trypanosoma vivax

Summary

Summary: An active blood parasite that is present in practically all domestic animals in Africa, the West Indies, and parts of Central and South America. In Africa, the insect vector is the tsetse fly. In other countries, infection is by mechanical means indicating that the parasites have been introduced to these countries and have been able to maintain themselves in spite of the lack of a suitable intermediate host. It is a cause of nagana, the severity of which depends on the species affected.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Seasonal prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in a tsetse-infested zone and a tsetse-free zone of the Amhara Region, north-west Ethiopia
    T Cherenet
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and 2 Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 71:307-12. 2004
  2. ncbi Response of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense in zebu cattle in North Cameroon to prophylactic treatment with two formulations of isometamidium
    D N Awa
    Institute of Agricultural Research for Development IRAD, P O Box 1073, Garoua, Cameroon
    Prev Vet Med 76:90-6. 2006
  3. ncbi Trypanosoma vivax--out of Africa
    T W Jones
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian, UK EH25 9RG
    Trends Parasitol 17:99-101. 2001
  4. ncbi A comparative longitudinal study of bovine trypanosomiasis in tsetse-free and tsetse-infested zones of the Amhara Region, northwest Ethiopia
    T Cherenet
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
    Vet Parasitol 140:251-8. 2006
  5. pmc Antigenic diversity is generated by distinct evolutionary mechanisms in African trypanosome species
    Andrew P Jackson
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:3416-21. 2012
  6. ncbi The analysis of the cross-reactions occurring in antibody-ELISA for the detection of trypanosomes can improve identification of the parasite species involved
    M Desquesnes
    Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement Elevage et Médecine Vétérinaire Tropicale, B P 5035, 34032 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95:141-55. 2001
  7. ncbi New Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax genotypes from tsetse flies in East Africa
    E R Adams
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK
    Parasitology 137:641-50. 2010
  8. ncbi Structure and function of a novel purine specific nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma vivax
    W Versées
    Dienst Ultrastructuur, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Paardenstraat 65, Sint Genesius Rode, B 1640, Belgium
    J Mol Biol 307:1363-79. 2001
  9. ncbi High mortality and lesions of the central nervous system in trypanosomosis by Trypanosoma vivax in Brazilian hair sheep
    G J N Galiza
    Veterinary Hospital, CSTR, Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba 58700 000, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 182:359-63. 2011
  10. pmc Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense "forest type" and T. simiae: prevalence in domestic animals of sleeping sickness foci of Cameroon
    H Nimpaye
    Laboratoire de Biologie Générale, Département de Biologie et Physiologie Animales, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, BP 812, Yaounde, Cameroun
    Parasite 18:171-9. 2011

Detail Information

Publications164 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Seasonal prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in a tsetse-infested zone and a tsetse-free zone of the Amhara Region, north-west Ethiopia
    T Cherenet
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and 2 Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 71:307-12. 2004
    ..Trypanosome infections were mainly due to Trypanosoma vivax and they significantly reduced the average packed cell volume and the body condition of the animals...
  2. ncbi Response of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense in zebu cattle in North Cameroon to prophylactic treatment with two formulations of isometamidium
    D N Awa
    Institute of Agricultural Research for Development IRAD, P O Box 1073, Garoua, Cameroon
    Prev Vet Med 76:90-6. 2006
    ..However, the presence of parasites in some animals barely 2 weeks after treatment suggested that either infections were not cleared or residual drug effects were not sufficient to prevent re-infections...
  3. ncbi Trypanosoma vivax--out of Africa
    T W Jones
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian, UK EH25 9RG
    Trends Parasitol 17:99-101. 2001
    b>Trypanosoma vivax is a blood parasite of ruminants that was introduced into Latin America in cattle imported from Africa, possibly in the late 19th century...
  4. ncbi A comparative longitudinal study of bovine trypanosomiasis in tsetse-free and tsetse-infested zones of the Amhara Region, northwest Ethiopia
    T Cherenet
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
    Vet Parasitol 140:251-8. 2006
    ..9% and 25.7% in the tsetse-free and the tsetse-infested zones, respectively. In the tsetse-free, Trypanosoma vivax was responsible for 90.9% of the cattle trypanosome infections...
  5. pmc Antigenic diversity is generated by distinct evolutionary mechanisms in African trypanosome species
    Andrew P Jackson
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:3416-21. 2012
    ..We compared the genome of Trypanosoma brucei with two closely related parasites Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax, to reveal how the variant antigen repertoire has evolved and how it might affect contemporary antigenic ..
  6. ncbi The analysis of the cross-reactions occurring in antibody-ELISA for the detection of trypanosomes can improve identification of the parasite species involved
    M Desquesnes
    Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement Elevage et Médecine Vétérinaire Tropicale, B P 5035, 34032 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95:141-55. 2001
    In Africa, the main pathogenic trypanosomes of livestock are Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei. The geographical distributions and hosts of these three species are very similar...
  7. ncbi New Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax genotypes from tsetse flies in East Africa
    E R Adams
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK
    Parasitology 137:641-50. 2010
    ..Of 7 different FFLB profiles, 2 were similar but not identical to reference West African Trypanosoma vivax; 5 other profiles belonged to known species also identified in fly midguts...
  8. ncbi Structure and function of a novel purine specific nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma vivax
    W Versées
    Dienst Ultrastructuur, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Paardenstraat 65, Sint Genesius Rode, B 1640, Belgium
    J Mol Biol 307:1363-79. 2001
    ..We cloned, expressed and purified a nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma vivax. The substrate activity profile establishes the enzyme to be a member of the inosine-adenosine-guanosine-..
  9. ncbi High mortality and lesions of the central nervous system in trypanosomosis by Trypanosoma vivax in Brazilian hair sheep
    G J N Galiza
    Veterinary Hospital, CSTR, Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba 58700 000, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 182:359-63. 2011
    Here, we report an outbreak of Trypanosoma vivax-induced trypanosomosis in Brazilian hair sheep on a farm in Paraíba state, a non-endemic region in northeastern Brazilian. Of 306 total sheep, 240 showed clinical signs and 216 died...
  10. pmc Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense "forest type" and T. simiae: prevalence in domestic animals of sleeping sickness foci of Cameroon
    H Nimpaye
    Laboratoire de Biologie Générale, Département de Biologie et Physiologie Animales, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, BP 812, Yaounde, Cameroun
    Parasite 18:171-9. 2011
    ..trypanosomiasis that occur together in sleeping sickness foci, a study of prevalences of animal parasites (Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense "forest type", and T...
  11. pmc Genetic engineering of Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax and in vitro differentiation under axenic conditions
    Simon D'Archivio
    Laboratoire des Processus Infectieux à Trypanosoma, Department of Infection and Epidemiology, Paris, France
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1461. 2011
    b>Trypanosoma vivax is one of the most common parasites responsible for animal trypanosomosis, and although this disease is widespread in Africa and Latin America, very few studies have been conducted on the parasite's biology...
  12. ncbi Cathepsin L-like genes of Trypanosoma vivax from Africa and South America--characterization, relationships and diagnostic implications
    Alane P Cortez
    Department of Parasitology, University of Sao Paulo, Av Prof Lineu Prestes 1374, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Mol Cell Probes 23:44-51. 2009
    ..genes encoding cathepsin L-like (CatL-like) cysteine proteases from African and South American isolates of Trypanosoma vivax and T...
  13. ncbi Proline racemases are conserved mitogens: characterization of a Trypanosoma vivax proline racemase
    Nathalie Chamond
    Institut Pasteur, Laboratoire d Immunobiologie des Infections à Trypanosoma, Departement d Immunologie, Paris, France
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 165:170-9. 2009
    ..genomes. Interestingly, we identified a hypothetical PRAC gene in Trypanosoma vivax that is the major hemoparasite responsible for livestock trypanosomiasis, a serious economical impact for ..
  14. pmc Association of Trypanosoma vivax in extracellular sites with central nervous system lesions and changes in cerebrospinal fluid in experimentally infected goats
    Jael S Batista
    Department of Animal Sciences, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi Arido UFERSA, BR 110 Km 47, CEP 59625 900, Mossoró RN, Brazil
    Vet Res 42:63. 2011
    ..anatomical and histopathological central nervous system (CNS) lesions were evaluated, and the presence of Trypanosoma vivax in CNS tissues was investigated through PCR...
  15. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of Trypanosoma vivax supports the separation of South American/West African from East African isolates and a new T. vivax-like genotype infecting a nyala antelope from Mozambique
    A C Rodrigues
    Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Parasitology 135:1317-28. 2008
    In this study, we addressed the phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax and related trypanosomes nested in the subgenus Duttonella through combined morphological and phylogeographical analyses...
  16. ncbi A flexible loop as a functional element in the catalytic mechanism of nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma vivax
    An Vandemeulebroucke
    Department of Ultrastructure, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VIB, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 283:22272-82. 2008
    The nucleoside hydrolase of Trypanosoma vivax hydrolyzes the N-glycosidic bond of purine nucleosides. Structural and kinetic studies on this enzyme have suggested a catalytic role for a flexible loop in the vicinity of the active sites...
  17. ncbi Trypanosomiasis by Trypanosoma vivax in cattle in the Brazilian semiarid: Description of an outbreak and lesions in the nervous system
    J S Batista
    Escola Superior de Agricultura de Mossoró, Av Francisco Mota S N, Br 110, km 47, 59 Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 143:174-81. 2007
    An outbreak of trypanosomiasis by Trypanosoma vivax is reported in the semiarid of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil from May to August 2002...
  18. ncbi Follicular degeneration in the ovaries of goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax from the Brazilian semi-arid region
    Carla M F Rodrigues
    Department of Animal Sciences, Federal Rural University of the Semiarid UFERSA, Av Francisco Mota, Br 110, Km 47 59, 59625 900 Mossoró, RN, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 191:146-53. 2013
    Infection by Trypanosoma vivax and other African trypanosomes plays an important role in reproductive disorders in male and female livestock. Outbreaks of T...
  19. ncbi Sequential testicular and epididymal damage in Zebu bulls experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax
    S Adamu
    Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
    Vet Parasitol 143:29-34. 2007
    ..31 and 34 months exhibiting good libido were used to study sequential testicular and epididymal damage in Trypanosoma vivax infection. Three bulls were infected with T. vivax, while the other three served as controls...
  20. ncbi First report and molecular characterization of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle from state of Pernambuco, Brazil
    Danillo de Souza Pimentel
    Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Departamento de Medicina Veterinaria, Av Dom Manoel de Medeiros s n, CEP 52171 900, Recife, PE, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 185:286-9. 2012
    This paper describes an outbreak of Trypanosoma vivax for the first time in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, affecting dairy cattle in the municipality of Itambé in the northern coastal zone of the state...
  21. ncbi Highly debilitating natural Trypanosoma vivax infections in Brazilian calves: epidemiology, pathology, and probable transplacental transmission
    Jael S Batista
    Department of Animal Sciences, Federal Rural University of the Semiarid UFERSA, Av Francisco Mota, Br 110, Km 47 59, 59625 900, Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
    Parasitol Res 110:73-80. 2012
    Clinical, epidemiological, and pathological aspects of trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma vivax in calves were reported for the first time in northeast Brazil...
  22. ncbi Loop-mediated isothermal amplification test for Trypanosoma vivax based on satellite repeat DNA
    Z K Njiru
    School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
    Vet Parasitol 180:358-62. 2011
    b>Trypanosoma vivax is major cause of animal trypanosomiasis and responsible for enormous economic burden in Africa and South America animal industry. T...
  23. ncbi Protective efficacy of isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate against natural Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax infections in cattle under a suppressed tsetse population in Uganda
    J W Magona
    Livestock Health Research Institute, Tororo, Uganda
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 71:231-7. 2004
    ..chloride (ISMM) and diminazene aceturate (DIM) against Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax infections in cattle under a suppressed tsetse population was assessed in southeast Uganda...
  24. ncbi Animal trypanosomiasis in South America. Current status, partnership, and information technology
    A M Davila
    Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045 900, Brazil
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 916:199-212. 2000
    ..Previous efforts using information technologies resulted in the creation of two discussion lists (Tryplink and Trypan), the edition of the on-line version of Trypnews and Internet conferences...
  25. ncbi PCR-RFLP using Ssu-rDNA amplification: applicability for the diagnosis of mixed infections with different trypanosome species in cattle
    V Delespaux
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    Vet Parasitol 117:185-93. 2003
    ..of mixed infections with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax. Results showed that mixed infections are detectable at a minimum ratio of 2%/98% of standardised DNA ..
  26. ncbi Polymerase chain reaction as a diagnosis tool for detecting trypanosomes in naturally infected cattle in Burkina Faso
    P Solano
    CIRAD EMVT campus de Baillarguet, Montpellier, France
    Vet Parasitol 86:95-103. 1999
    ..In the near future, the PCR is likely to become an efficient tool to estimate the prevalence of African trypanosomoses in affected areas...
  27. ncbi Trypanosoma vivax: characterization of the spliced-leader gene of a Brazilian stock and species-specific detection by PCR amplification of an intergenic spacer sequence
    R M Ventura
    Departamento de Parasitologia, , , 05508-900, Brazil
    Exp Parasitol 99:37-48. 2001
    The sequence of the spliced-leader gene repeat of a Brazilian Trypanosoma vivax stock from cattle showed high similarity to sequences of West African T. vivax in both intron and intergenic sequences...
  28. ncbi Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle by the African tabanid Atylotus fuscipes
    Marc Desquesnes
    CIRAD EMVT, Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement département Elevage et Médecine Vétérinaire Tropicale, Montpellier, France
    Vet Parasitol 119:9-19. 2004
    An experiment was carried out in Burkina Faso to evaluate the potential for mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma vivax by the African tabanid Atylotus fuscipes...
  29. ncbi Biting flies and Trypanosoma vivax infection in three highland districts bordering lake Tana, Ethiopia
    A Sinshaw
    Bureau of Agriculture, Amhara National Regional State, P O Box 437, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
    Vet Parasitol 142:35-46. 2006
    ..and Atylotus agrestis. Therefore, attention towards T. vivax infection in cattle is essential to control the impact of the disease on productivity. A further study on biting flies is recommended...
  30. pmc Trypanosoma vivax infections: pushing ahead with mouse models for the study of Nagana. I. Parasitological, hematological and pathological parameters
    Nathalie Chamond
    Laboratoire d Immunobiologie des Infections à Trypanosoma, Departement d Immunologie, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e792. 2010
    ..Several different species may cause animal trypanosomosis and although Trypanosoma vivax (sub-genus Duttonella) is currently responsible for the vast majority of debilitating cases causing great ..
  31. ncbi Infection by Trypanosoma vivax in goats and sheep in the Brazilian semiarid region: from acute disease outbreak to chronic cryptic infection
    J S Batista
    Department of Animal Sciences, Federal Rural University of the Semi Arid, Avenida Francisco Mota, Mossoró, RN, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 165:131-5. 2009
    A study was undertaken to investigate the role of Trypanosoma vivax in sheep and goat mortality and abortions in the Brazilian semiarid region, where outbreaks had been previously reported in bovines...
  32. ncbi Detection and identification of trypanosomes by polymerase chain reaction in wild tsetse flies in Cameroon
    I Morlais
    Laboratoire d Epidémiologie des Maladies à Vecteurs, Centre ORSTOM, Montpellier, France
    Acta Trop 70:109-17. 1998
    ..PCR amplification allowed identification of immature infections and revealed mixed-infections. The PCR technique failed to identify 42.2% (38/90) of the parasitologically positive flies and the reasons for this failure are discussed...
  33. ncbi Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil
    Aleksandro S Da Silva
    Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Faixa de Camobi Km 9, Campus Universitario, Prédio 20, Sala 4232, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, 97105 900
    Parasitol Res 108:23-30. 2011
    In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome species...
  34. ncbi Improved methods for the diagnosis of African trypanosomosis
    D E Rebeski
    Animal Production Unit, Food and Agriculture Organization International Atomic Energy Agency Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94:249-53. 1999
    ..Developments and advantages of other diagnostic techniques, such as dip-stick assay and tests based on the polymerase chain reaction are also considered...
  35. ncbi New molecular marker for Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax identification
    I Morlais
    Laboratoire d Epidémiologie des Maladies à Vecteurs, IRD, BP 5045, 34032 Montpellier, France
    Acta Trop 80:207-13. 2001
    b>Trypanosoma vivax is a widespread hemoparasite in tropical areas and is pathogenic to ruminant domestic livestock as well as wild ruminants...
  36. ncbi Enzyme-substrate interactions in the purine-specific nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma vivax
    Wim Versées
    Department of Ultrastructure, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Paardenstraat 65, B 1640 Sint Genesius Rode, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 277:15938-46. 2002
    ..the first x-ray structure of an inosine-adenosine-guanosine preferring nucleoside hydrolase (IAG-NH) from Trypanosoma vivax (). Here we report the 2...
  37. ncbi The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax from South America and Africa
    A P Cortez
    Department of Parasitology, University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Parasitology 133:159-69. 2006
    The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax are controversial. It is generally suggested that South American, and East and West African isolates could be classified as subspecies or species allied to T. vivax...
  38. ncbi Trypanosoma vivax: a simplified protocol for in vivo growth, isolation and cryopreservation
    M Ndao
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Nationalestraat 155, B 200 Antwerp, Belgium
    Parasite 11:103-6. 2004
    A rodent adapted clone of Trypanosoma vivax was used to infect cyclophosphamide treated mice and rats. Fresh blood containing trypanosomes, was centrifuged in a density gradient of three Percoll solutions, 1.07, 1.06, 1...
  39. ncbi Sensitivity and specificity of antigen-capture ELISAs for diagnosis of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax infections in cattle
    M C Eisler
    Department of Veterinary Physiology, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, UK
    Vet Parasitol 79:187-201. 1998
    ..congolense infections and 60% for T. vivax infections. For samples taken more than 2 weeks after tsetse challenge, high sensitivity estimates of 96% for T. congolense and 76% for T. vivax infections were obtained...
  40. ncbi Characterization of sialidase from bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma vivax
    L B Buratai
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
    Cell Biochem Funct 24:71-7. 2006
    Sialidase (EC: 3.2.1.18) from Trypanosoma vivax (Agari Strain) was isolated from bloodstream forms of the parasite and purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity...
  41. ncbi Variant surface glycoprotein from Trypanosoma evansi is partially responsible for the cross-reaction between Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax
    Graciela L Uzcanga
    Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela
    Biochemistry 43:595-606. 2004
    ..A 64-kDa glycosylated cross-reacting antigen between Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax (p64), which was purified from the TEVA1 T...
  42. ncbi Molecular cloning and characterization of Trypanosoma vivax alternative oxidase (AOX) gene, a target of the trypanocide ascofuranone
    Takashi Suzuki
    Department of Molecular Parasitology, Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467 8601, Japan
    Parasitol Int 53:235-45. 2004
    b>Trypanosoma vivax causes nagana disease in cattle. Since T...
  43. ncbi Characterization of a small variable surface glycoprotein from Trypanosoma vivax
    P R Gardiner
    International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 82:1-11. 1996
    ..However, unlike T. congolense VSGs it does not readily fit into the currently described VSG N-terminal domain types. Our studies suggest that ILDat 2.1 VSG is distinct from any of the previously characterized VSGs...
  44. ncbi Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax: its biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and introduction in the New World--a review
    Ana Luiza Alves Rosa Osório
    Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, 79070 900, Brasil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 103:1-13. 2008
    ..vivax are briefly discussed. The recent reports of bovine trypanosomiasis diagnosed in cattle on farms located in the Pantanal region of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso, Brazil, are also discussed...
  45. ncbi Hematology of natural bovine trypanosomosis in the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian wetlands
    R A Silva
    Laboratory of Animal Health, EMBRAPA, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Suino e Aves, Concordia, SC, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 85:87-93. 1999
    We report hematological changes observed in natural cases of bovine trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma vivax in beef and dairy cattle from Bolivian wetlands and Pantanal, Brazil. The main hematologic changes produced by T...
  46. ncbi Study on the sequential tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma congolense, T. brucei brucei and T. vivax infections to African buffalo, eland, waterbuck, N'Dama and Boran cattle
    S K Moloo
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Vet Parasitol 80:197-213. 1999
    ..Xenodiagnosis using mice for T. brucei brucei and T. congolense infections, and tsetse flies for all the three trypanosome species were most sensitive for the detection of trypanosome infections in the bovid hosts...
  47. ncbi Trypanosoma vivax displays a clonal population structure
    Craig W Duffy
    Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, United Kingdom
    Int J Parasitol 39:1475-83. 2009
    ..b>Trypanosoma vivax, one of the principal trypanosome species responsible for the disease, infects a wide host range including ..
  48. ncbi Sensitivity of different Trypanosoma vivax specific primers for the diagnosis of livestock trypanosomosis using different DNA extraction methods
    J L Gonzales
    Laboratorio de Investigación y Diagnóstico Veterinario LIDIVET, Av Ejercito Nacional 153, P O Box 29, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
    Vet Parasitol 136:119-26. 2006
    ..To conclude, the obtained results are discussed and a protocol for diagnosis and surveillance for T. vivax trypanosomosis is recommended...
  49. ncbi Trypanosoma vivax: mechanical transmission in cattle by one of the most common African tabanids, Atylotus agrestis
    Marc Desquesnes
    CIRAD EMVT, Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement département Elevage et Médecine Vétérinaire Tropicale, BP 5035, 34032 Montpellier, France
    Exp Parasitol 103:35-43. 2003
    ..An experiment was carried out in Burkina Faso to demonstrate mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma vivax by one of the most common tabanids in Africa: Atylotus agrestis...
  50. ncbi First report of Trypanosoma vivax infection in dairy cattle from Costa Rica
    J B Oliveira
    Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional, APDO 86 3000, Barreal de Heredia, Heredia, Costa Rica
    Vet Parasitol 163:136-9. 2009
    ..Haemoparasites were observed in the blood smears: Anaplasma marginale was present in 17 animals (60.7%); Trypanosoma vivax in nine (32.1%) and Babesia bovis in two (7.1%). Three of the animals (10.7%) had a mixed infection with T...
  51. ncbi Studies on effects of lactose on experimental Trypanosoma vivax infection in Zebu cattle. 1. Plasma kinetics of intravenously administered lactose at onset of infection and pathology
    M Y Fatihu
    Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 75:163-72. 2008
    Lactose in normal saline was administered intravenously to a group of Zebu cattle infected with Trypanosoma vivax to determine the blood plasma kinetics at onset of an experimental infection and its ability to protect tissues against ..
  52. ncbi Differences in susceptibility to trypanosome infection between Nkedi Zebu and Ankole cattle, under field conditions in Uganda
    J W Magona
    Livestock Health Research Institute, P O Box 96, Tororo, Uganda
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98:785-92. 2004
    ..4% v. 28.7%; P < 0.05) than in the Ankole. Compared with the Ankole, Nkedi Zebu cattle appear to be less susceptible to (detectable) trypanosome infection and to the trypanosome-attributable lowering of their PCV...
  53. ncbi N-Arylmethyl substituted iminoribitol derivatives as inhibitors of a purine specific nucleoside hydrolase
    Annelies Goeminne
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Antwerp B 2610, Belgium
    Bioorg Med Chem 16:6752-63. 2008
    ..derivatives as a novel class of inhibitors against a purine specific nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma vivax. Several of our inhibitors exhibited low nanomolar activity, with 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-N-(8-quinolinyl)..
  54. ncbi Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Central Mozambique from 2002 to 2005
    E J K Specht
    Laboratorio Regional de Veterinaria, P O Box 42, Chimoio, Mozambique
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 75:73-81. 2008
    ..2% of 2252 blood smears being positive. Trypanosoma congolense was the predominant species, followed by Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei sensu lato...
  55. ncbi The detection and PCR-based characterization of the parasites causing trypanosomiasis in water-buffalo herds in Venezuela
    H Garcia
    Laboratorio de Investigacion, Catedra de Parasitologia, Departamento de Patologia Veterinária, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Central de Venezuela
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99:359-70. 2005
    ..57, a positive likelihood ratio of 10.45, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.00. The assay therefore appears a reasonable choice for detecting T. vivax in the mammalian livestock of Venezuela and elsewhere...
  56. ncbi Does isometamidium chloride treatment protect tsetse flies from trypanosome infections during SIT campaigns?
    J Bouyer
    Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, Département Systèmes Biologiques, Montpellier, France
    Med Vet Entomol 22:140-3. 2008
    ..were analysed by polymerase chain reaction to identify mature infections with three trypanosome species (Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma brucei sensu lato and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type). Two mature infections with T...
  57. ncbi Comparative evaluation of the antibody-detection ELISA technique using microplates precoated with denatured crude antigens from Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma vivax
    J W Magona
    Livestock Health Research Institute, PO Box 96, Tororo, Uganda
    Trop Anim Health Prod 34:295-308. 2002
    ..immunosorbent assays (ELISA), which use microplates precoated with denatured crude Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma vivax antigen for detecting anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine sera, were evaluated for their sensitivity, ..
  58. ncbi Study on the susceptibility of Sahel goats to experimental Trypanosoma vivax infection
    Olaoluwa P Akinwale
    Public Health Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, PMB2013 Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
    Vet Parasitol 137:210-3. 2006
    ..Six bucks were inoculated intravenously with Trypanosoma vivax through the jugular vein while two served as uninfected control. The mean pre-patent period was 4...
  59. ncbi Observations on the trypanosomosis problem outside the tsetse belts of Sudan
    A H A Rahman
    Central Veterinary Research Laboratories, Soba, Khartoum, Sudan
    Rev Sci Tech 24:965-72. 2005
    ..The only species of trypanosome found to infect cattle in this study was Trypanosoma vivax, which infected some of the local cattle that had no history of entering tsetse belts...
  60. ncbi Isolation of two antigens from Trypanosoma evansi that are partially responsible for its cross-reactivity with Trypanosoma vivax
    Rocío E Camargo
    Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela
    Vet Parasitol 123:67-81. 2004
    In Venezuela, two non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomes, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax, are the major etiological agents of animal trypanosomosis. Rodents can be experimentally infected with T...
  61. ncbi The development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Trypanosoma vivax antibodies and its use in epidemiological surveys
    Claudio R Madruga
    Laboratório de Hemoparasitologia, Embrapa Gado de Corte, 79002 970 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 101:801-7. 2006
    There are data indicating that the distribution of Trypanosoma vivax in the Brazilian territory is expanding with potential to reach other areas, where the vectors are present...
  62. ncbi Multiple infection in bovines from the tropics: observation of blood parasites by scanning and transmission electron microscope
    A Bretaña
    Unidad de Microscopía Electrónica Centro de Estudios Biomédicos y Veterinarios CEBIV, IDECYT, Universidad Simón Rodríguez, Caracas, Venezuela
    Parassitologia 44:173-8. 2002
    ..showed multiple infection with hemoparasites of the genera Anaplasma marginale, Eperythrozoon wenyonii and Trypanosoma vivax. Scanning electron microscope showed that the blood from bovines with multiple infection had profound ..
  63. ncbi The African trypanosome cyclophilin A homologue contains unusual conserved central and N-terminal domains and is developmentally regulated
    Roger Pelle
    International Livestock Research Institute, P O Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya
    Gene 290:181-91. 2002
    ..of cyclophilin A (CypA) from Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax. The 1-kilobase African trypanosome CypA complementary DNA contains an open reading frame of 531 base pairs, ..
  64. ncbi Purification of a 64 kDa antigen from Trypanosoma evansi that exhibits cross-reactivity with Trypanosoma vivax
    G Uzcanga
    Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela
    Parasitology 124:287-99. 2002
    Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax are the most extensively distributed trypanosomes responsible for diseases in livestock...
  65. ncbi Parasitological prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Kindo Koisha district, Wollaita zone, south Ethiopia
    A Kidanemariam
    National Animal Health Research Centre, Sebeta, Ethiopia
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 69:107-13. 2002
    ..Among the positive animals, 108 (71.1%), 43 (28.4%) and 1 (0.6%) were due to Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense and mixed infection (T. vivax and T. congolense), respectively...
  66. ncbi Drug sensitivity of trypanosome populations from cattle in a peri-urban dairy production system in Uganda
    D Olila
    International Livestock Research Institute, P O Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya
    Acta Trop 84:19-30. 2002
    ..90 to 4.57 mg/kg bw for homidium chloride. Thus, by comparison to reference drug-sensitive populations, all the stabilates were highly sensitive to diminazene and isometamidium, while some expressed low levels of resistance to homidium...
  67. ncbi Using PCR for unraveling the cryptic epizootiology of livestock trypanosomosis in the Pantanal, Brazil
    A M R Dávila
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Tripanosomatídeos, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21045 900, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 117:1-13. 2003
    b>Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi are livestock parasites of economic importance in Africa, Asia and South America. In the Pantanal, Brazil, they cause economic losses in both cattle and equines...
  68. ncbi Application of a monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (antigen ELISA) for field diagnosis of bovine trypanosomiasis at Nguruman, Kenya
    V M Nantulya
    International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 86:225-30. 1992
    ....
  69. ncbi The effects of trypanosomosis on sperm morphology in Zebu x Friesian crossbred bulls
    V O Sekoni
    National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 1096, Shika, Zaria, Nigeria
    Trop Anim Health Prod 36:55-64. 2004
    ..The resultant infertility could be of economic importance in trypanosomosis-endemic sub-Saharan Africa where Zebu x Friesian crossbred bulls are kept...
  70. ncbi The single dynamin-like protein of Trypanosoma brucei regulates mitochondrial division and is not required for endocytosis
    Gareth W Morgan
    Wellcome Trust Laboratories for Molecular Parasitology, Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AY, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 279:10692-701. 2004
    ..Furthermore, a single dynamin family gene is also found in the Leishmania major and Trypanosoma vivax genomes, indicating that this is a conserved feature among the kinetoplastida...
  71. ncbi The VIPER elements of trypanosomes constitute a novel group of tyrosine recombinase-enconding retrotransposons
    Hernan A Lorenzi
    Laboratorio de Biologia Molecular de la Enfermedad de Chagas LaBMECh INGEBI, National Research Council CONICET, Centro de Genomica Aplicada CeGA, University of Buenos Aires, Vuelta de Obligado 2490 2P, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 145:184-94. 2006
    ..VIPER elements were also found in the genomes of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma vivax, but not in Leishmania sp...
  72. ncbi Computational study of IAG-nucleoside hydrolase: determination of the preferred ground state conformation and the role of active site residues
    Devleena Mazumder-Shivakumar
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Biochemistry 44:7805-17. 2005
    ..Using normal-mode analysis with elastic network model, we find that the flexible loop explores a conformational space much larger than in the MD trajectory, leading to a "gating"-like motion with respect to the active site...
  73. ncbi Pre-steady-state analysis of the nucleoside hydrolase of Trypanosoma vivax. Evidence for half-of-the-sites reactivity and rate-limiting product release
    An Vandemeulebroucke
    Department of Ultrastructure, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
    Biochemistry 42:12902-8. 2003
    The nucleoside hydrolase (NH) of the Trypanosoma vivax parasite catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond in ribonucleosides according to the following reaction: beta-purine (or pyrimidine) nucleoside + H(2)O --> purine (..
  74. ncbi Leaving group activation by aromatic stacking: an alternative to general acid catalysis
    Wim Versées
    Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Instituut voor Moleculaire Biologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    J Mol Biol 338:1-6. 2004
    ..However, in the nucleoside hydrolase of the parasite Trypanosoma vivax, crystallographic and mutagenesis studies failed to identify a general acid...
  75. ncbi Multiple transients in the pre-steady-state of nucleoside hydrolase reveal complex substrate binding, product base release, and two apparent rates of chemistry
    An Vandemeulebroucke
    Department of Ultrastructure, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
    Biochemistry 45:9307-18. 2006
    We have investigated the transient kinetics of the nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma vivax (TvNH) at low temperatures (5 degrees C)...
  76. ncbi Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma congolense in cattle by the African tabanid Atylotus agrestis
    Marc Desquesnes
    CIRDES, Centre de coopération en Recherche Agronmique pour le Développement, départment Elevage et Médicine Vétérinaire Tropicale, Montpellier, France
    Exp Parasitol 105:226-31. 2003
    The trypanosomes pathogenic to livestock in Africa (Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, and Trypanosoma brucei) are mainly cyclically transmitted by tsetse (Glossina). However, T...
  77. ncbi Comparison and evolutionary analysis of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from different Kinetoplastida
    V Hannaert
    Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, Christian de Duve Institute of Cellular Pathology ICP, and Laboratory of Biochemistry, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    J Mol Evol 47:728-38. 1998
    ..and Phytomonas sp), whereas for other species (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, and Leishmania major), only partial sequences have been obtained by PCR amplification...
  78. ncbi Molecular cloning and expression of a purine-specific N-ribohydrolase from Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Sequence, expression, and molecular analysis
    R Pelle
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Biol Chem 273:2118-26. 1998
    ..brucei gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma congolense, and Trypanosoma vivax and, to a lesser extent, with Trypanosoma cruzi genomic DNA...
  79. pmc Evaluation of nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors for treatment of African trypanosomiasis
    Maya Berg
    Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:1900-8. 2010
    ..Previously, a library of 52 compounds was designed and synthesized as potent and selective inhibitors of Trypanosoma vivax inosine-adenosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase (IAG-NH)...
  80. ncbi Molecular detection of trypanosomes in cattle in South America and genetic diversity of Trypanosoma evansi based on expression-site-associated gene 6
    Hirohisa Mekata
    Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0818, Japan
    Infect Genet Evol 9:1301-5. 2009
    In South American countries, trypanosomiasis as a result of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax infections causes significant economic losses in livestock...
  81. ncbi Alternative oxidase (AOX) genes of African trypanosomes: phylogeny and evolution of AOX and plastid terminal oxidase families
    Takashi Suzuki
    Department of Molecular Parasitology, Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kawasumi, Mizuho 467 8601 Nagoya, Japan
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:374-81. 2005
    ..brucei/T. evansi. Monophyly of Trypanosoma spp. was clearly supported (100% bootstrap value) with Trypanosoma vivax placed at the most basal position of the Trypanosoma clade...
  82. pmc Nitric oxide synthesis is depressed in Bos indicus cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax and does not mediate T-cell suppression
    K Taylor
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Infect Immun 64:4115-22. 1996
    ....
  83. ncbi Participatory investigations of bovine trypanosomiasis in Tana River District, Kenya
    A Catley
    International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK
    Med Vet Entomol 16:55-66. 2002
    ..similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle...
  84. pmc Trypanosomatid genomes contain several subfamilies of ingi-related retroposons
    Frederic Bringaud
    Centre de Résonance Magnétique des Systèmes Biologiques, UMR 5536 CNRS, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France
    Eukaryot Cell 8:1532-42. 2009
    ..analysis of retroposons to the genomes of two other African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax) and another Leishmania sp. (Leishmania braziliensis)...
  85. ncbi Identification of total and differentially expressed excreted-secreted proteins from Trypanosoma congolense strains exhibiting different virulence and pathogenicity
    Pascal Grebaut
    CIRAD UMR 17 Trypanosomes UMR 177 IRD CIRAD Interactions Hôtes Vecteurs Parasites dans les Trypanosomoses, TA A 17 G, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Int J Parasitol 39:1137-50. 2009
    ..In Africa, the disease in livestock is caused mainly by Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei brucei...
  86. ncbi Occurrence of Theileria parva and other haemoprotozoa in cattle at the edge of Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
    S B A S Yusufmia
    Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 81:45-9. 2010
    ..bigemina and B. rossi, respectively. Mixed infections, of up to 4 species, were common (65.0%). Only 1 specimen was found to be positive for Trypanosoma vivax, and 2 for T theileri, of which only the first species is pathogenic.
  87. ncbi Trypanosomiasis in Venezuelan water buffaloes: association of packed-cell volumes with seroprevalence and current trypanosome infection
    H Garcia
    Laboratorio de Hemoparásitos, Catedra de Parasitologia, Departamento de Patologia Veterinária, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 4563 2101A, Maracay, Venezuela
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100:297-305. 2006
    ..5% of the animals with current infections were infected with Trypanosoma vivax and the rest with T. theileri (the first molecular confirmation of T...
  88. ncbi Detection and identification of Trypanosoma of African livestock through a single PCR based on internal transcribed spacer 1 of rDNA
    M Desquesnes
    CIRAD EMVT BP 5035, 34032, Montpellier, France
    Int J Parasitol 31:610-4. 2001
    ..brucei spp., Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma equiperdum), Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma simiae and Trypanosoma theileri...
  89. ncbi Trypanosoma vivax: disseminated intravascular coagulation in cattle
    B T Wellde
    Walter Reed Project, Veterinary Research Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Kabete, Kenya
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 83:177-83. 1989
    Five crossbred cattle infected with Trypanosoma vivax (Likoni) by Glossina morsitans developed capillary haemorrhages at the onset of parasitaemia, followed by the presence of occult blood in faecal samples and eventually melena...
  90. ncbi Prevalence and incidence of trypanosomosis in horses and donkeys in the Gambia
    D Faye
    International Trypanotolerance Centre, PMB 14, Banjul, The Gambia
    Vet Parasitol 101:101-14. 2001
    ..Three primer sets were used, specific for either Trypanosoma vivax (TVW), Trypanosoma congolense (GOL) or Trypanosoma brucei (ORPHON5J)...
  91. ncbi Acute haemorrhagic syndrome of bovine trypanosomosis in Uganda
    J W Magona
    National Livestock Resources Research Institute, Tororo, Uganda
    Acta Trop 107:186-91. 2008
    ..6%) than non-infected ones (37.2%) (chi(2)=34.6, P<0.001). Trypanosoma vivax was the dominant trypanosome species, constituting 82% of trypanosome infections...
  92. ncbi Erythrocyte surface sialic acid levels of clinically healthy mongrel and exotic (alsatian and terrier) breeds of dogs
    Nicodemus M Useh
    Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
    Glycoconj J 24:491-5. 2007
    ..82 and 18.64 +/- 0.75 mg/dl for Mongrel, Alsatian (German shepherd) and Terrier dogs respectively. When Trypanosoma vivax sialidase was used the ESA values obtained were 50.81 +/- 0.37, 41.70 +/- 0.94 and 19.65 + 0...
  93. ncbi PCR primer evaluation for the detection of trypanosome DNA in naturally infected goats
    P J Pereira de Almeida
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Vet Parasitol 80:111-6. 1998
    ..sets, ORPHON5J, GOL and TVW, specific for Trypanosoma brucei/Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. PCR results for T. congolense were 100% concordant with buffy coat examination...
  94. ncbi Bovine trypanosomosis in the Bolivian Pantanal
    J L Gonzales
    Laboratorio de Investigatión y Diagnóstico Veterinario LIDIVET, Av Ejercito Nacional 153, P O Box 29, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
    Vet Parasitol 146:9-16. 2007
    Trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma vivax has been a constraint for cattle production in the Bolivian lowlands, since it was introduced in 1996...
  95. ncbi Detection of natural Trypanosoma vivax infections in pigs with microhaematocrit centrifugation and amplification of ITS1 rDNA
    S Biryomumaisho
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, P O Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 76:285-9. 2009
    ..vivax in mixed infections and one pig had T. vivax monolithic infection. These observations show that under certain circumstances, pigs may be important reservoirs for, as well as hosts to, T. vivax, contrary to earlier reports...
  96. ncbi Bovine trypanosomosis in three districts of East Gojjam Zone bordering the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia
    Adane Mihret
    Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    J Infect Dev Ctries 1:321-5. 2007
    ..Bovine trypanosomosis is a serious constraint to agricultural production in extensive areas of Ethiopia...
  97. pmc Constraints to estimating the prevalence of trypanosome infections in East African zebu cattle
    Andrew P Cox
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, 1 Summerhall Square, Edinburgh, EH9 1QH, UK
    Parasit Vectors 3:82. 2010
    ..abstract:..
  98. ncbi The daily feeding rate of tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) on cattle at Galana Ranch, Kenya and comparison with trypanosomiasis incidence
    M Baylis
    Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, Kikuyu, Kenya
    Acta Trop 65:81-96. 1997
    ..congolense and T. vivax from tsetse to cattle are 0.84 and 2.36%, respectively, considerably lower than has been reported elsewhere. Possible reasons for this are discussed and it is suggested that previous estimates may be too high...
  99. pmc Editosome accessory factors KREPB9 and KREPB10 in Trypanosoma brucei
    MELISSA LERCH
    Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 11:832-43. 2012
    ..They are conserved and syntenic in trypanosomatids although KREPB10 is absent in Trypanosoma vivax and both are absent in Leishmania...
  100. pmc Non-invasive in vivo study of the Trypanosoma vivax infectious process consolidates the brain commitment in late infections
    Simon D'Archivio
    Institut Pasteur, Laboratoire des Processus Infectieux à Trypanosoma, Department of Infection and Epidemiology, Paris, France
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e1976. 2013
    b>Trypanosoma vivax, one of the leading parasites responsible for Animal African Trypanosomosis (Nagana), is generally cyclically transmitted by Glossina spp...
  101. pmc Identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the Malanga (Kimpese) sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo
    Gustave Simo
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
    Parasit Vectors 5:201. 2012
    ....