ixodes

Summary

Summary: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe
    Jolyon M Medlock
    Medical Entomology Group, MRA, Emergency Response Department, Health Protection Agency, Salisbury, UK
    Parasit Vectors 6:1. 2013
  2. pmc Risk maps for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, in Canada now and with climate change
    Nicholas H Ogden
    Centre for Food borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Saint Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada
    Int J Health Geogr 7:24. 2008
  3. pmc A tick mannose-binding lectin inhibitor interferes with the vertebrate complement cascade to enhance transmission of the lyme disease agent
    Tim J Schuijt
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06420, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 10:136-46. 2011
  4. pmc Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden
    Thomas G T Jaenson
    Medical Entomology Unit, Department of Systematic Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Parasit Vectors 5:8. 2012
  5. ncbi TROSPA, an Ixodes scapularis receptor for Borrelia burgdorferi
    Utpal Pal
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cell 119:457-68. 2004
  6. ncbi Questing ticks in suburban forest are infected by at least six tick-borne pathogens
    Caroline Reis
    USC INRA Bartonella Tiques, Anses, Maisons Alfort Cedex, France
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:907-16. 2011
  7. pmc Infections and coinfections of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks by emerging zoonotic pathogens in Western Switzerland
    Elena Lommano
    Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Eco Epidemiology of Parasites, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:4606-12. 2012
  8. ncbi The Lyme disease agent exploits a tick protein to infect the mammalian host
    Nandhini Ramamoorthi
    Sections of Rheumatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 436:573-7. 2005
  9. pmc Identification and characterization of Ixodes scapularis antigens that elicit tick immunity using yeast surface display
    Tim J Schuijt
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e15926. 2011
  10. pmc Delineating Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in coexisting, discrete enzootic cycles
    Kevin J Bown
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1948-54. 2009

Detail Information

Publications346 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe
    Jolyon M Medlock
    Medical Entomology Group, MRA, Emergency Response Department, Health Protection Agency, Salisbury, UK
    Parasit Vectors 6:1. 2013
    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones...
  2. pmc Risk maps for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, in Canada now and with climate change
    Nicholas H Ogden
    Centre for Food borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Saint Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada
    Int J Health Geogr 7:24. 2008
    ..world, and an emerging infectious disease in Canada due to expansion of the geographic range of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis...
  3. pmc A tick mannose-binding lectin inhibitor interferes with the vertebrate complement cascade to enhance transmission of the lyme disease agent
    Tim J Schuijt
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06420, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 10:136-46. 2011
    The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi is primarily transmitted to vertebrates by Ixodes ticks. The classical and alternative complement pathways are important in Borrelia eradication by the vertebrate host...
  4. pmc Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden
    Thomas G T Jaenson
    Medical Entomology Unit, Department of Systematic Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Parasit Vectors 5:8. 2012
    b>Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals...
  5. ncbi TROSPA, an Ixodes scapularis receptor for Borrelia burgdorferi
    Utpal Pal
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cell 119:457-68. 2004
    ..We have now identified a tick receptor (TROSPA) that is required for spirochetal colonization of Ixodes scapularis. B...
  6. ncbi Questing ticks in suburban forest are infected by at least six tick-borne pathogens
    Caroline Reis
    USC INRA Bartonella Tiques, Anses, Maisons Alfort Cedex, France
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:907-16. 2011
    The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the transmission of pathogens of public health importance such as Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. is widely recognized and is suspected in several emerging vector-borne pathogens in Europe...
  7. pmc Infections and coinfections of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks by emerging zoonotic pathogens in Western Switzerland
    Elena Lommano
    Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Eco Epidemiology of Parasites, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:4606-12. 2012
    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations...
  8. ncbi The Lyme disease agent exploits a tick protein to infect the mammalian host
    Nandhini Ramamoorthi
    Sections of Rheumatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 436:573-7. 2005
    ..The level of salp15 expression was selectively enhanced by the presence of B. burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis, first indicating that spirochaetes might use Salp15 during transmission...
  9. pmc Identification and characterization of Ixodes scapularis antigens that elicit tick immunity using yeast surface display
    Tim J Schuijt
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e15926. 2011
    ..We constructed an Ixodes scapularis nymphal salivary gland yeast surface display library and screened the library with nymph-immune rabbit ..
  10. pmc Delineating Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in coexisting, discrete enzootic cycles
    Kevin J Bown
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1948-54. 2009
    ..genotypes circulating in a natural system that includes multiple hosts and at least 2 tick species, Ixodes ricinus and the small mammal specialist I. trianguliceps...
  11. pmc Association of Borrelia garinii and B. valaisiana with songbirds in Slovakia
    Klára Hanincová
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2825-30. 2003
    In Europe, 6 of the 11 genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are prevalent in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. In most parts of Central Europe, B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana are the most frequent species, whereas B...
  12. ncbi Association of Borrelia afzelii with rodents in Europe
    K Hanincová
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Parasitology 126:11-20. 2003
    ..zoonotic transmission cycles, involving a large variety of vertebrates as hosts and hard ticks of the genus Ixodes as vectors. Recent studies suggest that the genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l...
  13. pmc Multi-source analysis reveals latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in range of Ixodes ricinus at its northern distribution limit
    Solveig Jore
    Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway
    Parasit Vectors 4:84. 2011
    There is increasing evidence for a latitudinal and altitudinal shift in the distribution range of Ixodes ricinus...
  14. ncbi Sequence typing reveals extensive strain diversity of the Lyme borreliosis agents Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii in Europe
    Jonas Bunikis
    Department of Microbiology, B240 Medical Sciences I, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 4025, USA
    Microbiology 150:1741-55. 2004
    ..The major sources of DNA for PCR amplification and sequencing were samples of the B. burgdorferi tick vector Ixodes scapularis, collected at a field site in an endemic region of the north-eastern United States, and the B...
  15. ncbi Preferential protection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by a Salp15 homologue in Ixodes ricinus saliva
    J W Hovius
    Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 198:1189-97. 2008
    b>Ixodes ticks are the main vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In the United States, B. burgdorferi is the sole causative agent of Lyme borreliosis and is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. In Europe, 3 Borrelia species-B...
  16. ncbi Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tick populations in Estonia, the European part of Russia and Belarus
    O Katargina
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:40-6. 2012
    ..b>Ixodes ricinus and I...
  17. pmc A tick antioxidant facilitates the Lyme disease agent's successful migration from the mammalian host to the arthropod vector
    Sukanya Narasimhan
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 2:7-18. 2007
    The tick Ixodes scapularis is an efficient vector for microbes, including the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi. Ticks engorging on vertebrates induce recruitment of inflammatory cells to the bite site...
  18. pmc A tick salivary protein targets cathepsin G and chymase and inhibits host inflammation and platelet aggregation
    Jindrich Chmelar
    Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
    Blood 117:736-44. 2011
    ..Working with a mouse model of acute inflammation, we revealed that an exogenous salivary protein of Ixodes ricinus, the vector of Lyme disease pathogens in Europe, extensively inhibits edema formation and influx of ..
  19. pmc Metagenomic profile of the bacterial communities associated with Ixodes ricinus ticks
    Giovanna Carpi
    Department of Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, San Michele all Adige, Italy
    PLoS ONE 6:e25604. 2011
    ..The tick Ixodes ricinus is recognized as the primary European vector of disease-causing bacteria in humans. Despite I...
  20. ncbi Transovarial transmission of Borrelia spirochetes by Ixodes scapularis: a summary of the literature and recent observations
    Lindsay Rollend
    Yale School of Public Health, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 8034, USA
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 4:46-51. 2013
    Transovarial transmission (TOT) of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the agent of Lyme disease, by the Ixodes persulcatus group of hard ticks (Ixodidae) has frequently been reported in the literature since the discovery of Lyme disease ..
  21. ncbi The Ixodes scapularis Genome Project: an opportunity for advancing tick research
    Catherine A Hill
    Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Trends Parasitol 21:151-3. 2005
    The Ixodes scapularis Genome Project (IGP), the first to sequence a tick genome, will provide an unparalleled resource for studying tick biology and tick-host-pathogen relationships, and identifying novel targets for tick and tick-borne ..
  22. ncbi Functional genomic studies of tick cells in response to infection with the cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale
    Jose De La Fuente
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
    Genomics 90:712-22. 2007
    ..The results of these studies demonstrated that a molecular mechanism occurs by which tick cell gene expression mediates the A. marginale developmental cycle and trafficking through ticks...
  23. ncbi An empirical quantitative framework for the seasonal population dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus
    Sarah E Randolph
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Int J Parasitol 32:979-89. 2002
    The wide geographic and climatic range of the tick Ixodes ricinus, and the consequent marked variation in its seasonal population dynamics, have a direct impact on the transmission dynamics of the many pathogens vectored by this tick ..
  24. ncbi Tick (Ixodes ricinus) abundance and seasonality at recreational sites in the UK: hazards in relation to fine-scale habitat types revealed by complementary sampling methods
    Andrew D M Dobson
    Dept of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2:67-74. 2011
    The seasonal risk to humans of picking up Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitats at 3 recreational sites in the UK was assessed...
  25. ncbi Climate change and the potential for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada
    N H Ogden
    Groupe de Recherche en Epidémiologie des Zoonoses et Santé Publique, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, Que, Canada
    Int J Parasitol 36:63-70. 2006
    We used an Ixodes scapularis population model to investigate potential northward spread of the tick associated with climate change. Annual degree-days >0 degrees C limits for I...
  26. ncbi 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii', an endosymbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus with a unique intramitochondrial lifestyle
    Davide Sassera
    Dipartimento di Patologia Animale, Igiene e Sanita Pubblica Veterinaria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:2535-40. 2006
    ..with the unique ability to enter mitochondria exists in the European vector of Lyme disease, the hard tick Ixodes ricinus...
  27. pmc Detection and identification of Ehrlichia, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Bartonella species in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ticks
    L M Schouls
    Research Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 37:2215-22. 1999
    ..The application of the assay to DNA extracts from 121 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from roe deer demonstrated that 45% of these ticks carried Ehrlichia DNA...
  28. ncbi Prevalence and molecular characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Slovenia
    Emina Durmisi
    Medical Faculty, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:659-64. 2011
    The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the principal vector of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Slovenia; but until now, there was no information about the prevalence of TBEV infection in Slovenian ticks...
  29. pmc The hybrid histidine kinase Hk1 is part of a two-component system that is essential for survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in feeding Ixodes scapularis ticks
    Melissa J Caimano
    Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030 3715, USA
    Infect Immun 79:3117-30. 2011
    ..In contrast to the Rrp2/RpoN/RpoS pathway, which is active only within feeding nymphs, the Hk1/Rrp1 TCS is essential for survival during both larval and nymphal blood meals...
  30. pmc Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells
    Gang Chen
    Center for Disease Vector Research and Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Parasit Vectors 5:229. 2012
    b>Ixodes scapularis saliva enables the transmission of infectious agents to the mammalian host due to its immunomodulatory, anesthetic and anti-coagulant properties. However, how I...
  31. pmc Circumstantial evidence for an increase in the total number and activity of Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus in the Netherlands
    Hein Sprong
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Parasit Vectors 5:294. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether an increase in the number of questing ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato is a potential cause of the rise in Lyme disease incidence...
  32. ncbi Tick-host-pathogen interactions in Lyme borreliosis
    Joppe W R Hovius
    University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Trends Parasitol 23:434-8. 2007
    Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme borreliosis, is predominantly transmitted by Ixodes ticks...
  33. ncbi Phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships in Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus (Acari: Ixodidae) inferred from COX1 and ITS2 sequences
    Simon Song
    School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton 4343, Queensland, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 41:871-80. 2011
    We inferred the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships in ticks, which were identified morphologically as Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus, from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) and nuclear internal ..
  34. ncbi The integration of multiple independent data reveals an unusual response to Pleistocene climatic changes in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus
    Daniele Porretta
    Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences, Tuscia University, Viterbo, Italy
    Mol Ecol 22:1666-82. 2013
    ..climatic changes affected the current distribution and genetic diversity of European populations of the tick Ixodes ricinus, an ectoparasite with high ecological plasticity...
  35. ncbi Salp15, an ixodes scapularis salivary protein, inhibits CD4(+) T cell activation
    Juan Anguita
    Sections of Rheumatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Immunity 16:849-59. 2002
    ..We now describe a feeding-inducible protein in Ixodes scapularis saliva, Salp15, that inhibits CD4(+) T cell activation...
  36. ncbi Investigation of ground level and remote-sensed data for habitat classification and prediction of survival of Ixodes scapularis in habitats of southeastern Canada
    N H Ogden
    Groupe de Recherche en Epidémiologie des Zoonoses et Santé Publique, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, Que, Canada
    J Med Entomol 43:403-14. 2006
    In southeastern Canada, most populations of Ixodes scapularis Say, the Lyme disease vector, occur in Carolinian forests. Climate change projections suggest a northward range expansion of I...
  37. pmc A multi-level analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and questing Ixodes ricinus dynamics in Belgium
    Sen Li
    Georges Lemaître Centre for Earth and Climate Research, Earth and Life Institute, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B 1348, Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    Parasit Vectors 5:149. 2012
    ..Focusing on Ixodes ricinus in Belgium, we attempt to bridge the gap between current "single-sided" studies that focus on temporal or ..
  38. ncbi Prevalence of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Coxiella burnetii in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks from 29 study areas in central and southern Sweden
    Katarina Wallménius
    Unit of Clinical Bacteriology, Dept of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 3:100-6. 2012
    A total of 887 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks (469 females and 418 males) from 29 different localities in Sweden were screened for Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Coxiella DNA using PCR and then subjected to gene sequencing...
  39. pmc Borrelia burgdorferi genotype predicts the capacity for hematogenous dissemination during early Lyme disease
    Gary P Wormser
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:1358-64. 2008
    ..burgdorferi recovered from patients from suburban New York City with early Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans; it is the largest number of borrelial strains from North America ever to be investigated...
  40. ncbi Vectors of tick-borne diseases and epidemiological situation in Latvia in 1993-2002
    Antra Bormane
    State Agency Public Health Agency, Klijanu Str 7, LV 1012, Riga, Latvia
    Int J Med Microbiol 293:36-47. 2004
    ..Two epidemiologically significant Ixodes tick species are common in Latvia. Ixodes ricinus L...
  41. pmc Geographic uniformity of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and its shared history with tick vector (Ixodes scapularis) in the Northeastern United States
    Wei Gang Qiu
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 5245, USA
    Genetics 160:833-49. 2002
    ..The genetic structure of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and its main tick vector (Ixodes scapularis) was studied concurrently and comparatively by sampling natural populations of I...
  42. ncbi Ixodes ricinus density, and distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection along an altitudinal gradient
    Fatima Jouda
    Institut de Zoologie, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland
    J Med Entomol 41:162-9. 2004
    In this study, we measured the phenology of Ixodes ricinus ticks and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) simultaneously along an altitudinal gradient to assess the impact of climate on the phenology of ticks and on ..
  43. ncbi Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada
    C Bouchard
    Groupe de Recherche en Epidémiologie des Zoonoses et Santé Publique, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, 3200 Sicotte, C P 5000, Saint Hyacinthe, J2S 7C6 QC, Canada
    J Med Entomol 50:384-93. 2013
    Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health...
  44. pmc The crystal structures of two salivary cystatins from the tick Ixodes scapularis and the effect of these inhibitors on the establishment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a murine model
    Michalis Kotsyfakis
    Laboratory of Genomics and Proteomics of Disease Vectors, Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
    Mol Microbiol 77:456-70. 2010
    ..demonstrated that two salivary cysteine protease inhibitors from the Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) vector Ixodes scapularis- namely sialostatins L and L2 - play an important role in tick biology, as demonstrated by the fact ..
  45. pmc Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii
    Caroline Reis
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, USC INRA Bartonella Tiques, Anses, Maisons Alfort, France
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1186. 2011
    ..We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse...
  46. pmc Borrelia burgdorferi small lipoprotein Lp6.6 is a member of multiple protein complexes in the outer membrane and facilitates pathogen transmission from ticks to mice
    Kamoltip Promnares
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Mol Microbiol 74:112-25. 2009
    ..burgdorferi persistence and transmission through a complex enzootic cycle...
  47. pmc Role of the surface lipoprotein BBA07 in the enzootic cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi
    Haijun Xu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Infect Immun 78:2910-8. 2010
    ..Based on these findings, we concluded that the surface lipoprotein BBA07 is produced during tick feeding and facilitates optimal transmission of B. burgdorferi from the tick vector to a mammalian host...
  48. ncbi Darkness induces mobility, and saturation deficit limits questing duration, in the tick Ixodes ricinus
    Jean Luc Perret
    Institute of Zoology, University of Neuchatel, Rue Emile Argand 11, 2007 Neuchatel, Switzerland
    J Exp Biol 206:1809-15. 2003
    The behaviour of Ixodes ricinus nymphs was recorded in 10-day experiments using computer-assisted video-tracking, in the absence of any host stimuli...
  49. pmc Inhibition of neutrophil function by two tick salivary proteins
    Xiuyang Guo
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8031, USA
    Infect Immun 77:2320-9. 2009
    ..We have shown that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) treated with the saliva of the tick Ixodes scapularis have reduced expression of beta(2) integrins, impaired PMN adherence, and reduced killing of Borrelia ..
  50. ncbi Salp25D, an Ixodes scapularis antioxidant, is 1 of 14 immunodominant antigens in engorged tick salivary glands
    S Das
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8031, USA
    J Infect Dis 184:1056-64. 2001
    Rabbits or guinea pigs infested with Ixodes scapularis acquire resistance to tick bites, a phenomenon, known as tick immunity, that is partially mediated by antibody...
  51. ncbi The range of Ixodes ricinus and the risk of contracting Lyme borreliosis will increase northwards when the vegetation period becomes longer
    Thomas G T Jaenson
    Medical Entomology Unit, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2:44-9. 2011
    In Sweden, the geographical distribution of Lyme borreliosis corresponds to that of its vector Ixodes ricinus. Both tick activity and the length of the vegetation period are determined by daily mean temperatures ≥5°C...
  52. pmc An ecological approach to preventing human infection: vaccinating wild mouse reservoirs intervenes in the Lyme disease cycle
    Jean I Tsao
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:18159-64. 2004
    ..burgdorferi in nymphal blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) collected at the sites the following year in both experiments...
  53. pmc Salp15 binding to DC-SIGN inhibits cytokine expression by impairing both nucleosome remodeling and mRNA stabilization
    Joppe W R Hovius
    Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Pathog 4:e31. 2008
    b>Ixodes ticks are major vectors for human pathogens, such as Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Tick saliva contains immunosuppressive molecules that facilitate tick feeding and B. burgdorferi infection...
  54. pmc Climate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in lyme-disease risk
    Richard S Ostfeld
    Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York, USA
    PLoS Biol 4:e145. 2006
    ..assessed the determinants of Lyme-disease risk (density and Borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks) over 13 y on several field plots within eastern deciduous forests in the epicenter of US Lyme ..
  55. pmc Prevalence and seasonality of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Luxembourg
    Anna L Reye
    Institute of Immunology, National Public Health Laboratory CRP Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:2923-31. 2010
    ..In this study, 1,394 nymphal and adult Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled monthly during the active season from 33 ecologically distinct collection sites throughout ..
  56. pmc A new Borrelia species defined by multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes
    Gabriele Margos
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, 3 South, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:5410-6. 2009
    ..We suggest that OspA serotype 4 strains be raised to species status and named Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. The rooted phylogenetic trees provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of LB spirochetes...
  57. ncbi Altitudinal patterns of tick and host abundance: a potential role for climate change in regulating tick-borne diseases?
    Lucy Gilbert
    Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, UK
    Oecologia 162:217-25. 2010
    ..b>Ixodes ricinus ticks and reported tick-borne disease cases are currently increasing in the UK...
  58. pmc Small risk of developing symptomatic tick-borne diseases following a tick bite in The Netherlands
    Ellen Tijsse-Klasen
    Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Parasit Vectors 4:17. 2011
    ..l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks...
  59. pmc Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in The Netherlands
    Peter R Wielinga
    Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, Bilthoven 3720 BA, The Netherlands
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:7594-601. 2006
    ....
  60. ncbi Altitudinal distribution limit of the tick Ixodes ricinus shifted considerably towards higher altitudes in central Europe: results of three years monitoring in the Krkonose Mts. (Czech Republic)
    J Materna
    Krkonose National Park Authority, Krkonose Museum, Husova 213, 543 01 Vrchlabí, Czech Republic
    Cent Eur J Public Health 13:24-8. 2005
    The aim of the study was to monitor present status of the Ixodes ricinus tick vertical distribution in the Krkonose Mts. (Czech Republic) and evaluate its potential changes...
  61. ncbi Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in ixodes pacificus (Acari: ixodidae)
    D E Kain
    Department of Environmental Science, Division of Insect Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Heredity (Edinb) 83:378-86. 1999
    The western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, is a primary vector of the spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, that causes Lyme disease...
  62. pmc Role of migratory birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Canada
    N H Ogden
    Foodborne, Waterborne and Zoonotic Infections Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:1780-90. 2008
    ..birds in northward range expansion of Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and their tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. The prevalence of birds carrying I. scapularis ticks (mostly nymphs) was 0...
  63. pmc Isolation of the equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, Ehrlichia equi, in tick cell culture
    U G Munderloh
    Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St Paul 55108, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 34:664-70. 1996
    ..We have successfully isolated E. equi in a cell line, IDE8, derived from a putative vector, the tick Ixodes scapularis. Peripheral blood leukocytes from an experimentally infected horse were inoculated onto IDE8 monolayers...
  64. pmc Borrelia burgdorferi sigma54 is required for mammalian infection and vector transmission but not for tick colonization
    Mark A Fisher
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5162-7. 2005
    ..burgdorferi to infect mammals. Surprisingly, sigma54 mutants were able to infect Ixodes scapularis ticks and be maintained for at least 24 wk after infection, suggesting the sigma54-sigma(S) regulatory ..
  65. ncbi Anaplasma spp. in wild mammals and Ixodes ricinus from the north of Spain
    Aranzazu Portillo
    Área de Enfermedades Infecciosas Centro de Rickettsiosis y Enfermedades Transmitidas por Artrópodos Vectores, Hospital San Pedro CIBIR, Logrono, Spain
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:3-8. 2011
    Our objectives were to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp. infection in red deer, wild boars, and Ixodes ricinus removed from deer surveyed in La Rioja, as well as to analyze the presence of Anaplasma spp. in I...
  66. ncbi Expression of heat shock proteins and subolesin affects stress responses, Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and questing behaviour in the tick, Ixodes scapularis
    A T Busby
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, U S A
    Med Vet Entomol 26:92-102. 2012
    We characterized the effects of subolesin and heat shock protein (HSP) expression on Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) stress responses to heat shock and feeding, questing behaviour and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: ..
  67. pmc Evolution, expansion and expression of the Kunitz/BPTI gene family associated with long-term blood feeding in Ixodes Scapularis
    Shao Xing Dai
    School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, PR China
    BMC Evol Biol 12:4. 2012
    ..How these differences emerged and whether they are associated with the evolution of long-term blood feeding in hard ticks remain unknown...
  68. ncbi Identification of an IL-2 binding protein in the saliva of the Lyme disease vector tick, Ixodes scapularis
    R D Gillespie
    Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    J Immunol 166:4319-26. 2001
    ..cell proliferation exists in the saliva of several species of hard ticks, including the Lyme disease vector tick, Ixodes scapularis...
  69. ncbi Comparative population dynamics of a generalist (Ixodes ricinus) and specialist tick (I. hexagonus) species from European hedgehogs
    M Pfäffle
    Department of Ecology and Parasitology, KIT, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Zoological Institute, Kornblumenstrasse 13, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Exp Appl Acarol 54:151-64. 2011
    Although the population dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus are relatively well studied, those of other Western European tick species are largely unknown. Moreover, there is very little information related to the interactions between I...
  70. pmc Predicting the risk of Lyme disease: habitat suitability for Ixodes scapularis in the north central United States
    Marta Guerra
    College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, 2001 S Lincoln Avenue MC 002, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:289-97. 2002
    The distribution and abundance of Ixodes scapularis were studied in Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and portions of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan by inspecting small mammals for ticks and by collecting questing ticks at 138 locations in ..
  71. ncbi The common shrew (Sorex araneus): a neglected host of tick-borne infections?
    Kevin J Bown
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Liverpool, Neston, Cheshire, United Kingdom
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:947-53. 2011
    ..phagocytophilum and 458 (30.4%) for Ba. microti. Both species were infested with the ticks Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes trianguliceps, although they had different burdens: on average, shrews carried almost six times ..
  72. ncbi Shift of the tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne encephalitis to higher altitudes in central Europe
    M Daniel
    National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 10042, Prague 10, Czech Republic
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22:327-8. 2003
  73. ncbi Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected from the Lublin region (eastern Poland)
    Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
    Unit of Zoonoses, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2:16-9. 2011
    A total of 875 nymphal and adult Ixodes ricinus ticks and 148 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected by flagging lower vegetation in the Lublin region (eastern Poland) and examined for the presence of RNA of tick-borne ..
  74. ncbi Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Russia and neighbouring countries: high incidence of mixed isolates
    D Postic
    , Institut Pasteur, Paris
    Res Microbiol 148:691-702. 1997
    ..The isolates were obtained mainly from ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks. Other sources included small mammals, human patients and I. trianguliceps ticks...
  75. ncbi The effect of deer management on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus in Scotland
    L Gilbert
    James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, United Kingdom
    Ecol Appl 22:658-67. 2012
    ..Deer can be important hosts for ticks, such as Ixodes ricinus, which is the primary vector of disease-causing zoonotic pathogens in Europe...
  76. pmc Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the density of wild cervids
    Olav Rosef
    Telemark University College, Bø i Telemark, Norway
    Acta Vet Scand 51:47. 2009
    ..The role of wild cervids in the epidemiology is not clear. We analyzed questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in spring for these pathogens from sites with high (Fjelløyvaer and Strøm) and low ..
  77. pmc "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis," Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and lyme disease spirochetes in questing european vector ticks and in feeding ticks removed from people
    Dania Richter
    Abt Parasitologie, Institut fur Pathologie, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 50:943-7. 2012
    ..we compared its prevalence to those of Lyme disease spirochetes and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing adult Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in various Central European sites and examined ticks, which had been removed from people, ..
  78. ncbi Integration of a tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato into mountain ecosystems, following a shift in the altitudinal limit of distribution of their vector, Ixodes ricinus (Krkonose mountains, Czech Republic)
    Vlasta Danielová
    National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10:223-30. 2010
    The altitudinal shift in the limit of Ixodes ricinus occurrence above the previously established altitude of 750 m above sea level has been monitored over the long-term (2002-2008) in the Krkonose Mts. (Giant Mts...
  79. ncbi Pathogens and symbionts in ticks: prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ehrlichia sp.), Wolbachia sp., Rickettsia sp., and Babesia sp. in Southern Germany
    Kathrin Hartelt
    Baden Wuerttemberg State Health Office, Stuttgart, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 293:86-92. 2004
    ..Therefore nymphs and adult Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5424 ticks), Rickettsia sp...
  80. pmc Anaplasma phagocytophilum induces Ixodes scapularis ticks to express an antifreeze glycoprotein gene that enhances their survival in the cold
    Girish Neelakanta
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8022, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:3179-90. 2010
    In the United States, Ixodes scapularis ticks overwinter in the Northeast and Upper Midwest and transmit the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, among other pathogens. We now show that the presence of A...
  81. pmc BBA52 facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi transmission from feeding ticks to murine hosts
    Manish Kumar
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, and Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:1084-95. 2010
    ..These studies establish that BBA52 facilitates vector-host transitions by the pathogen and therefore is a potential antigenic target for interference with transmission of B. burgdorferi from ticks to mammalian hosts...
  82. pmc The bba64 gene of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, is critical for mammalian infection via tick bite transmission
    Robert D Gilmore
    Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7515-20. 2010
    The spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by bites of Ixodes ticks to mammalian reservoir hosts and humans. The mechanism(s) by which the organism is trafficked from vector to host is poorly understood...
  83. pmc Anaplasma phagocytophilum induces actin phosphorylation to selectively regulate gene transcription in Ixodes scapularis ticks
    Hameeda Sultana
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Exp Med 207:1727-43. 2010
    ..We show that A. phagocytophilum induces the phosphorylation of actin in an Ixodes ricinus tick cell line and Ixodes scapularis ticks, to alter the ratio of monomeric/filamentous (G/F) actin. A...
  84. pmc Bartonella spp. transmission by ticks not established
    Sam R Telford
    Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, Massachussetts, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:379-84. 2010
    ..B. henselae, in particular, is regarded as being present in and transmissible by the Ixodes scapularis tick...
  85. ncbi Socio-economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe
    Dana Sumilo
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Rev Med Virol 18:81-95. 2008
    ..533 and 0.716, respectively)...
  86. pmc Borrelia burgdorferi population kinetics and selected gene expression at the host-vector interface
    Emir Hodzic
    Center for Comparative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Infect Immun 70:3382-8. 2002
    ..The results revealed that both uninfected larval and nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks acquired B...
  87. pmc Hosts as ecological traps for the vector of Lyme disease
    F Keesing
    Department of Biology, Bard College, Annandale, NY 12504, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 276:3911-9. 2009
    ..By simulating the removal of hosts from intact communities using empirical models, we show that the loss of biodiversity may exacerbate disease risk by increasing both vector numbers and vector infection rates with a zoonotic pathogen...
  88. ncbi Ultrastructure and phylogenetic analysis of 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' in the family Anaplasmataceae, isolated from wild rats and found in Ixodes ovatus ticks
    Makoto Kawahara
    Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute, Hagiyama cho, Mizuho ku, Nagoya, 467 8615, Japan
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1837-43. 2004
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the bacterium found in R. norvegicus rats and Ixodes ovatus ticks in Japan revealed that the organism represents a novel clade in the family Anaplasmataceae, which ..
  89. pmc Identification of Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ticks in the Baltic regions of Russia
    A N Alekseev
    Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
    J Clin Microbiol 39:2237-42. 2001
    ..A total of 3,426 Ixodes ricinus and 1,267 Ixodes persulcatus specimens were collected, and dark-field microscopy showed that 265 (11.5%) I...
  90. pmc Characterization of the B-cell inhibitory protein factor in Ixodes ricinus tick saliva: a potential role in enhanced Borrelia burgdoferi transmission
    Sigrid Hannier
    School of Biological Science, Zoology, University of Aberdeen, UK
    Immunology 113:401-8. 2004
    We recently described the inhibition of host B lymphocytes by Ixodes ricinus tick saliva...
  91. ncbi The role of deer as vehicles to move ticks, Ixodes ricinus, between contrasting habitats
    Francisco Ruiz-Fons
    NEIKER Tecnalia, Department of Animal Health, Bizkaia 48160, Spain
    Int J Parasitol 40:1013-20. 2010
    In Europe the most important hosts maintaining Ixodes ricinus tick populations are deer. Therefore, excluding deer by fencing or culling are potential tick management tools...
  92. pmc Tick histamine release factor is critical for Ixodes scapularis engorgement and transmission of the lyme disease agent
    Jianfeng Dai
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001205. 2010
    ..In this study, we characterized a tick histamine release factor (tHRF) from Ixodes scapularis and addressed the vaccine potential of this antigen in the context of tick engorgement and B...
  93. pmc Tickborne pathogen detection, Western Siberia, Russia
    Vera A Rar
    Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev s Avenue 8, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1708-15. 2005
    b>Ixodes persulcatus (n = 125) and Dermacentor reticulatus (n = 84) ticks from Western Siberia, Russia, were tested for infection with Borrelia, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia, Bartonella, and Babesia spp...
  94. ncbi Microclimate and the zoonotic cycle of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Switzerland
    C Burri
    Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Eco Epidemiology of Parasites, University of Neuchatel, Emile Argand 11, 2000 Neuch and tel, Switzerland
    J Med Entomol 48:615-27. 2011
    ..virus (TBEV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) appears to depend mainly on cofeeding transmission between infected Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs and uninfected larvae...
  95. pmc Diverse Borrelia burgdorferi strains in a bird-tick cryptic cycle
    Sarah A Hamer
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, 13 Natural Resources Bldg, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:1999-2007. 2011
    The blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis is the primary vector of the most prevalent vector-borne zoonosis in North America, Lyme disease (LD). Enzootic maintenance of the pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi by I...
  96. ncbi First report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and its co-infections with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Republic of Moldova
    Juraj Koci
    Institute of Virology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava 84245, Slovakia
    Exp Appl Acarol 41:147-52. 2007
    We examined 198 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Chisinau City, Republic of Moldova by PCR assays for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infection of both pathogens, which were detected in 9%, 25...
  97. pmc Functional genomics tool: gene silencing in Ixodes scapularis eggs and nymphs by electroporated dsRNA
    Shahid Karim
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA
    BMC Biotechnol 10:1. 2010
    ..b>Ixodes scapularis is the primary vector of the Lyme disease agent in the eastern and central U.S...
  98. pmc Investigation of genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected during surveillance in Canada
    N H Ogden
    Zoonoses Division, Centre for Food borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Jeanne Mance Building, 200 Eglantine, Tunney s Pasture, AL 1906B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A0K9, Canada
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:3244-54. 2011
    ..burgdorferi diversity in Canada, where Lyme disease is emerging, bacterial DNA in 309 infected adult Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in surveillance was characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and analysis of ..
  99. pmc Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in Belarus
    Anna L Reye
    Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé National Public Health Laboratory, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
    PLoS ONE 8:e54476. 2013
    ..In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, ..
  100. pmc Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents--analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area
    Cornelia Silaghi
    Comparative Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Parasit Vectors 5:191. 2012
    ..and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts.
  101. ncbi Absence of Lyme disease spirochetes in larval Ixodes ricinus ticks
    Dania Richter
    Abt Parasitologie, Institut fur Pathologie, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12:21-7. 2012
    To determine which kind of spirochete infects larval Ixodes ricinus, we examined questing larvae and larvae derived from engorged females for the presence of particular spirochetal DNA that permitted species differentiation...

Research Grants63

  1. Tick Midgut Proteins Critical for Borrelia Transmission
    Sukanya Narasimhan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit Borrelia burgdorferi (agent of Lyme disease), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) and Babesia microti (agent of human babesiosis) ..
  2. GAMMA DELTA T CELLS IN LYME ARTHRITIS
    Ralph C Budd; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..S. and is caused by transmission of the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, via the tick Ixodes scapularis...
  3. Symbiotic Rickettsia Species as a Model System for the Study of Folate Biosynthes
    Jianmin Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..metabolic reconstruction, PCR, and DNA sequencing results in our lab have shown that a Rickettsia species in Ixodes pacificus carries genes for the anabolism of cofactors and vitamins...
  4. Phagosomal Signals Shape Inflammatory Responses to Borrelia Burgdorferi
    Juan C Salazar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to increase in endemic areas and has spread geographically, paralleling the distribution of its primary vector, Ixodes ricinus complex, and the explosive growth in the white-tailed deer population...
  5. Tick feeding regulation by orthologous tick saliva serine protease inhibitors
    Albert Mulenga; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goals of this research are identification, characterization and validation of Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis tick saliva serine protease inhibitors (serpins) as vaccine target antigens for immunization of white ..
  6. Development of a multivalent vaccine for mouse reservoirs of deer tick pathogens
    Linden T Hu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Ixodes ticks serve as the vector for 3 human infections in the U.S.-- Lyme disease, Babesiosis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The incidence of all three diseases has been increasing over the last decade...
  7. Virulence Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi
    Steven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. It is a highly invasive spirochete that can cause infection and manifestations in humans and other mammals that ..
  8. RpoS Regulation of Borrelia burgdorferi Genes in vivo
    Justin D Radolf; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Bb is maintained in nature via an enzootic cycle that typically involves rodents and Ixodes ticks...
  9. Diagnostic Assays for early Lyme Borreliosis using in-vivo expressed antigens
    Michel Ledizet; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lyme disease, due to infection with the Ixodes tick-transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, with over 38,000 confirmed and probable ..
  10. VIRULENCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN LYME DISEASE
    Steven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..burgdorferi and related organisms cause Lyme disease, a multistage, systemic infection that is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and has dermatologic, neurologic, arthralgic, and constitutional manifestations in humans and other animals...
  11. Determinants of Borrelia Diversity and Population Structure
    ELISABETH BAUM; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The agent is the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks in the eastern U.S. A major reservoir for the infection is the mouse Peromyscus leucopus...
  12. Virulence Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi
    Steven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. It is a highly invasive spirochete that can cause infection and manifestations in humans and other mammals that ..
  13. Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi motility and chemotaxis in the development of
    MD A MOTALEB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Lyme disease is caused by the spirochetal bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), which is transmitted to humans by Ixodes ticks...
  14. Interactions Between Anaplasma Phagocytophilum and Ixodes Scapularis
    Erol Fikrig; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intracellular pathogen that resides in 2 different locations during its life cycle -- mammalian neutrophils and Ixodes scapularis salivary glands...
  15. A New Cytokine-Based Immunoassay for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease
    Linda K Bockenstedt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lyme disease (LD), caused by the Ixodes tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States...
  16. Babesiosis Emergence in the United States
    MARIA ANA DIUK-WASSER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the United States caused by the protozoan Babesia microti and transmitted by Ixodes scapularis, the Lyme disease vector...
  17. Immunologic mechanisms in post-Lyme disease syndrome
    Armin Alaedini; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..is a multisystem infection, caused by bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex and transmitted by Ixodes ticks...
  18. RpoS Regulation of Borrelia burgdorferi Genes in vivo
    Justin D Radolf; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Bb is maintained in nature via an enzootic cycle that typically involves rodents and Ixodes ticks...
  19. A Lyme disease vaccine using newly identified in-vivo expressed antigens
    Michel Ledizet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..causative agent of Lyme disease is the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by the tick of the Ixodes scapularis tick. The number of Lyme disease cases has tripled over the past fifteen years...
  20. Xenodiagnosis of Lyme Disease
    Linden T Hu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that bacteria can persist after treatment and are detectable by PCR or xenodiagnosis (the feeding of uninfected Ixodes ticks on the treated animals)...
  21. Cellular processing and role of a surface antigen in borrelial pathogenesis
    Xiuli Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The microbe survives in nature through an intricate enzootic cycle involving Ixodes ticks and mammals. During feeding, infected ticks can transmit B...
  22. Ehrlichia chaffeensis protective proteins
    David H Walker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..muris memory T cells with the Ehrlichia species isolated from Ixodes ovatus ticks (IOE) that causes fatal ehrlichiosis in immunocompetent mice...
  23. BORRELIA BURGDORFERI INTERACTIONS WITH IXODES SCAPULARIS
    Erol Fikrig; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the intimate relationship between Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, and one of its major tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis -- in order to develop novel strategies to prevent infection. We postulate that B...
  24. Human pathogenic bacterium induces actin phosphorylation to selectively regulate
    Hameeda Sultana; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Pathogen use of the actin cytoskeleton in arthropod vectors has not yet been explored. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis) as an infection ..
  25. Overwintering mortality of nymphal Ixodes scapularis, Lyme disease vector, in a c
    RICHARD S contact OSTFELD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Consider the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis), which vectors the agents of three emerging infectious diseases in North America: Lyme disease, human ..
  26. Real-time Imaging Analysis of Vector-borne Lyme Borreliosis Pathogenesis &Persis
    Linda K Bockenstedt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lyme disease, due to infection with the Ixodes tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the most common vector-borne disease in North America and a significant public health concern...
  27. A serologic assay to measure successful Lyme borreliosis antibiotic therapy
    Michel Ledizet; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lyme disease, due to infection with the Ixodes tick-transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, with over 20,000 cases reported to the ..
  28. VIRULENCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN LYME DISEASE
    Steven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..burgdorferi and related organisms cause Lyme disease, a multistage, systemic infection that is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and has dermatologic, neurologic, arthralgic, and constitutional manifestations in humans and other animals...
  29. Phylogeographic dynamics of a vector and pathogen in a natural environment
    Dustin Brisson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..off, identifying environmental factors that promote the growth and spread of the bacterium or the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, will aid in developing ecological control strategies that can be effective and long-term solutions to ..
  30. A Multiplex Platform for Lyme Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Response
    Monica E Embers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The etiologic agent, B. burgdorferi is transmitted to humans via Ixodes ticks and spreads hematogenously to cause a systemic disease...
  31. The Health Burden of A Recently Discovered Borrelia Spirochete
    PETER JAMES KRAUSE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..spirochete that causes persistent infection in laboratory mice and is widely distributed in field populations of Ixodes tick vectors of Lyme disease throughout the United States...
  32. 13th International Conference on Lyme Borreliosis and Other Tick-borne Diseases
    Linden T Hu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..since 1983, has become the premiere conference for showcasing research advances in human diseases transmitted by Ixodes ticks...
  33. Production of OspA in rice for the control of Lyme Disease
    Ning Huang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..human exposure to Lyme disease spirochetes by significantly reducing infection prevalence in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, using reservoir targeted vaccines (RTVs) derived from rice grain...
  34. Anaplasma phagocytophilum induce Ixodes scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein gene e
    Girish Neelakanta; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Ixodes scapularis ticks overwinter in the Northeast and Upper Midwest parts of United States, and transmit various human pathogens that include human anaplasmosis agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum...
  35. Signaling pathways for tick salivary secretion
    Yoonseong Park; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose to investigate the neural mechanisms controlling salivary secretion in the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, one of the most important ticks in the northern U.S. in terms of its risk to human health...
  36. Borrelia gene products critical for natural infection cycle
    Utpal Pal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..B. burgdorferi thrives in nature through an intricate enzootic cycle involving small rodents and Ixodes ticks. Immature ticks acquire the pathogen from an infected host, transstadially maintain B...
  37. Tick polarized T-cell responses and Borrelia infection
    Stephen K Wikel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Ixodes scapularis transmits important pathogens to humans, including the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borne disease in the United States...
  38. Host adaptation of the Lyme disease spirochete
    XIAOFENG FRANK YANG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the causative agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in a complex enzootic cycle involving its arthropod vector (Ixodes ticks) and a rodent mammalian host...
  39. Rickettsia ricketti and Rickettsia-like organisms in Maryland
    Douglas Norris; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..most common human-biting ticks in the eastern United States, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis. Although D. variabilis is considered the primary vector of R. rickettsii, A...
  40. Coinfection of Tick-borne Diseases in Areas of Wisconsin
    DIANE CAPORALE; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The microgeographic distribution of Ixodes scapularis will be determined...
  41. A Viral Vector for Gene Expression in Insects
    Ranjit Dasgupta; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In this continuation application we propose to (1) assess infection potential of FHV to two species of ticks (Ixodes scapularis and Ornithodoros turacata) that transmit Lyme disease and Relapsing Fever (2) continue to improve ..
  42. The role of Borrelia burgdorferi chemotoxis in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease
    Md Motaleb; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted to humans via infected Ixodes ticks...
  43. REPRODUCTION IN TICKS AND MITES
    James Oliver; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..importance which exhibit different parasitic habits and ticks Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum, and Ixodes scapularis (all vectors of several pathogens to man and other animals; D...
  44. NATURAL HISTORY OF BABESIOSIS
    Peter Wettstein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..burgdorferi, are both transmitted by the deer tick, Ixodes dammini ( also called I. scapularis) and are transmitted in areas that are currently endemic for Lyme disease...
  45. Anaplasma - B. burgorferi/endothelijm interactions
    DENNIS GRAB; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a rickettsia of neutrophils that is also transmitted by the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis...
  46. A Rickettsial Symbiont Model for the Control of Tick-borne Diseases
    Jianmin Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and human granulocytic anaplasmosis are severe bacterial diseases that, in California, are vectored primarily by Ixodes pacificus ticks. Although pathogenic Rickettsia species have not been reported in I...
  47. RISK OF TBE IN NORTH AMERICA FOCI OF LYME DISEASE
    Andrew Spielman; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..infections in place of conventional methods; (5) compare the virus competence of such potential vector ticks as Ixodes dammini, I. persulcatus and I...
  48. BIOSYSTEMATICS OF MEDICALLY IMPORTANT TICK VECTORS
    JAMES KEIRANS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Specific aim one will be the study of the primary vectors of Lyme disease, i.e., the Ixodes (I.) ricinus complex of ticks on a global basis...
  49. Function of selected vector-induced B. burgdorferi gene-products
    Utpal Pal; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Immature stages of Ixodes scapularis acquire the pathogen while engorging on the dermis of a B. burgdorferi-infected wild rodent...
  50. Vaccination Against Ixodes scapularis Tick Bites
    Raymond Koski; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Lyme disease is a multi-systemic infection and is caused by the pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the common vector for B. burgdorferi. The purpose of this project is to develop an anti-I...
  51. PREVENTION OF LYME DISEASE--RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL
    Eugene Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The infection is transmitted by the deer tick (Ixodes dammini)...
  52. Transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis by Adult Ticks
    ROGER STICH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..It has been demonstrated that several ixodid genera, including Amblyomma, Dermacentor and Ixodes, can be naturally infected with E. chaffeensis. Although detection of E...
  53. LYME DISEASE--DEVELOPMENT OF SKIN LESIONS AND ARTHRITIS
    GAIL HABICHT; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Lyme disease is caused by infection with a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi which is transmitted by the bite of Ixodes ticks...
  54. EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS SURFACE PROTEINS
    David Walker; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..chaffeensis, an Ehrlichia species isolated from Japanese Ixodes ovatus ticks (IOE); 2) to determine the importance and mechanism(s) of antibodies in protective immunity against ..
  55. Vaccination Against Ixodes scapularis Tick Bites
    Michel Ledizet; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Lyme disease is a multi-systemic infection caused by the pathogen Borrelia burgdorjeri. The black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the common vector for B. burgdorferi...
  56. ROLE OF TICK SALIVA IN LYME DISEASE AND VACCINE STRATEGY
    Thomas Mather; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Our studies have demonstrated that through the action of their saliva, black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) manipulate the host immune response in a manner that both assures blood feeding success, and favors ..
  57. MOLECULAR GENETIC MARKERS FOR TICK VECTORS
    HARRY HUTCHESON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..is to identify and develop molecular genetic markers for the identification and assessment of vector competence of Ixodes spp. ticks...
  58. Comparison of US and European Babesia divergens Isolates
    Patricia Holman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Molecular epidemiology has also identified this parasite in Ixodes ticks on Nantucket Island, suggesting that an enzootic situation exists. The identification of another Babesia sp...
  59. A Novel Family of Anticoagulants from Ixodes scapularis
    Michel Ledizet; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..objective of this proposal is to evaluate the anticoagulant properties of a family of novel tick salivary proteins Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, circumvents host hemostatic mechanisms as it engorges on vertebrate hosts...
  60. GRANULOCYTIC EHRLICHIAS IN TICKS AND TICK CELL CULTURE
    Ulrike Munderloh; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In the USA, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in areas that essentially overlap the distribution of Lyme disease owing to the fact that both agents share ..
  61. Production of OspA in rice for the control of Lyme Disease
    Ning Huang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..human exposure to Lyme disease spirochetes by significantly reducing infection prevalence in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, using reservoir targeted vaccines (RTVs) derived from rice...
  62. Neurpeptidergic control of the salivary gland in the black-legged tick, Ixodes sc
    Yoonseong Park; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to investigate the peptidergic system as it relates to control of the salivary gland in the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, which is one of the most important ticks in the northern U.S. as a risk to human heath...
  63. HUMAN GRANULOCYTIC EHRLICHIOSIS: NORTH CENTRAL U.S.
    Russell Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The agent of HGE is closely related to or identical to the horse pathogen Ehrlichia equi and is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis, the same tick that transmits the agents of Lyme disease and babesiosis...