cebidae

Summary

Summary: A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.

Top Publications

  1. Moreira M. SRY evolution in Cebidae (Platyrrhini: Primates). J Mol Evol. 2002;55:92-103 pubmed
    ..Here we analyze the evolution of SRY among seven genera of New World monkeys belonging to the family Cebidae. Estimates of the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions indicated the absence of positive ..
  2. Müller A, Anzenberger G. Duetting in the Titi monkey Callicebus cupreus: structure, pair specificity and development of duets. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2002;73:104-15 pubmed
    ..The two examined newly formed pairs produced species-typical duets from the first day on, but their duets showed greater variability in sequence durations than those of established pairs...
  3. Bloch J, Woodruff E, Wood A, Rincon A, Harrington A, Morgan G, et al. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange. Nature. 2016;533:243-6 pubmed publisher
    ..diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North ..
  4. Yi S, Summers T, Pearson N, Li W. Recombination has little effect on the rate of sequence divergence in pseudoautosomal boundary 1 among humans and great apes. Genome Res. 2004;14:37-43 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the mutagenic effect of recombination is far weaker than previously proposed, at least in hominoid PABs...
  5. Savastano G, Hanson A, McCann C. The development of an operant conditioning training program for new world primates at the Bronx Zoo. J Appl Anim Welf Sci. 2003;6:247-61 pubmed
    ..During daily training displays, zoo visitors experienced interactive animals while learning the importance of low-stress animal husbandry...
  6. Epiphanio S, Sinhorini I, Catão Dias J. Pathology of toxoplasmosis in captive new world primates. J Comp Pathol. 2003;129:196-204 pubmed
    ..4%), interstitial pneumonia (90.3%) and necrotic splenitis (71.4%). The gross post-mortem changes in cebids were more variable than those observed in callitrichids, a fact that may complicate the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in cebids...
  7. Llorens L, Casinos A, Berge C, Majoral M, Jouffroy F. A biomechanical study of the long bones in platyrrhines. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2001;72:201-16 pubmed
    ..Strength indicators showed a high variability in the relative importance of axial and bending loadings. Results are consistent with field observations of locomotor behaviour, mainly as regards quadrupedalism versus suspensory locomotion...
  8. Edelmann L, Stankiewicz P, Spiteri E, Pandita R, Shaffer L, Lupski J, et al. Two functional copies of the DGCR6 gene are present on human chromosome 22q11 due to a duplication of an ancestral locus. Genome Res. 2001;11:208-17 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, a full-length HERV-K provirus integrated into the sc11.1a locus after the divergence of chimpanzees and humans...
  9. Hirasaki E, Kumakura H, Matano S. Biomechanical analysis of vertical climbing in the spider monkey and the Japanese macaque. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2000;113:455-72 pubmed
    ....
  10. Laska M, Tutsch M. Laterality of tail resting posture in three species of New World primates. Neuropsychologia. 2000;38:1040-6 pubmed
    ....

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Moreira M. SRY evolution in Cebidae (Platyrrhini: Primates). J Mol Evol. 2002;55:92-103 pubmed
    ..Here we analyze the evolution of SRY among seven genera of New World monkeys belonging to the family Cebidae. Estimates of the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions indicated the absence of positive ..
  2. Müller A, Anzenberger G. Duetting in the Titi monkey Callicebus cupreus: structure, pair specificity and development of duets. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2002;73:104-15 pubmed
    ..The two examined newly formed pairs produced species-typical duets from the first day on, but their duets showed greater variability in sequence durations than those of established pairs...
  3. Bloch J, Woodruff E, Wood A, Rincon A, Harrington A, Morgan G, et al. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange. Nature. 2016;533:243-6 pubmed publisher
    ..diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North ..
  4. Yi S, Summers T, Pearson N, Li W. Recombination has little effect on the rate of sequence divergence in pseudoautosomal boundary 1 among humans and great apes. Genome Res. 2004;14:37-43 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the mutagenic effect of recombination is far weaker than previously proposed, at least in hominoid PABs...
  5. Savastano G, Hanson A, McCann C. The development of an operant conditioning training program for new world primates at the Bronx Zoo. J Appl Anim Welf Sci. 2003;6:247-61 pubmed
    ..During daily training displays, zoo visitors experienced interactive animals while learning the importance of low-stress animal husbandry...
  6. Epiphanio S, Sinhorini I, Catão Dias J. Pathology of toxoplasmosis in captive new world primates. J Comp Pathol. 2003;129:196-204 pubmed
    ..4%), interstitial pneumonia (90.3%) and necrotic splenitis (71.4%). The gross post-mortem changes in cebids were more variable than those observed in callitrichids, a fact that may complicate the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in cebids...
  7. Llorens L, Casinos A, Berge C, Majoral M, Jouffroy F. A biomechanical study of the long bones in platyrrhines. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2001;72:201-16 pubmed
    ..Strength indicators showed a high variability in the relative importance of axial and bending loadings. Results are consistent with field observations of locomotor behaviour, mainly as regards quadrupedalism versus suspensory locomotion...
  8. Edelmann L, Stankiewicz P, Spiteri E, Pandita R, Shaffer L, Lupski J, et al. Two functional copies of the DGCR6 gene are present on human chromosome 22q11 due to a duplication of an ancestral locus. Genome Res. 2001;11:208-17 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, a full-length HERV-K provirus integrated into the sc11.1a locus after the divergence of chimpanzees and humans...
  9. Hirasaki E, Kumakura H, Matano S. Biomechanical analysis of vertical climbing in the spider monkey and the Japanese macaque. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2000;113:455-72 pubmed
    ....
  10. Laska M, Tutsch M. Laterality of tail resting posture in three species of New World primates. Neuropsychologia. 2000;38:1040-6 pubmed
    ....
  11. Di Bitetti M, Janson C. When will the stork arrive? Patterns of birth seasonality in neotropical primates. Am J Primatol. 2000;50:109-30 pubmed
    ..The pattern of births of the atelines is consistent with the weaning hypothesis. However, since they give birth during the lean season, this pattern is also consistent with an alternative strategy...
  12. Takai M, Anaya F, Shigehara N, Setoguchi T. New fossil materials of the earliest new world monkey, Branisella boliviana, and the problem of platyrrhine origins. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2000;111:263-81 pubmed
    ..The origin and early diversification of platyrrhine monkeys might have occurred on the African continent before crossing the Atlantic Ocean...
  13. Demes P, Pindak F, Wells D, Gardner W. Adherence and surface properties of Tritrichomonas mobilensis, an intestinal parasite of the squirrel monkey. Parasitol Res. 1989;75:589-94 pubmed
    ..Agglutination of live protozoa by animal and plant lectins with various carbohydrate-binding specificities as well as the occurrence of an electron-dense cell coat on plasma membrane suggest marked glycosylation of the parasite surface...
  14. Coq J, Qi H, Collins C, Kaas J. Anatomical and functional organization of somatosensory areas of the lateral fissure of the New World titi monkey (Callicebus moloch). J Comp Neurol. 2004;476:363-87 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrates features of somatosensory cortex of other monkeys in titi monkeys, while revealing additional features that likely apply to other primates...
  15. Shimooka Y. Seasonal variation in association patterns of wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth belzebuth) at La Macarena, Colombia. Primates. 2003;44:83-90 pubmed
    ..For males, party formation may facilitate the defense of resources from neighboring groups more than provide predation avoidance...
  16. Barrera A, Guerra B, Notvall L, Lanford R. Mapping of the hepatitis B virus pre-S1 domain involved in receptor recognition. J Virol. 2005;79:9786-98 pubmed
    ....
  17. Tsunoda A, Yamada M, Komatsuzaki A. Influence of phylogeny on jugular fossa shape and otological disorders. J Laryngol Otol. 1997;111:1027-33 pubmed
    ..The shape of the jugular fossa and its positional relationship to the tympanic cavity were considered from the viewpoint of the influence of phylogeny and the possible relationship to various otological problems...
  18. Urbani B. A field observation on color selection by New World sympatric primates, Pithecia pithecia and Alouatta seniculus. Primates. 2002;43:95-101 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a possible differential acquisition of chemical components, like tannins, is hypothetically treated considering the variation in fruit color...
  19. Hernández López L, Parra G, Cerda Molina A, Pérez Bolaños S, Díaz Sánchez V, Mondragón Ceballos R. Sperm quality differences between the rainy and dry seasons in captive black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Am J Primatol. 2002;57:35-41 pubmed
    ..The individual animals showed differences in sperm concentration, although there were no differences in sperm quality...
  20. Valderrama Aguirre A, Quintero G, Gomez A, Castellanos A, Pérez Y, Mendez F, et al. Antigenicity, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of Plasmodium vivax MSP1 PV200l: a potential malaria vaccine subunit. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:16-24 pubmed
    ..vivax parasites. Immunized monkeys displayed partial protection against a challenge with P. vivax blood stages. Our results suggest that Pv200L is a new malaria vaccine subunit and deserves further testing...
  21. Cant J, Youlatos D, Rose M. Locomotor behavior of Lagothrix lagothricha and Ateles belzebuth in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador: general patterns and nonsuspensory modes. J Hum Evol. 2001;41:141-66 pubmed
    ..Further research is needed to determine how these patterns are facilitated and constrained by morphological mechanisms. Analysis of specific locomotor modes within groups shows several interspecific differences in relative frequencies...
  22. Collins A, Dubach J. Nuclear DNA variation in spider monkeys (Ateles). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2001;19:67-75 pubmed
    ....
  23. Stanyon R, Consigliere S, Muller S, Morescalchi A, Neusser M, Wienberg J. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) maps chromosomal homologies between the dusky titi and squirrel monkey. Am J Primatol. 2000;50:95-107 pubmed
    ..1986] showed that there were many errors in assigning homology with human chromosomes. The chromosomal phylogeny of New World monkeys based on banding patterns is in need of revision using modern molecular methods...
  24. Marcili A, Valente V, Valente S, Junqueira A, da Silva F, Pinto A, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazilian Amazonia: Lineages TCI and TCIIa in wild primates, Rhodnius spp. and in humans with Chagas disease associated with oral transmission. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:615-23 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi populations circulating in Amazonia, and they contribute to both the unravelling of human infection routes and the pathological peculiarities of Chagas disease in this region...
  25. González Alvarez R, Revol de Mendoza A, Esquivel Escobedo D, Corrales Félix G, Rodríguez Sánchez I, Gonzalez V, et al. Growth hormone locus expands and diverges after the separation of New and Old World Monkeys. Gene. 2006;380:38-45 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, we observed that the short intergenic regions (6 kb) increased by a different recombination event...
  26. Kay R, Campbell V, Rossie J, Colbert M, Rowe T. Olfactory fossa of Tremacebus harringtoni (platyrrhini, early Miocene, Sacanana, Argentina): implications for activity pattern. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2004;281:1157-72 pubmed
    ..This finding accords well with previous observations that the orbits of Tremacebus are not as large as nocturnal Aotus...
  27. Houle A. The origin of platyrrhines: An evaluation of the Antarctic scenario and the floating island model. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999;109:541-59 pubmed
    ..e., everything available on the floating island...
  28. Guindon S. From trajectories to averages: an improved description of the heterogeneity of substitution rates along lineages. Syst Biol. 2013;62:22-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The computer programme PhyTime, part of the PhyML package and implementing the new approach, is available from http://code.google.com/p/phyml (last accessed 1 August 2012)...
  29. Liman E, Innan H. Relaxed selective pressure on an essential component of pheromone transduction in primate evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:3328-32 pubmed
    ..We propose that, at this point in evolution, other modalities, notably the development of color vision, may have largely replaced signaling by pheromones...
  30. Ellenbroek B, Liégeois J. JL 13, an atypical antipsychotic: a preclinical review. CNS Drug Rev. 2003;9:41-56 pubmed
    ..Moreover, its electrooxidation potential was close to that of loxapine and far from that of clozapine. Taking all these preclinical data into account, it appears that JL 13 is a promising atypical antipsychotic drug...
  31. Osterholz M, Walter L, Roos C. Retropositional events consolidate the branching order among New World monkey genera. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;50:507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Several of them confirmed the monophyly of the three families Cebidae, Atelidae and Pitheciidae as well as of the subfamily Callithrichinae...
  32. Demanche C, Guillot J, Berthelemy M, Petitt T, Roux P, Wakefield A. Absence of mutations associated with sulfa resistance in Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene from non-human primates. Med Mycol. 2002;40:315-8 pubmed
    ..carinii DHPS sequence at codons 55 and 57 was observed. These data support the hypothesis that high rates of DHPS mutants in P. carinii f. sp. hominis have arisen with increased use of sulfa drugs for P. carinii pneumonia prophylaxis...
  33. Hamrick M. Functional and adaptive significance of primate pads and claws: evidence from New World anthropoids. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1998;106:113-27 pubmed
    ..Finally, results from this study support previous suggestions that the keeled tegulae of callitrichines represent a derived postural adaptation rather than a primitive retention from an ancestral eutherian condition...
  34. Walker S. Leaping behavior of Pithecia pithecia and Chiropotes satanas in eastern Venezuela. Am J Primatol. 2005;66:369-87 pubmed
    ..This example of variation within one behavioral category has implications for devising locomotor classifications and interpreting fossil remains...
  35. Preuss T, Coleman G. Human-specific organization of primary visual cortex: alternating compartments of dense Cat-301 and calbindin immunoreactivity in layer 4A. Cereb Cortex. 2002;12:671-91 pubmed
    ..The calbindin-rich compartments in human layer 4A cannot be related to a particular geniculostriate pathway on neurochemical grounds; they may constitute an interneuronal population that increased in human evolution...
  36. Iwanaga S, Ferrari S. Geographic distribution and abundance of woolly (Lagothrix cana) and spider (Ateles chamek) monkeys in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Am J Primatol. 2002;56:57-64 pubmed
    ..The transitional forest that predominates in the extreme south of Rondônia (Hylea-cerrado) is not a barrier to either species, with both species being tolerant of habitat disturbance when hunting pressure is low...
  37. Laska M, Fendt M, Wieser A, Endres T, Hernandez Salazar L, Apfelbach R. Detecting danger--or just another odorant? Olfactory sensitivity for the fox odor component 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline in four species of mammals. Physiol Behav. 2005;84:211-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results support the assumption that the behavioral relevance of an odorant may be an important determinant of a species' olfactory sensitivity...
  38. Surendra M, Motabagani M. Comparative morphology of the pars ventralis nucelus of lateral geniculate complex in some prosimian and simian primates. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2004;109:135-54 pubmed
    ..Whereas the fate of pars dorsalis in the higher mammalian series, is a history of progressive elaboration which proceeds simultaneously with the development of the visual cortex of the cerebrum...
  39. Pouydebat E, Laurin M, Gorce P, Bels V. Evolution of grasping among anthropoids. J Evol Biol. 2008;21:1732-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings shed new light on previously proposed models of the evolution of grasping. Inference models suggest that Australopithecus, Oreopithecus and Proconsul used a precision grip...
  40. Zhang J, Webb D. Evolutionary deterioration of the vomeronasal pheromone transduction pathway in catarrhine primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8337-41 pubmed
    ....
  41. de Thoisy B, Pouliquen J, Lacoste V, Gessain A, Kazanji M. Novel gamma-1 herpesviruses identified in free-ranging new world monkeys (golden-handed tamarin [Saguinus midas], squirrel monkey [Saimiri sciureus], and white-faced saki [Pithecia pithecia]) in French Guiana. J Virol. 2003;77:9099-105 pubmed
    ..virus-related viruses in 79 samples of New World monkeys caught in the wild, including six species of the Cebidae family and one of the Callitrichidae, living in the rain forest of French Guiana...
  42. Jacobs G. A perspective on color vision in platyrrhine monkeys. Vision Res. 1998;38:3307-13 pubmed
    ..Examination of color vision, photopigments, and photopigment genes of all of these monkeys have stimulated a renewed interest in understanding the evolution of primate color vision...
  43. Horovitz I, Zardoya R, Meyer A. Platyrrhine systematics: a simultaneous analysis of molecular and morphological data. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1998;106:261-81 pubmed
    ..Relationships within callitrichines and atelines were unstable as well. The simultaneous phylogenetic analysis of all data sets revealed congruent signal in all of them that was partially obscured in the separate analyses...
  44. Pastorini J, Forstner M, Martin R, Melnick D. A reexamination of the phylogenetic position of Callimico (primates) incorporating new mitochondrial DNA sequence data. J Mol Evol. 1998;47:32-41 pubmed
    The New World monkeys are divided into two main groups, Callitrichidae and Cebidae. Callimico goeldii shares traits with both the Cebidae and the Callitrichidae...
  45. Barros R, Pieczarka J, Brígido M, Muniz J, Rodrigues L, Nagamachi C. A new karyotype in Callicebus torquatus (Cebidae, Primates). Hereditas. 2000;133:55-8 pubmed
    ..Our data support the notion that the torquatus group may be composed of distinct species, each with its own karyotype...
  46. Norconk M, Grafton B, Conklin Brittain N. Seed dispersal by neotropical seed predators. Am J Primatol. 1998;45:103-26 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the traditional dichotomy of seed predator vs. seed disperser oversimplifies the interactions between seed predators and plants...
  47. Sullivan J, Strobert E, Yang C, Morris C, Galland G, Richardson B, et al. Adaptation of a strain of Plasmodium vivax from India to New World monkeys, chimpanzees, and anopheline mosquitoes. J Parasitol. 2001;87:1398-403 pubmed
    ..However, the strain is highly infectious to commonly available laboratory-maintained anopheline mosquitoes. Mosquito infection is especially high when feedings are made with gametocytes from splenectomized chimpanzees...
  48. Sullivan J, Jennings V, Guarner J, Noland G, Kendall J, Collins W. Infection of Aotus and Saimiri monkeys with Plasmodium gonderi. J Parasitol. 2002;88:422-5 pubmed
    ..gonderi, but daily blood film examination during a 60-day observation period failed to detect blood stages of the parasite...
  49. Scimeca J, Culberson D, Abee C, Gardner W. Intestinal trichomonads (Tritrichomonas mobilensis) in the natural host Saimiri sciureus and Saimiri boliviensis. Vet Pathol. 1989;26:144-7 pubmed
    ..Additional histologic changes included mucosal ulceration, multifocal cryptitis, and focal epithelial necrosis. Most areas containing trichomonads did not have an associated inflammatory response...
  50. Nathans J, Thomas D, Hogness D. Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green, and red pigments. Science. 1986;232:193-202 pubmed
    ..Green pigment genes vary in number among color-normal individuals and, together with a single red pigment gene, are proposed to reside in a head-to-tail tandem array within the X chromosome...
  51. de Oliveira E, Neusser M, Muller S. Chromosome evolution in new world monkeys (Platyrrhini). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2012;137:259-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In the last part, we highlight some recent research on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the large-scale evolutionary genomic changes in platyrrhine monkeys...
  52. Zapata J, Perlaza B, Hurtado S, Quintero G, Jurado D, Gonzalez I, et al. Reproducible infection of intact Aotus lemurinus griseimembra monkeys by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite inoculation. J Parasitol. 2002;88:723-9 pubmed
    ..This model is being successfully used to test the protective efficacy of P. falciparum preerythrocytic vaccine candidates...
  53. Plesker R, Hetzel U, Schmidt W. Cataracts in a laboratory colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). J Med Primatol. 2005;34:139-46 pubmed
    ..The calcium uptake in the affected baby itself was not altered but the calcium content in the mother's milk was low...
  54. Song B, Javanbakht H, Perron M, Park D, Stremlau M, Sodroski J. Retrovirus restriction by TRIM5alpha variants from Old World and New World primates. J Virol. 2005;79:3930-7 pubmed
    ..The TRIM5alpha proteins of some monkey species exhibit dramatic lengthening of particular B30.2 variable regions and an expanded range of susceptible retroviruses...
  55. Ray D, Xing J, Hedges D, Hall M, Laborde M, Anders B, et al. Alu insertion loci and platyrrhine primate phylogeny. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;35:117-26 pubmed
    ..a cladogram that supports a sister relationship between Atelidae (spider, woolly, and howler monkeys) and Cebidae (marmosets, tamarins, and owl monkeys) and then the joining of this two family clade to Pitheciidae (titi and ..
  56. Stanyon R, Bigoni F, Slaby T, Muller S, Stone G, Bonvicino C, et al. Multi-directional chromosome painting maps homologies between species belonging to three genera of New World monkeys and humans. Chromosoma. 2004;113:305-15 pubmed
    ..Future molecular cytogenetic work will be needed to determine whether these rearrangements represent synapomorphic chromosomal traits...
  57. MacLeod C, Zilles K, Schleicher A, Rilling J, Gibson K. Expansion of the neocerebellum in Hominoidea. J Hum Evol. 2003;44:401-29 pubmed
    ....
  58. Muñóz Delgado J, Corsi Cabrera M, Canales Espinosa D, Santillán Doherty A, Erkert H. Astronomical and meteorological parameters and rest-activity rhythm in the spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi. Physiol Behav. 2004;83:107-17 pubmed
    ..Motor activity was recorded with actiwatch accelerometers during 180 days (5-min intervals), starting from the autumn equinox...
  59. Kumakura H, Hirasaki E, Nakano Y. Organization of the epaxial muscles in terrestrial and arboreal primates. Folia Primatol (Basel). 1996;66:25-37 pubmed
    ..The arboreal habit of the spider monkey seems not to demand powerful extension in the thoracolumbar junction, and spinal rotation seems to be more important...
  60. Laska M, Rivas Bautista R, Hernandez Salazar L. Olfactory sensitivity for aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2006;129:112-20 pubmed
    ....
  61. Fitch D, Bailey W, Tagle D, Goodman M, Sieu L, Slightom J. Duplication of the gamma-globin gene mediated by L1 long interspersed repetitive elements in an early ancestor of simian primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:7396-400 pubmed
    ..This view is supported by the finding that a burst of nonsynonymous substitutions occurred in the gamma-globin genes while they became restructured for fetal expression in the common ancestor of platyrrhines and catarrhines...
  62. Marivaux L, Salas Gismondi R, Tejada J, Billet G, Louterbach M, Vink J, et al. A platyrrhine talus from the early Miocene of Peru (Amazonian Madre de Dios Sub-Andean Zone). J Hum Evol. 2012;63:696-703 pubmed publisher
    ..This new platyrrhine postcranial element displays a combination of talar features primarily found among the Cebidae, and more especially in the Cebinae...