2005;184:85-94 pubmed
    In order to establish whether there are differences in DNA-binding proteins between zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) cells of the human adrenal cortex, we prepared nuclear extracts from separated ZF and ZR cells...
  13. Yu P, Chao H, Wang S, Wang P. Effects of evodiamine and rutaecarpine on the secretion of corticosterone by zona fasciculata-reticularis cells in male rats. J Cell Biochem. 2009;108:469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to characterize the mechanism by which EVO and RUT affect corticosterone production in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells...
  14. Liu H, Enyeart J, Enyeart J. ACTH induces Cav3.2 current and mRNA by cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20040-50 pubmed publisher
    Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express Ca(v)3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels that function pivotally in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol secretion. The regulation of Ca(v)3...
  15. Enyeart J, Mlinar B, Enyeart J. T-type Ca2+ channels are required for adrenocorticotropin-stimulated cortisol production by bovine adrenal zona fasciculata cells. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:1031-40 pubmed
    ..of low voltage-activated T-type Ca2+ channels in ACTH-stimulated cortisol production by bovine adrenal zona fasciculata cells (AZF) was explored in patch clamp and secretion studies...
  16. Danthi S, Enyeart J, Enyeart J. Caffeic acid esters activate TREK-1 potassium channels and inhibit depolarization-dependent secretion. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;65:599-610 pubmed
    ..In bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells, bTREK-1 K+ channels set the resting membrane potential...
  17. Mitani F, Mukai K, Miyamoto H, Suematsu M, Ishimura Y. The undifferentiated cell zone is a stem cell zone in adult rat adrenal cortex. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1619:317-24 pubmed
    ..e. the zona glomerulosa (zG), the zona fasciculata (zF) and the zona reticularis (zR), each of which secretes a specific corticosteroid different from those ..
  18. Chang L, Wun W, Wang P. Mechanisms of inhibition of dehydroepiandrosterone upon corticosterone release from rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:359-68 pubmed
    We have demonstrated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) acts directly on rat zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells to diminish corticosterone secretion by an inhibition of post-cAMP pathway, and decreases functions of steroidogenic ..
  19. Enyeart J, Danthi S, Enyeart J. Corticotropin induces the expression of TREK-1 mRNA and K+ current in adrenocortical cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;64:132-42 pubmed
    Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express a two-pore/four-transmembrane segment bTREK-1 K+ channel that sets the resting potential and couples hormonal signals to depolarization-dependent Ca2+ entry and cortisol secretion...
  20. Enyeart J, Liu H, Enyeart J. Calcium-dependent inhibition of adrenal TREK-1 channels by angiotensin II and ionomycin. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Whole cell and single patch clamp recording from adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells were used to characterize Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of bTREK-1...
  21. Nishimoto K, Rigsby C, Wang T, Mukai K, Gomez Sanchez C, Rainey W, et al. Transcriptome analysis reveals differentially expressed transcripts in rat adrenal zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1755-63 pubmed publisher
    ..glomerulosa (zG), the outermost layer of the adrenal cortex, whereas glucocorticoids are produced in adjacent zona fasciculata (zF)...
  22. Chang L, Wun W, Ho L, Wang P. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on corticosterone release in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003;368:487-95 pubmed
    ..corticosterone have been proposed in a rat model, the effects and action mechanisms of DHEA on rat adrenal zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells are still unclear...
  23. Dorovini Zis K, Zis A. Innervation of the zona fasciculata of the adult human adrenal cortex: a light and electron microscopic study. J Neural Transm Gen Sect. 1991;84:75-84 pubmed
    ..Detailed ultrastructural studies on the innervation of the zona fasciculata of the normal human adrenal cortex are lacking...
  24. Connell J, Fraser R, MacKenzie S, Friel E, Ingram M, Holloway C, et al. The impact of polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) on steroid synthesis and blood pressure regulation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;217:243-7 pubmed
    ..urinary levels of 11-deoxycortisol suggest that there is relative inefficiency of 11beta-hydroxylation in the zona fasciculata; the P450 enzyme responsible for this step is encoded by the gene CYP11B1, which is highly homologous with ..
  25. Mattos G, Lotfi C. Differences between the growth regulatory pathways in primary rat adrenal cells and mouse tumor cell line. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;245:31-42 pubmed
    ....
  26. Enyeart J, Enyeart J. Metabolites of an Epac-selective cAMP analog induce cortisol synthesis by adrenocortical cells through a cAMP-independent pathway. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6088 pubmed publisher
    Adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express a cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange protein (Epac2) that may function in ACTH-stimulated cortisol synthesis...
  27. Bandulik S, Tauber P, Penton D, Schweda F, Tegtmeier I, Sterner C, et al. Severe hyperaldosteronism in neonatal Task3 potassium channel knockout mice is associated with activation of the intraadrenal renin-angiotensin system. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2712-22 pubmed publisher
    ..strong increase in adrenal renin expression, and immunofluorescence revealed renin-expressing cells in the zona fasciculata. Together with additional factors, activation of the local adrenal renin system is probably causative for the ..
  28. Val P, Martinez A, Sahut Barnola I, Jean C, Veyssiere G, Lefrançois Martinez A. A 77-base pair LINE-like sequence elicits androgen-dependent mvdp/akr1-b7 expression in mouse vas deferens, but is dispensable for adrenal expression in rats. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3435-48 pubmed
    ..We propose that this acquired androgen-responsive region may be responsible for vas deferens androgen-regulated gene expression in vivo...
  29. Enyeart J, Xu L, Enyeart J. Dual actions of lanthanides on ACTH-inhibited leak K(+) channels. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E1255-66 pubmed
    Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata cells express background K(+) channels (I(AC) channels) whose activity is potently inhibited by ACTH...
  30. Cymeryng C, Lotito S, Colonna C, Finkielstein C, Pomeraniec Y, Grión N, et al. Expression of nitric oxide synthases in rat adrenal zona fasciculata cells. Endocrinology. 2002;143:1235-42 pubmed
    Nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) expression was analyzed in rat adrenal zona fasciculata. Both neuronal NOS and endothelial NOS mRNAs were detected by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analysis...
  31. Nishimoto K, Nakagawa K, Li D, Kosaka T, Oya M, Mikami S, et al. Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2296-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known, however, about how the cells expressing the enzymes are actually distributed in the adrenals under normal and pathological conditions...
  32. Ribes A, Mohamed F, Dominguez S, Delgado M, Scardapane L, Guzman J, et al. Probable effect of photoperiod on seasonal variation in the nuclear volume of the adrenal cortex of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus). Braz J Med Biol Res. 1999;32:1115-20 pubmed
    ..58 +/- 4.53 microm3 for the reticularis. The short winter photoperiod to which viscacha is subjected could inhibit the adrenal cortex through a melatonin increase which reduces the nuclear volume as well as the cellular activity...
  33. Rebuffat P, Aragona F, Tortorella C, Malendowicz L, Nussdorfer G. Signaling pathways involved in the A and B receptor-mediated cortisol secretagogue effect of endothelins in the human adrenal cortex. Int J Mol Med. 2001;7:301-5 pubmed
    ..Dispersed zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZF/R) cells were obtained by collagenase digestion and mechanical disaggregation...
  34. Gomora J, Enyeart J. Dual pharmacological properties of a cyclic AMP-sensitive potassium channel. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;290:266-75 pubmed
    Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata cells express a novel K+ current (IAC) that sets the resting potential while it couples adrenocorticotropin and angiotensin II receptors to membrane depolarization and cortisol secretion...
  35. Semplicini A, Ceolotto G, Baritono E, Malendowicz L, Andreis P, Sartori M, et al. Adrenomedullin stimulates DNA synthesis of rat adrenal zona glomerulosa cells through activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent cascade. J Hypertens. 2001;19:599-602 pubmed
    ..Adrenal zona glomerulosa cells are provided with adrenomedullin receptors. Adrenomedullin has recently been found to enhance proliferation of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells and zona glomerulosa cells...
  36. Kawamura M, Niitsu A, Nishi H, Masaki E. Extracellular ATP potentiates steroidogenic effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone in bovine adrenocortical fasciculata cells. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001;85:376-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that extracellular ATP affected the ACTH receptor-adenylyl cyclase coupling processes, and potentiation of steroidogenesis by ACTH ensued in bovine adrenocortical fasciculata cells...
  37. Cote M, Guillon G, Payet M, Gallo Payet N. Expression and regulation of adenylyl cyclase isoforms in the human adrenal gland. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:4495-503 pubmed
    ..the two adrenocortical zones, except for adenylyl cyclase 5/6, which had a lower level of expression in the zona fasciculata. We next evaluated the role of the various adenylyl cyclase isoforms during ACTH-stimulated cAMP production ..
  38. Lo M, Lee S. Direct effects of IL-15 on corticosterone secretion by rat adrenocortical cells. Immunol Cell Biol. 2006;84:38-43 pubmed
    ..were designed to assess the direct effect of IL-15 on corticosterone (CORT) secretion in the adrenal zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells of male rats...
  39. Sarkar D, Imai T, Kambe F, Shibata A, Ohmori S, Siddiq A, et al. The human homolog of Diminuto/Dwarf1 gene (hDiminuto): a novel ACTH-responsive gene overexpressed in benign cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:5130-7 pubmed
    ..The expression of hDiminuto in the normal adrenal cortex was most abundant in the zona fasciculata, suggesting its possible regulation by ACTH/cAMP...
  40. Kuribayashi I, Nomoto S, Massa G, Oostdijk W, Wit J, Wolffenbuttel B, et al. Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency caused by compound heterozygosity for a novel mutation, p.G314R, in one CYP11B1 allele, and a chimeric CYP11B2/CYP11B1 in the other allele. Horm Res. 2005;63:284-93 pubmed
    ..In order to better understand the molecular basis causing 11beta-OHD, we performed detailed studies of CYP11B1 in a newly described patient diagnosed with the classical signs of 11beta-OHD...
  41. Takeda Y, Miyamori I, Iki K, Yoneda T, Takeda R. Biosynthetic pathway of 19-noraldosterone in isolated rat glomerulosa cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;49:69-71 pubmed
    ..These three mineralocorticoids were not detected in FCs. The results demonstrate that 19-noraldo is synthesized in GCs and then undergoes further metabolism...
  42. Hasegawa E, Nakagawa S, Miyate Y, Takahashi K, Ohta S, Tachikawa E, et al. Inhibitory effect of protopanaxatriol ginseng metabolite M4 on the production of corticosteroids in ACTH-stimulated bovine adrenal fasciculata cells. Life Sci. 2013;92:687-93 pubmed publisher
    ....
  43. Pihlajoki M, Heikinheimo M, Wilson D. Never underestimate the complexity of remodeling. Endocrinology. 2013;154:4446-9 pubmed publisher
  44. Zamfir C, Irimiea L, Indrei A, Indrei L, Trandafirescu M, Carja L. [The cell-cell interaction mechanisms and specific reactions in zona fasciculata cells from the adrenal gland]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2002;107:273-5 pubmed
    It seems that the particular intermediary disposal of zona fasciculata in the cortical ensemble of the adrenal gland is not insignificant, especially for the variability and for the glandular activities...
  45. Lezmi S, Bencsik A, Monks E, Petit T, Baron T. First case of feline spongiform encephalopathy in a captive cheetah born in France: PrP(sc) analysis in various tissues revealed unexpected targeting of kidney and adrenal gland. Histochem Cell Biol. 2003;119:415-22 pubmed
    ..More interestingly, unusual PrP(sc )deposits were observed within the zona fasciculata/reticularis of the adrenal gland and within some glomeruli of the kidney raising the question of possible PrP(..
  46. Chang L, Tseng Y, Lin Y, Wun W, Wang P. Effects of S-petasin on corticosterone release in rats. Chin J Physiol. 2002;45:137-42 pubmed
    ..reduction of basal and ACTH-stimulated release of corticosterone from the enzymatically dispersed rat zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells in a dose-dependent manner...
  47. Enyeart J, Boyd R, Enyeart J. ACTH and AII differentially stimulate steroid hormone orphan receptor mRNAs in adrenal cortical cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1996;124:97-110 pubmed
    ..The dual function of these peptide hormones as mediators of development and corticosteroid synthesis could necessitate the presence of separate, parallel signaling pathways...
  48. Feher I. [The effect of a one-time, continous administration of a stressor (alcohol) on the secretory activity of the glomerular and fascicular zone of the adrenal cortex]. Med Pregl. 1991;44:296-302 pubmed
    ..It is assumed that the serotoninergic system of the CNS essentially influences the function of the H-H-C system, but not the basal activity as well...
  49. Chang L, Alfred Wun W, Wang P. Effects and mechanisms of nonylphenol on corticosterone release in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. Toxicol Sci. 2010;118:411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e., adrenal cortical hormone. However, the effects and action mechanisms of NP on rat adrenal zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells are still unclear. This study explored the effects of NP on corticosterone release...
  50. Polito A, Lorin de la Grandmaison G, Mansart A, Louiset E, Lefebvre H, Sharshar T, et al. Human and experimental septic shock are characterized by depletion of lipid droplets in the adrenals. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:1852-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cholesteryl ester deficiency which results in adrenal lipid store depletion has been proposed as a potential mechanism of sepsis associated adrenal insufficiency...
  51. Kashirina N. The morphological and functional basis of the new conception about the suprarenal cortex regeneration. Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39:951-4 pubmed
    ..This cell type gradually differentiates into the typical cortical cells of zona reticularis. Stem cortical cells were found in suprarenal cortex. They did not have specific morphological signs and could synthesize nucleus DNA...
  52. Nishikawa T, Suematsu S, Matsuzawa Y, Saito J, Omura M. Guanosine triphosphate can directly regulate cortisol production by activating Ca(2+)-messenger systems in bovine adrenal fasciculata cells. Endocr J. 2016;63:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, it can be postulated that GTP-induced steroid secretion in bovine adrenal fasciculata cells is under paracrine or autocrine control. ..
  53. Cymeryng C, Dada L, Colonna C, Mendez C, Podesta E. Effects of L-arginine in rat adrenal cells: involvement of nitric oxide synthase. Endocrinology. 1999;140:2962-7 pubmed
    The effects of L-arginine on corticosterone production, cGMP, and nitrite levels were examined in zona fasciculata adrenal cells. L-Arginine significantly decreased both basal and ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production...
  54. Woods A, Judd A. Interleukin-4 increases cortisol release and decreases adrenal androgen release from bovine adrenal cells. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2008;34:372-82 pubmed
    ..Because communication between the immune and endocrine systems is important in inflammatory conditions, IL-4 may play a role in coordinating the adrenal response to inflammatory stress...
  55. Liu H, Enyeart J, Enyeart J. Potent inhibition of native TREK-1 K+ channels by selected dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;323:39-48 pubmed
    Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express bTREK-1 background K+ channels that set the resting membrane potential...
  56. Fang V, Juan C, Hsu Y, Won J, Ho L. The stimulatory effect of vasoactive intestinal peptides on the cortisol production of guinea pig Zona fasciculata cells: an extra-ACTH regulatory model of the adrenocortical function. Chin J Physiol. 2001;44:73-9 pubmed
    ..intestinal peptide (VIP) on cortisol production was studied in a primary culture enriched with guinea pig Zona Fasciculata (ZF) cells. In ZF cells, VIP stimulates cortisol secretion and enhances the steroidogenic action of ACTH...
  57. Dupré Aucouturier S, Penhoat A, Rougier O, Bilbaut A. ACTH-induced Cl(-) current in bovine adrenocortical cells: correlation with cortisol secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E355-65 pubmed
    ACTH has been shown to depolarize bovine adrenal zona fasciculata cells by inhibiting a K(+) current. The effects of this hormone on such cells have been reexamined using perforated and standard patch recording methods...
  58. Kelly S, McKenna T, Young L. Coregulatory protein-orphan nuclear receptor interactions in the human adrenal cortex. J Endocrinol. 2005;186:33-42 pubmed
    ..SRC-1) and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormones (SMRT), were found to be expressed in the zona fasciculata and reticularis in the human adrenal cortex, but were largely absent from the zona glomerulosa...
  59. Raza F, Okamoto M, Takemori H, Vinson G. Manganese superoxide dismutase activity in the rat adrenal. J Endocrinol. 2005;184:77-84 pubmed
    ..The 25 kDa MnSOD isoform was unaffected by the treatments. The results suggest that MnSOD may have a specific role in the steroidogenic function of the fasciculata/reticularis of the rat adrenal, but not in that of the glomerulosa...
  60. Dupré Aucouturier S, Penhoat A, Rougier O, Bilbaut A. Volume-sensitive Cl- current in bovine adrenocortical cells: comparison with the ACTH-induced Cl- current. J Membr Biol. 2004;199:99-111 pubmed
    In a previous study performed on zona fasciculata (ZF) cells isolated from calf adrenal glands, we identified an ACTH-induced Cl- current involved in cell membrane depolarization...
  61. Buzueva I, Shmerling M, Filiushina E, Markel A, Iakobson G. [Structure of the adrenal gland in rat strain with hereditary stress-induced arterial hypertension nursed by Wistar dams]. Morfologiia. 2002;122:66-9 pubmed
    ..In the adrenal zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata of 3-week-old rats of the first group parenchymal-stromal ratio and the average volume of adrenocorticocytes ..
  62. Malendowicz L, Neri G, Markowska A, Hochol A, Nussdorfer G, Majchrzak M. Effects of leptin and leptin fragments on steroid secretion of freshly dispersed rat adrenocortical cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;87:265-8 pubmed
    ..and 10(-6)M) on aldosterone and corticosterone secretion from freshly dispersed rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZF/R) cells...