trypanosoma congolense

Summary

Summary: A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Antigenic diversity is generated by distinct evolutionary mechanisms in African trypanosome species
    Andrew P Jackson
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:3416-21. 2012
  2. pmc Differential protein expression throughout the life cycle of Trypanosoma congolense, a major parasite of cattle in Africa
    Brett A Eyford
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 177:116-25. 2011
  3. pmc Interleukin-17-mediated control of parasitemia in experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice
    Zhirong Mou
    Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Infect Immun 78:5271-9. 2010
  4. pmc Genetic and expression analysis of cattle identifies candidate genes in pathways responding to Trypanosoma congolense infection
    Harry Noyes
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9304-9. 2011
  5. pmc Inoculation of killed Leishmania major into immune mice rapidly disrupts immunity to a secondary challenge via IL-10-mediated process
    Ifeoma Okwor
    Parasite Vaccines Development Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0T5, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13951-6. 2009
  6. ncbi The analysis of the cross-reactions occurring in antibody-ELISA for the detection of trypanosomes can improve identification of the parasite species involved
    M Desquesnes
    Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement Elevage et Médecine Vétérinaire Tropicale, B P 5035, 34032 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95:141-55. 2001
  7. ncbi Virulence in Trypanosoma congolense Savannah subgroup. A comparison between strains and transmission cycles
    P van den Bossche
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Animal Health Department, Nationalestraat, Antwerp, Belgium
    Parasite Immunol 33:456-60. 2011
  8. ncbi Age prevalence of trypanosomal infections in female Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) on the plateau area of eastern Zambia
    C Kubi
    Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 74:223-9. 2007
  9. ncbi T cells and immunopathogenesis of experimental African trypanosomiasis
    Henry Tabel
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
    Immunol Rev 225:128-39. 2008
  10. ncbi Identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from southern Cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    S Herder
    LRCT IRD CIRAD, TA 207 G, Campus International de Baillarguet, F 34398 Montpellier, France
    Parasite 9:345-9. 2002

Detail Information

Publications222 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Antigenic diversity is generated by distinct evolutionary mechanisms in African trypanosome species
    Andrew P Jackson
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:3416-21. 2012
    ..We compared the genome of Trypanosoma brucei with two closely related parasites Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax, to reveal how the variant antigen repertoire has evolved and how it might affect ..
  2. pmc Differential protein expression throughout the life cycle of Trypanosoma congolense, a major parasite of cattle in Africa
    Brett A Eyford
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 177:116-25. 2011
    b>Trypanosoma congolense is an important pathogen of livestock in Africa. To study protein expression throughout the T...
  3. pmc Interleukin-17-mediated control of parasitemia in experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice
    Zhirong Mou
    Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Infect Immun 78:5271-9. 2010
    BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infections, whereas C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant. Infected highly susceptible BALB/c mice die of systemic inflammatory response syndrome...
  4. pmc Genetic and expression analysis of cattle identifies candidate genes in pathways responding to Trypanosoma congolense infection
    Harry Noyes
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9304-9. 2011
    ..We analyzed the transcriptomes of trypanotolerant N'Dama and susceptible Boran cattle after infection with Trypanosoma congolense. We sequenced EST libraries from these two breeds to identify polymorphisms that might underlie previously ..
  5. pmc Inoculation of killed Leishmania major into immune mice rapidly disrupts immunity to a secondary challenge via IL-10-mediated process
    Ifeoma Okwor
    Parasite Vaccines Development Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0T5, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13951-6. 2009
    ..This may account for the lack of efficacy of such vaccines in field trials in endemic regions. These findings have important implications for vaccine design and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  6. ncbi The analysis of the cross-reactions occurring in antibody-ELISA for the detection of trypanosomes can improve identification of the parasite species involved
    M Desquesnes
    Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement Elevage et Médecine Vétérinaire Tropicale, B P 5035, 34032 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95:141-55. 2001
    ....
  7. ncbi Virulence in Trypanosoma congolense Savannah subgroup. A comparison between strains and transmission cycles
    P van den Bossche
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Animal Health Department, Nationalestraat, Antwerp, Belgium
    Parasite Immunol 33:456-60. 2011
    b>Trypanosoma congolense strains have been shown to differ in their virulence both between subgroups and within the Savannah subgroup between strains...
  8. ncbi Age prevalence of trypanosomal infections in female Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) on the plateau area of eastern Zambia
    C Kubi
    Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 74:223-9. 2007
    ..Observations strongly suggest that tsetse acquire new midgut infections at any age and that maturation of these infections is not limited to those obtained during the first blood meal...
  9. ncbi T cells and immunopathogenesis of experimental African trypanosomiasis
    Henry Tabel
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
    Immunol Rev 225:128-39. 2008
    ..Here, we review recent work on experimental African trypanosomiasis, especially infections with Trypanosoma congolense, in mice with regard to mechanisms of immunosuppression and immunopathology...
  10. ncbi Identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from southern Cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    S Herder
    LRCT IRD CIRAD, TA 207 G, Campus International de Baillarguet, F 34398 Montpellier, France
    Parasite 9:345-9. 2002
    ..monticola), in carnivores (Nandinia binotata and Genetta servalina) and in rodents (Cricetomys gambianus and Atherurus africanus). 13 species (54%) were carrying T. brucei s.l. identified as non-gambiense group 1...
  11. ncbi Prevalence and incidence of bovine trypanosomosis in an agro-pastoral area of southwestern Burkina Faso
    Guiguigbaza Kossigan Dayo
    IRD, UMR Trypanosomes, TA A 17 A Campus international de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Res Vet Sci 88:470-7. 2010
    ..54%. As much as 66.7% of all trypanosome infections were due to Trypanosoma vivax, 23.8% due to Trypanosoma congolense and 9.5% due to T. vivax/T. congolense mixed infections. The monthly serological incidence varied from 0...
  12. ncbi Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface molecules of Trypanosoma congolense insect forms are developmentally regulated in the tsetse fly
    Peter Bütikofer
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bern, Buhlstrasse 28, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 119:7-16. 2002
    Procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma congolense have been shown to express a glutamic acid/alanine-rich protein (GARP) on their surface. By labelling T...
  13. pmc Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the four main developmental stages of Trypanosoma congolense
    Jared R Helm
    Department of Biochemistry, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 168:34-42. 2009
    b>Trypanosoma congolense is one of the most economically important pathogens of livestock in Africa. Culture-derived parasites of each of the three main insect stages of the T. congolense life cycle, i.e...
  14. pmc Tsetse EP protein protects the fly midgut from trypanosome establishment
    Lee R Haines
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000793. 2010
    ..As starvation is a common field event, this fact may be of considerable importance in the epidemiology of African trypanosomiasis...
  15. pmc Modulation of the immunogenicity of the Trypanosoma congolense cysteine protease, congopain, through complexation with alpha(2)-macroglobulin
    Laura Elizabeth Joan Huson
    School of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of KwaZulu Natal Pietermaritzburg campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa
    Vet Res 40:52. 2009
    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma congolense is the main causative agent of livestock trypanosomosis. Congopain, the major lysosomal cysteine proteinase of T...
  16. ncbi Sodalis glossinidius (Enterobacteriaceae) and vectorial competence of Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina morsitans morsitans for Trypanosoma congolense savannah type
    Anne Geiger
    IRD, UR035, Laboratoire de Recherche et de Coordination sur les Trypanosomoses, IRD CIRAD, TA 207 G, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Curr Microbiol 51:35-40. 2005
    ..is an endosymbiont of Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina morsitans morsitans, the vectors of Trypanosoma congolense. The presence of the symbiont was investigated by PCR in Trypanosoma congolense savannah type-infected and ..
  17. ncbi A drug incubation Glossina infectivity test (DIGIT) to assess the susceptibility of Trypanosoma congolense bloodstream forms to trypanocidal drugs (Xenodiagnosis)
    P H Clausen
    Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universitat Berlin, Germany
    Acta Trop 72:111-7. 1999
    ..from two Sahelian goats, experimentally infected with either a drug-sensitive cloned population of Trypanosoma congolense (IL 1180) or a multiple drug-resistant T...
  18. ncbi Physical and transcriptional organization of the ribosomal RNA genes of the savannah-type Trypanosoma congolense
    T Urakawa
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Parasitol Res 87:431-8. 2001
    ..From the nucleotide sequences of the 18S RNA, a phylogenetic tree was derived depicting the relationships among the T. congolense complex of trypanosomes and the other species of trypanosomes...
  19. pmc Transcriptional profiling of cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense highlights gene expression signatures underlying trypanotolerance and trypanosusceptibility
    Grace M O'Gorman
    Animal Genomics Laboratory, UCD School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, UCD College of Life Sciences, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    BMC Genomics 10:207. 2009
    ..reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) validation we analysed PBMC gene expression in naïve trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle experimentally challenged with Trypanosoma congolense across a 34-day infection time course.
  20. ncbi Trypanosoma congolense infections: MHC class II-restricted immune responses mediate either protection or disease, depending on IL-10 function
    M Q Shi
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
    Parasite Immunol 29:107-11. 2007
    BALB/c mice are highly susceptible and C57BL/6 relatively resistant to Trypanosoma congolense infections. Here we show that relatively resistant wild-type B6 mice infected with T...
  21. ncbi Production of congopain, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense, in Pichia pastoris reveals unexpected dimerisation at physiological pH
    Alain F Boulangé
    UMR 17 IRD CIRAD Trypanosomes, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Protein Expr Purif 75:95-103. 2011
    ..we have sought an alternative 'anti-disease vaccine approach', based on congopain, a cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense, which was shown to have pathogenic effects in vivo...
  22. pmc Regulatory T cells enhance susceptibility to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection independent of mouse genetic background
    Ifeoma Okwor
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1761. 2012
    BALB/c mice are highly susceptible while C57BL/6 are relatively resistant to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to regulate the pathogenesis of experimental T...
  23. ncbi Trypanosoma congolense: paraoxonase 1 prolongs survival of infected mice
    Kum Kum Bhasin
    Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Exp Parasitol 114:240-5. 2006
    ..resistance, we infected human PON1 transgenic mice, PON1 knockout mice, and wild-type mice with Trypanosoma congolense. When challenged with the same dosage of trypanosomes, mice overexpressing PON1 lived significantly longer ..
  24. ncbi Functional expression of the catalytic domains of two cysteine proteinases from Trypanosoma congolense
    A Boulange
    Laboratoire de Recherches et de Coordination sur les Trypanosomoses, IRD CIRAD, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Int J Parasitol 31:1435-40. 2001
    The catalytic domains of two closely related cysteine proteinases (CP1 and CP2) from Trypanosoma congolense, referred to as C1 and C2, were expressed as proforms in Escherichia coli (C1) and in the baculovirus system (C1 and C2)...
  25. pmc Complete in vitro life cycle of Trypanosoma congolense: development of genetic tools
    Virginie Coustou
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire et Pathogénicité, UMR 5234 CNRS, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e618. 2010
    Animal African trypanosomosis, a disease mainly caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma congolense, is a major constraint to livestock productivity and has a significant impact in the developing countries of Africa...
  26. ncbi Study of the effect of gamma-irradiation on bovine serum samples on the ability of monoclonal antibodies to detect invariant antigens of Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
    D E Rebeski
    FAO IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria
    Vet Parasitol 79:109-22. 1998
    ....
  27. ncbi Susceptibility of West African Dwarf goats and WAD x Saanen crosses to experimental infection with Trypanosoma congolense
    S Dhollander
    International Trypanotolerance Centre, PMB 14, Banjul, Gambia
    Vet Parasitol 130:1-8. 2005
    West African Dwarf goats (WADs) and their Saanen crosses were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense. No significant differences were found between trypanosome parasitaemia and antibody response of the crossbred and WAD goats...
  28. pmc Detection of multiple drug-resistant Trypanosoma congolense populations in village cattle of south-east Mali
    Erick O Mungube
    Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universitat Berlin, Konigsweg 67, D 14163 Berlin, Germany
    Parasit Vectors 5:155. 2012
    ....
  29. ncbi The interaction of Trypanosoma congolense and Haemonchus contortus in Djallonké sheep
    B Goossens
    International Trypanotolerance Centre, Banjul, The Gambia
    Int J Parasitol 27:1579-84. 1997
    The interaction between Trypanosoma congolense and Haemonchus contortus was studied in 5 groups of 8 Djallonké sheep. Two groups received a single infection with either H. contortus or T. congolense, and 2 groups were infected with T...
  30. ncbi Protective efficacy of isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate against natural Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax infections in cattle under a suppressed tsetse population in Uganda
    J W Magona
    Livestock Health Research Institute, Tororo, Uganda
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 71:231-7. 2004
    ..efficacy of isometamidium chloride (ISMM) and diminazene aceturate (DIM) against Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax infections in cattle under a suppressed tsetse population was assessed in southeast ..
  31. ncbi Analysis of erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor genes expression in cattle during acute infection with Trypanosoma congolense
    H B Suliman
    Department of Medicine, Duke Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Exp Hematol 27:37-45. 1999
    Acute Trypanosoma congolense infection induced moderate, transient anemia in N'Dama cattle (trypanotolerant) and severe anemia in Boran cattle (trypanosusceptible)...
  32. ncbi Beneficial effect of erythropoietin administration on murine infection with Trypanosoma congolense
    Tomoko Suzuki
    Research Unit for Functional Genomics, National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 74:1020-5. 2006
    The effect of erythropoietin treatment on Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice was studied...
  33. ncbi Expression, purification and characterisation of two variant cysteine peptidases from Trypanosoma congolense with active site substitutions
    Davita Pillay
    School of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of KwaZulu Natal, Scottsville, South Africa
    Protein Expr Purif 74:264-71. 2010
    Congopain, the major cysteine peptidase of Trypanosoma congolense is an attractive candidate for an anti-disease vaccine and target for the design of specific inhibitors...
  34. pmc A comprehensive genetic analysis of candidate genes regulating response to Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice
    Ian Goodhead
    Centre for Genomic Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e880. 2010
    ..These were designated Tir1, Tir2 and Tir3 for Trypanosoma infection response, and range in size from 0.9-12 cM...
  35. ncbi Altered proinflammatory cytokine production and enhanced resistance to Trypanosoma congolense infection in lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice
    Ifeoma Okwor
    Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    J Infect Dis 200:361-9. 2009
    BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to Trypanosoma congolense infection, whereas C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant...
  36. ncbi Identification of total and differentially expressed excreted-secreted proteins from Trypanosoma congolense strains exhibiting different virulence and pathogenicity
    Pascal Grebaut
    CIRAD UMR 17 Trypanosomes UMR 177 IRD CIRAD Interactions Hôtes Vecteurs Parasites dans les Trypanosomoses, TA A 17 G, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Int J Parasitol 39:1137-50. 2009
    ..In Africa, the disease in livestock is caused mainly by Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei brucei...
  37. ncbi Susceptibility of trypanotolerant West African Dwarf goats and F1 crosses with the susceptible Sahelian breed to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection and interactions with helminth infections and different levels of diet
    D Faye
    International Trypanotolerance Centre, PMB 14, The, Banjul, Gambia
    Vet Parasitol 108:117-36. 2002
    ..breed were used in a multifactorial experimental design to evaluate the effects of an experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection and interactions with natural helminth infections and different levels of diet on health and ..
  38. ncbi Trypanosoma congolense infections: antibody-mediated phagocytosis by Kupffer cells
    Meiqing Shi
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Canada
    J Leukoc Biol 76:399-405. 2004
    ..monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) mediated phagocytosis of Trypanosoma congolense variant antigenic type (VAT) TC13 by macrophages [bone marrow-derived macrophage cell line from BALB/c (..
  39. ncbi Interferon-gamma and nitric oxide in combination with antibodies are key protective host immune factors during trypanosoma congolense Tc13 Infections
    Stefan Magez
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 193:1575-83. 2006
    The control of chronic Trypanosoma congolense trypanosomiasis was analyzed using several gene-deficient mouse strains...
  40. ncbi Susceptibility of tumour necrosis factor-alpha genetically deficient mice to Trypanosoma congolense infection
    F Iraqi
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Parasite Immunol 23:445-51. 2001
    ..of those loci so far detected which influence degree of resistance to murine trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma congolense infection. We therefore studied the survival to 180 days after challenge with T...
  41. ncbi Two trans-sialidase forms with different sialic acid transfer and sialidase activities from Trypanosoma congolense
    Evelin Tiralongo
    Biochemisches Institut, Universitat zu Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, Kiel 24098 Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:23301-10. 2003
    ..Here we describe the purification and characterization of two TS forms from the African trypanosome Trypanosoma congolense. The purification of the two TS forms using a combination of anion exchange chromatography, isoelectric ..
  42. ncbi Trans-sialidase-like sequences from Trypanosoma congolense conserve most of the critical active site residues found in other trans-sialidases
    Evelin Tiralongo
    Biochemisches Institut, Christian Albrechts Universitat zu Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, D 24098 Kiel, Germany
    Biol Chem 384:1203-13. 2003
    b>Trypanosoma congolense is the agent of Nagana, the trypanosomiasis in African ruminants. Trypanosomes express an enzyme called trans-sialidase, which is believed to play an important role in maintaining pathogenicity of the parasites...
  43. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-1 (TNFp55) signal transduction and macrophage-derived soluble TNF are crucial for nitric oxide-mediated Trypanosoma congolense parasite killing
    Stefan Magez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology, Brussels, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 196:954-62. 2007
    Control of Trypanosoma congolense infections requires an early cell-mediated immune response. To unravel the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in this process, 6 different T...
  44. ncbi Detection and identification of trypanosomes by polymerase chain reaction in wild tsetse flies in Cameroon
    I Morlais
    Laboratoire d Epidémiologie des Maladies à Vecteurs, Centre ORSTOM, Montpellier, France
    Acta Trop 70:109-17. 1998
    ..PCR amplification allowed identification of immature infections and revealed mixed-infections. The PCR technique failed to identify 42.2% (38/90) of the parasitologically positive flies and the reasons for this failure are discussed...
  45. ncbi Susceptibility and resistance to Trypanosoma congolense infections
    H Tabel
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, SK, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, Canada
    Microbes Infect 2:1619-29. 2000
    We have put emphasis on recent findings in experimental Trypanosoma congolense infections in highly susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant C57Bl/6 mice...
  46. ncbi Fine mapping of trypanosomiasis resistance loci in murine advanced intercross lines
    F Iraqi
    International Livestock Research Institute, P O Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya
    Mamm Genome 11:645-8. 2000
    ..results of genome-wide searches in two murine F(2) populations for QTLs that influence survival following Trypanosoma congolense infection...
  47. ncbi Nutritional stress affects the tsetse fly's immune gene expression
    K Akoda
    Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Med Vet Entomol 23:195-201. 2009
    ..in a natural population will not develop a mature infection of either Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma brucei sp...
  48. ncbi Polymerase chain reaction as a diagnosis tool for detecting trypanosomes in naturally infected cattle in Burkina Faso
    P Solano
    CIRAD EMVT campus de Baillarguet, Montpellier, France
    Vet Parasitol 86:95-103. 1999
    ..The PCR was applied on a subset of 260 buffy-coat samples using primers specific for Trypanosoma congolense savannah and riverine-forest groups, T. vivax, and T. brucei...
  49. ncbi Experimental expansion of the regulatory T cell population increases resistance to African trypanosomiasis
    Martin Guilliams
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 198:781-91. 2008
    ....
  50. ncbi Comparative pathogenicity of three genetically distinct Trypanosoma congolense-types in inbred Balb/c mice
    Z Bengaly
    CIRDES Centre International de Recherche Developpement sur l Elevage en Zone subhumide, 01BP 454, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
    Vet Parasitol 105:111-8. 2002
    Inbred Balb/c mice were infected with three clones of Trypanosoma congolense (Sam.28.1, Dind.3.1 and K60...
  51. ncbi CR3 (CD11b/CD18) is the major macrophage receptor for IgM antibody-mediated phagocytosis of African trypanosomes: diverse effect on subsequent synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitric oxide
    Wanling Pan
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada
    Microbes Infect 8:1209-18. 2006
    ..We assessed whether complement receptor CR3 (CD11b/CD18) might be involved in mediating phagocytosis of Trypanosoma congolense. We show that murine complement C3 fragments are deposited onto T...
  52. ncbi Application of PCR and DNA probes in the characterisation of trypanosomes in the blood of cattle in farms in Morogoro, Tanzania
    K N Mugittu
    Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, PO Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania
    Vet Parasitol 94:177-89. 2001
    ..Fifty-two animals were found infected: 40 with Trypanosoma congolense, 10 with T. vivax and two with both T. congolense and T. vivax...
  53. pmc Characterization of major surface protease homologues of Trypanosoma congolense
    Veronica Marcoux
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5E5
    J Biomed Biotechnol 2010:418157. 2010
    ..Surprisingly, a low-dose challenge of immunized mice with T. congolense significantly increases susceptibility to infection, indicating that immunity to TcoMSP-D is a factor affecting virulence...
  54. ncbi Localisation of acid phosphatase activity on the surface of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma congolense
    O M Tosomba
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Natal, Scottsville, South Africa
    Exp Parasitol 84:429-38. 1996
    In vitro, living bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma congolense were shown to hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a substrate for phosphatases...
  55. ncbi Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma congolense in cattle by the African tabanid Atylotus agrestis
    Marc Desquesnes
    CIRDES, Centre de coopération en Recherche Agronmique pour le Développement, départment Elevage et Médicine Vétérinaire Tropicale, Montpellier, France
    Exp Parasitol 105:226-31. 2003
    The trypanosomes pathogenic to livestock in Africa (Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, and Trypanosoma brucei) are mainly cyclically transmitted by tsetse (Glossina). However, T...
  56. ncbi Investigations on the transmissibility of Trypanosoma congolense by the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans during its development in a mammalian host
    K Akoda
    Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Acta Trop 107:17-9. 2008
    ..Moreover, the findings stress the importance of standardising experiments in which the vectorial capacity of tsetse flies is determined and compared...
  57. ncbi Expression of a gene encoding Trypanosoma congolense putative Abc1 family protein is developmentally regulated
    Waren N Baticados
    National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080 8555, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 67:157-64. 2005
    ..This indicates extensive post-translational modification in p74. Although further characterization of p74 will be required, our findings provide implications for CoQ biosynthesis pathway in T. congolense...
  58. ncbi SSCP analysis of the P2 purine transporter TcoAT1 gene of Trypanosoma congolense leads to a simple PCR-RFLP test allowing the rapid identification of diminazene resistant stocks
    V Delespaux
    Animal Health Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    Acta Trop 100:96-102. 2006
    Analyses were made on a Trypanosoma congolense contig coding a putative P2-like nucleoside transporter (the contig was named in this study TcoAT1)...
  59. ncbi Regulatory T cells prevent control of experimental African trypanosomiasis
    Guojian Wei
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    J Immunol 180:2514-21. 2008
    ..Susceptible BALB/c mice infected s.c. into a footpad with 10(4) Trypanosoma congolense die with fulminating parasitemia within 10 days...
  60. ncbi The incidence of new and the prevalence and persistence of recurrent trypanosome infections in cattle in southwest Ethiopia exposed to a high challenge with drug-resistant parasites
    G J Rowlands
    International Livestock Research Institute, P O Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya
    Acta Trop 79:149-63. 2001
    ..Using this definition the average monthly incidence of infections of Trypanosoma congolense in cattle over 36 months of age was 13.3%, and the prevalence of recurrent infections 13.0%...
  61. ncbi Trypanocidal drug resistance in eastern province of Zambia
    L Sinyangwe
    Central Veterinary Research Institute, Balmoral, P O Box 33980, Lusaka, Zambia
    Vet Parasitol 119:125-35. 2004
    ..Overall mean prevalence of trypanosomosis was 14.4, with 96% of infections caused by Trypanosoma congolense. The remainder was caused by Trypanosoma vivax (2%) and Trypanosoma brucei (2%)...
  62. ncbi Acute phase response in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense: a molecular gauge of parasite-host interaction
    R M Ngure
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Vet Parasitol 151:14-20. 2008
    Mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed a severe anaemia 1 week after infection, which persisted till treatment with diminazine aceturate when the packed cell volume (PCV) recovered to pre-infection levels...
  63. pmc Gene expression profiling in a mouse model for African trypanosomiasis
    S Kierstein
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Genes Immun 7:667-79. 2006
    ..an integrative approach to the identification of the mechanisms underlying the response to infection with Trypanosoma congolense, and to identify pathways that have previously been overlooked...
  64. ncbi The effect of alpha-tocopherol transfer protein gene disruption on Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice
    Maria Shirley Herbas
    Research Unit for Functional Genomics, National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2 13, Inada, Obihiro 080 8555, Japan
    Free Radic Biol Med 47:1408-13. 2009
    ..transfer protein, a determinant of the vitamin E concentration in host circulation, confers resistance to Trypanosoma congolense infection, evidently owing to oxidative damage to parasite DNA...
  65. pmc TNF-alpha mediates the development of anaemia in a murine Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection, but not the anaemia associated with a murine Trypanosoma congolense infection
    J Naessens
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Clin Exp Immunol 139:405-10. 2005
    ..TNF-alpha-/+) trypanotolerant mice were compared during infections with the cattle parasite Trypanosoma congolense. No differences in PCV, erythrocyte numbers or haemoglobin were observed between TNF-alpha-deficient and ..
  66. ncbi Standardised tests in mice and cattle for the detection of drug resistance in tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes of African domestic cattle
    M C Eisler
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Road, G61 1QH, Scotland, Glasgow, UK
    Vet Parasitol 97:171-82. 2001
    ....
  67. ncbi Identification of a genetic marker for isometamidium chloride resistance in Trypanosoma congolense
    V Delespaux
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    Int J Parasitol 35:235-43. 2005
    ..Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) was used to compare two isogenic clones of Trypanosoma congolense. The parent clone, sensitive to isometamidium, has a CD50 (the curative dose that gives complete cure in ..
  68. ncbi PCR-RFLP using Ssu-rDNA amplification: applicability for the diagnosis of mixed infections with different trypanosome species in cattle
    V Delespaux
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    Vet Parasitol 117:185-93. 2003
    ..was evaluated for the detection of mixed infections with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax...
  69. ncbi The effect of starvation on the susceptibility of teneral and non-teneral tsetse flies to trypanosome infection
    C Kubi
    Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Med Vet Entomol 20:388-92. 2006
    ..where laboratory-reared Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) were infected with Trypanosoma congolense or T. brucei brucei...
  70. ncbi Identification and molecular characterization of a novel stage-specific surface protein of Trypanosoma congolense epimastigotes
    Tatsuya Sakurai
    National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2 13, Inada cho, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080 8555, Japan
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 161:1-11. 2008
    The cattle pathogen Trypanosoma congolense expresses life cycle stage-specific surface molecules involved in adaptation to different host and vector environments...
  71. ncbi Bovine transcriptome analysis by SAGE technology during an experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection
    David Berthier
    Cirad Emvt Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1081:286-99. 2006
    ..mRNA transcript libraries from white blood cells on a N'Dama trypanotolerant animal during an experimental Trypanosoma congolense (T...
  72. pmc Clinical chemistry of congenic mice with quantitative trait loci for predicted responses to Trypanosoma congolense infection
    Birgit Rathkolb
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
    Infect Immun 77:3948-57. 2009
    b>Trypanosoma congolense is a protozoan parasite that causes severe diseases in livestock. Three major quantative trait loci (QTL), Tir1, Tir2, and Tir3, control the survival time of mice after infection with T. congolense...
  73. ncbi Comparison of the transmissibility of Trypanosoma congolense strains, isolated in a trypanosomiasis endemic area of eastern Zambia, by Glossina morsitans morsitans
    J Masumu
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Animal Health Department, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    Parasitology 133:331-4. 2006
    Transmission experiments were conducted to compare the transmissibility of genetically different Trypanosoma congolense (Savannah subgroup) strains isolated from cattle in a trypanosomiasis endemic area of eastern Zambia...
  74. pmc Molecular and biochemical characterization of a cathepsin B-like protease family unique to Trypanosoma congolense
    Carlos Mendoza-Palomares
    Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire et Pathogénicité, CNRS, UMR 5234, 33076 Bordeaux, France
    Eukaryot Cell 7:684-97. 2008
    ..virulence factors and drug targets in trypanosomatids and an attractive antidisease vaccine candidate for Trypanosoma congolense. Here, we describe an important amplification of genes encoding cathepsin B-like proteases unique to T...
  75. pmc Mechanisms controlling anaemia in Trypanosoma congolense infected mice
    Harry A Noyes
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e5170. 2009
    b>Trypanosoma congolense are extracellular protozoan parasites of the blood stream of artiodactyls and are one of the main constraints on cattle production in Africa...
  76. ncbi Bovine trypanotolerance: A natural ability to prevent severe anaemia and haemophagocytic syndrome?
    J Naessens
    International Livestock Research Institute, P O Box 30709, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
    Int J Parasitol 36:521-8. 2006
    ..Laboratory studies, comparing Trypanosoma congolense infections in trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle (Bos taurus) and in more susceptible Boran cattle (Bos indicus)..
  77. pmc Trypanosoma congolense procyclins: unmasking cryptic major surface glycoproteins in procyclic forms
    Silvia Utz
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    Eukaryot Cell 5:1430-40. 2006
    In the tsetse fly, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma congolense is covered by a dense layer of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored molecules...
  78. ncbi Cytokine mRNA profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense
    Grace M O'Gorman
    Animal Genomics Laboratory, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, College of Life Sciences, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
    Physiol Genomics 28:53-61. 2006
    ..trypanotolerant, n = 8) and Boran (trypanosusceptible, n = 8) cattle were experimentally challenged with Trypanosoma congolense. Blood samples were collected over a 34-day period, and RNA was extracted from peripheral blood ..
  79. ncbi A modified AFLP for Trypanosoma congolense isolate characterisation
    J Masumu
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Animal Health Department, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    J Biotechnol 125:22-6. 2006
    ..In this paper, we described a modified AFLP with high resolution for Trypanosoma congolense using one enzyme and agarose or Elchrom gel electrophoresis...
  80. ncbi Comparison of the virulence of Trypanosoma congolense strains isolated from cattle in a trypanosomiasis endemic area of eastern Zambia
    J Masumu
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Animal Health Department, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    Int J Parasitol 36:497-501. 2006
    The virulence of 31 genetically different Trypanosoma congolense strains belonging to the Savannah subgroup and isolated from cattle at 11 sites in a trypanosomiasis endemic area of eastern Zambia was compared...
  81. pmc Impaired Kupffer cells in highly susceptible mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense
    Meiqing Shi
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Canada
    Infect Immun 73:8393-6. 2005
    In highly susceptible BALB/c mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense, the total number of Kupffer cells in the liver remains constant; however, their mean size increases fivefold towards the terminal stage...
  82. pmc Discovery of mating in the major African livestock pathogen Trypanosoma congolense
    Liam J Morrison
    Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e5564. 2009
    The protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma congolense, is one of the most economically important pathogens of livestock in Africa and, through its impact on cattle health and productivity, has a significant effect on human health and well being...
  83. ncbi Assessment of the occurrence of trypanocidal drug resistance in trypanosomes of naturally infected cattle in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon using the standard mouse test and molecular tools
    A Mamoudou
    Université de Dschang, Faculté d Agronomie et des Sciences Agricoles, BP 96, Dschang, Cameroon
    Acta Trop 106:115-8. 2008
    ..Using the mouse test, 3 of the 13 Trypanosoma brucei isolates and all 14 tested Trypanosoma congolense isolates were resistant to ISM. However, only 11 of the 25 T...
  84. ncbi Haematological changes in N'Dama and Gobra Zebu bulls during Trypanosoma congolense infection maintained under a controlled feeding regimen
    O O Akinbamijo
    International Trypanotolerance Centre, Banjul, Gambia
    Acta Trop 69:181-92. 1998
    Haematological changes were monitored in Gobra-Zebu and N'Dama bulls following infection with Trypanosoma congolense. The cattle were offered a diet which provided levels of protein and energy above maintenance requirement and a pair ..
  85. pmc Cross-resistance associated with development of resistance to isometamidium in a clone of Trypanosoma congolense
    A S Peregrine
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:1604-6. 1997
    Resistance to isometamidium was increased 94-fold in a clone of Trypanosoma congolense (clone IL 1180) by repeated subcurative treatment of infected mice for 11 months. This was associated with 3.4-, 33-, and 4...
  86. ncbi Comparative pathogenicity of three genetically distinct types of Trypanosoma congolense in cattle: clinical observations and haematological changes
    Z Bengaly
    CIRDES Centre International de Recherche Developpement sur l Elevage en Zone subhumide, 01 BP 454, Bobo Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso
    Vet Parasitol 108:1-19. 2002
    ..inoculated with three clones of trypanosomes corresponding to the three genetically distinct types of Trypanosoma congolense; savannah-type, west African riverine/forest-type and kilifi-type...
  87. ncbi Bone marrow response to acute and chronic Trypanosoma congolense infection in multimammate rats (Mastomys coucha)
    L Ojok
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, Makerere University, P O Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
    J Comp Pathol 124:149-58. 2001
    ..bone marrow of multimammate rats (n=90), aged 3-8 weeks, experimentally infected with different doses of Trypanosoma congolense was examined by light and electron microscopy...
  88. ncbi Demonstration of erythrophagocytosis in Trypanosoma congolense-infected goats
    W H Witola
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, PO Box 32379, 10101, Lusaka, Zambia
    Vet Parasitol 96:115-26. 2001
    ..This work investigated erythrophagocytosis as the possible cause of anaemia. Pathogenic Trypanosoma congolense (IL3000) was intravenously inoculated into six goats at 3x10(6) trypanosomes per goat...
  89. ncbi The major cell surface glycoprotein procyclin is a receptor for induction of a novel form of cell death in African trypanosomes in vitro
    T W Pearson
    Department of Biochemistry andi Microbiology, University of Victoria, BC, Canada
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 111:333-49. 2000
    ..The possible significance of these findings for the life cycle of the trypanosomes in the tsetse fly vector is discussed...
  90. ncbi Tetracycline-regulated RNA interference in Trypanosoma congolense
    Noboru Inoue
    National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080 8555, Japan
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 120:309-13. 2002
  91. ncbi Partial structure of glutamic acid and alanine-rich protein, a major surface glycoprotein of the insect stages of Trypanosoma congolense
    Lynn M Thomson
    Division of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Microbiology, The Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 277:48899-904. 2002
    The tsetse fly transmitted salivarian trypanosome, Trypanosoma congolense of the subgenus Nanomonas, is the most significant of the trypanosomes with respect to the pathology of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa...
  92. ncbi Responses of bovine chimaeras combining trypanosomosis resistant and susceptible genotypes to experimental infection with Trypanosoma congolense
    Jan Naessens
    International Livestock Research Institute, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya
    Vet Parasitol 111:125-42. 2003
    ..The capacity to maintain growth during infection was similarly dependent on the genetic origin of the haemopoietic tissue...
  93. ncbi Congopain from Trypanosoma congolense: drug target and vaccine candidate
    Gilles Lalmanach
    Laboratoire d Enzymologie et Chimie des Protéines, INSERM EMI U 00 10, Universite Francois Rabelais, Faculte de Medecine, Tours, France
    Biol Chem 383:739-49. 2002
    ..b>Trypanosoma congolense, a major pathogenic species in livestock, possesses at least two families of closely related CPs, named ..
  94. ncbi Susceptibility of heat shock protein 70.1-deficient C57BL/6 J, wild-type C57BL/6 J and A/J mice to Trypanosoma congolense infection
    Yoshio Nakamura
    Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, 305 8686, Ibaraki, Japan
    Parasitol Res 90:171-4. 2003
    ..17 among the candidates for Tir1, the major quantitative trait locus associated with response to Trypanosoma congolense infection. To evaluate whether the HSP70...
  95. ncbi Azaanthraquinone inhibits respiration and in vitro growth of long slender bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma congolense
    Andrew Jonathan Nok
    Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
    Cell Biochem Funct 20:205-12. 2002
    ..extract of Mitracarpus scaber was found to possess in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma congolense. At a dosage of 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1) in normal saline for 5 days, the extract cured Balbc mice infected ..
  96. ncbi Sensitivity and specificity of antigen-capture ELISAs for diagnosis of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax infections in cattle
    M C Eisler
    Department of Veterinary Physiology, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, UK
    Vet Parasitol 79:187-201. 1998
    ..investigated using sera from experimental cattle infected by tsetse challenge with cloned populations of Trypanosoma congolense (three populations) or T. vivax (one population)...
  97. ncbi Haematological changes and antibody response in trypanotolerant sheep and goats following experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection
    B Goossens
    International Trypanotolerance Centre PMB, Banjul, Gambia
    Vet Parasitol 79:283-97. 1998
    ..WAD) female goats and twelve Djallonké ewes were artificially infected with a West African strain of Trypanosoma congolense and monitored during 36 weeks over an acute phase (weeks 0-12) and chronic phase (weeks 13-36) to evaluate ..
  98. ncbi Study on the sequential tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma congolense, T. brucei brucei and T. vivax infections to African buffalo, eland, waterbuck, N'Dama and Boran cattle
    S K Moloo
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Vet Parasitol 80:197-213. 1999
    ..waterbuck, N'Dama and Boran cattle to sequential Glossina morsitans centralis-transmitted infections of Trypanosoma congolense, T. brucei brucei and T...
  99. ncbi Procongopain from Trypanosoma congolense is processed at basic pH: an unusual feature among cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases
    Carole Serveau
    Protéases et Vectorisation, INSERM EMI U 00 10, Laboratoire d Enzymologie et Chimie des Protéines, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Francois Rabelais, F 37032 Tours, France
    Biol Chem 384:921-7. 2003
    Congopain, the major cysteine protease from Trypanosoma congolense, is synthesized as an inactive zymogen, and further converted into its active form after removal of the proregion, most probably via an autocatalytic mechanism...
  100. ncbi Immune responses of cattle to African trypanosomes: protective or pathogenic?
    K A Taylor
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Int J Parasitol 28:219-40. 1998
    ..The identification of mechanisms that mediate depressed immune responses might suggest novel disease intervention strategies...
  101. ncbi Cytokine mRNA profiles in trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle infected with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma congolense: protective role for interleukin-4?
    B Mertens
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 19:59-65. 1999
    ..We investigated the association of cytokine responses with disease susceptibility in Trypanosoma congolense-infected cattle...

Research Grants2

  1. NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC SIGNIFICANCE OF SELENIUM
    Raymond Burk; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These and other studies are proposed to evaluate the role of Se-P in protecting endothelial cells (and other cells) against oxidant substances in the extracellular space. ..
  2. Human Se Nutritional Requirement and Biomarkers in Health and Disease
    Raymond F Burk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..All these studies are aimed at facilitating efforts to determine the health effects of selenium deficiency and to guide supplementation of the element when that is needed. ..