proviruses

Summary

Summary: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Modulating HIV-1 RNA processing and utilization
    Meredith McLaren
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario
    Front Biosci 13:5693-707. 2008
  2. pmc Administration of vorinostat disrupts HIV-1 latency in patients on antiretroviral therapy
    N M Archin
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Nature 487:482-5. 2012
  3. ncbi Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental morphogenesis
    S Mi
    Genetics Institute, Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140, USA
    Nature 403:785-9. 2000
  4. pmc CpG methylation controls reactivation of HIV from latency
    Jana Blazkova
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, UMR891, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille and Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000554. 2009
  5. pmc The host genomic environment of the provirus determines the abundance of HTLV-1-infected T-cell clones
    Nicolas A Gillet
    Department of Immunology, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Blood 117:3113-22. 2011
  6. pmc IL-7 is a potent and proviral strain-specific inducer of latent HIV-1 cellular reservoirs of infected individuals on virally suppressive HAART
    Feng Xiang Wang
    Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:128-37. 2005
  7. pmc Transcriptional interference antagonizes proviral gene expression to promote HIV latency
    Tina Lenasi
    Department of Medicine, Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:123-33. 2008
  8. ncbi Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) proviral load and disease progression in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers: a nationwide prospective study in Japan
    Masako Iwanaga
    Department of Hematology and Molecular Medicine, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki, Japan
    Blood 116:1211-9. 2010
  9. pmc Retroelements and the human genome: new perspectives on an old relation
    Norbert Bannert
    Robert Koch Institut, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14572-9. 2004
  10. ncbi Prostratin: activation of latent HIV-1 expression suggests a potential inductive adjuvant therapy for HAART
    J Kulkosky
    Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Blood 98:3006-15. 2001

Detail Information

Publications334 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Modulating HIV-1 RNA processing and utilization
    Meredith McLaren
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario
    Front Biosci 13:5693-707. 2008
    ..The observations made underline the multiple fate decisions that must be made at each stage of the viral RNA metabolic pathway and highlight potential new avenues for controlling HIV-1 replication...
  2. pmc Administration of vorinostat disrupts HIV-1 latency in patients on antiretroviral therapy
    N M Archin
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Nature 487:482-5. 2012
    ....
  3. ncbi Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental morphogenesis
    S Mi
    Genetics Institute, Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140, USA
    Nature 403:785-9. 2000
    ..Our data indicate that syncytin may mediate placental cytotrophoblast fusion in vivo, and thus may be important in human placental morphogenesis...
  4. pmc CpG methylation controls reactivation of HIV from latency
    Jana Blazkova
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, UMR891, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille and Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000554. 2009
    ..Tight but incomplete control of HIV-1 latency by CpG methylation might have important implications for strategies aimed at eradicating HIV-1 infection...
  5. pmc The host genomic environment of the provirus determines the abundance of HTLV-1-infected T-cell clones
    Nicolas A Gillet
    Department of Immunology, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Blood 117:3113-22. 2011
    ..We demonstrate that negative selection dominates during chronic infection, favoring establishment of proviruses integrated in transcriptionally silenced DNA: this selection is significantly stronger in asymptomatic carriers...
  6. pmc IL-7 is a potent and proviral strain-specific inducer of latent HIV-1 cellular reservoirs of infected individuals on virally suppressive HAART
    Feng Xiang Wang
    Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:128-37. 2005
    ..The use of cytokines has been envisioned as an additional therapeutic strategy to stimulate latent proviruses in these individuals. Immune activation therapy using IL-2 has shown some promise...
  7. pmc Transcriptional interference antagonizes proviral gene expression to promote HIV latency
    Tina Lenasi
    Department of Medicine, Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:123-33. 2008
    ..Collectively, our findings suggest that TI contributes significantly to HIV latency and should be considered when attempting to purge the latent reservoir...
  8. ncbi Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) proviral load and disease progression in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers: a nationwide prospective study in Japan
    Masako Iwanaga
    Department of Hematology and Molecular Medicine, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki, Japan
    Blood 116:1211-9. 2010
    ....
  9. pmc Retroelements and the human genome: new perspectives on an old relation
    Norbert Bannert
    Robert Koch Institut, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14572-9. 2004
    ..After integration, most proviruses have been the subject of numerous amplifications and have suffered extensive deletions and mutations...
  10. ncbi Prostratin: activation of latent HIV-1 expression suggests a potential inductive adjuvant therapy for HAART
    J Kulkosky
    Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Blood 98:3006-15. 2001
    ..de novo human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection yet up-regulate viral expression from latent proviruses. Prostratin's lack of tumor promotion, coupled with its ability to block viral spread yet induce latent proviral ..
  11. ncbi Mechanisms of HIV latency: an emerging picture of complexity
    David M Margolis
    Departments of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, and Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3302 Michael Hooker Research Center, CB 7435, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599 7435, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 7:37-43. 2010
    ..Interrupting processes that maintain latency may allow therapeutic attack of this primary form of persistent HIV infection, but a better understanding of relevant mechanisms in vivo is needed...
  12. pmc Lysine methyltransferase G9a is required for de novo DNA methylation and the establishment, but not the maintenance, of proviral silencing
    Danny C Leung
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5718-23. 2011
    ..Furthermore, de novo DNA methylation of newly integrated proviruses is impaired in the G9a(-/-) line, phenocopying proviral DNA methylation and silencing defects observed in Dnmt3a-..
  13. pmc APOBEC3H haplotypes and HIV-1 pro-viral vif DNA sequence diversity in early untreated human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection
    P A Gourraud
    Department of Neurology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Hum Immunol 72:207-12. 2011
    ..015 mixed effects model). This effect may be due to enhanced susceptibility of A3H forms to HIV-1 Vif mediated viral suppression of sequence editing activity, slowing viral diversification and escape from immune responses...
  14. ncbi Comparative analysis of the mosaic genomes of tailed archaeal viruses and proviruses suggests common themes for virion architecture and assembly with tailed viruses of bacteria
    Mart Krupovic
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter 2, PO Box 56 Viikinkaari 5, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    J Mol Biol 397:144-60. 2010
    ..Here we identified nine proviruses that are clearly related to tailed bacterial viruses and integrated into chromosomes of species belonging to ..
  15. ncbi Variable contexts and levels of hypermutation in HIV-1 proviral genomes recovered from primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    Gustavo H Kijak
    Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine US Military HIV Research Program, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Virology 376:101-11. 2008
    ..Unlike other mechanisms of host restriction, the APOCEC-Vif interaction leaves an imprint on integrated proviruses in the form of G-->A hypermutation...
  16. pmc APOBEC3G expression and hypermutation are inversely associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) burden in vivo
    Yordanka Kourteva
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Virology 430:1-9. 2012
    ..These results indicate that A3G deaminase-dependent activity above a threshold level, and its deaminase-independent functions, contribute to decreasing Vif-positive virus replication in vivo...
  17. ncbi Selective changes of retroelement expression in human prostate cancer
    Wolfgang Goering
    Department of Urology, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Carcinogenesis 32:1484-92. 2011
    ..Expression of both proviruses was restricted to androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines and LTRs sequences containing steroid hormone-..
  18. pmc Comparative genomics of mutualistic viruses of Glyptapanteles parasitic wasps
    Christopher A Desjardins
    J Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Genome Biol 9:R183. 2008
    ....
  19. ncbi The regulation of HIV-1 gene expression: the emerging role of chromatin
    Guocheng He
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Dallas, Texas 75390 9113, USA
    DNA Cell Biol 21:697-705. 2002
    ..A better understanding of the role of chromatin in the regulation of HIV expression could lead to much-needed therapies against proviral genomes that are being actively transcribed, and those that are quiescent and persistent...
  20. pmc Characterization, mapping, and distribution of the two XMRV parental proviruses
    Oya Cingoz
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Genetics Program, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Virol 86:328-38. 2012
    ..multiple approaches that led to the identification of PreXMRV-2, as well as the distribution of both parental proviruses among different mouse species, are described...
  21. pmc Peripheral ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels correlate with and predict histological tissue lesion severity in naturally infected sheep
    Lynn M Herrmann-Hoesing
    U S Department of Agriculture, Pullman, WA 99164 6630, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:551-7. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that peripheral OPP provirus levels quantitatively contribute more to the development of histological lesions than the systemic anti-SU antibody host immune response...
  22. ncbi Sensitive and specific detection of proviral bovine leukemia virus by 5' Taq nuclease PCR using a 3' minor groove binder fluorogenic probe
    Ala E Lew
    Agency for Food and Fibre Sciences, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, c o Locked Mail Bag No 4, 4105, QLD, Moorooka, Australia
    J Virol Methods 115:167-75. 2004
    ..The TaqMan MGB assay based on the pol region was the most sensitive and specific for the detection of BLV. This is the first report of a sensitive BLV 5' Taq nuclease assay...
  23. pmc High circulating frequencies of tumor necrosis factor alpha- and interleukin-2-secreting human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-specific CD4+ T cells in patients with HTLV-1-associated neurological disease
    Peter K C Goon
    Department of Immunology, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    J Virol 77:9716-22. 2003
    ..The data suggest that HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cells play a role in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP...
  24. pmc Conserved footprints of APOBEC3G on Hypermutated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML2) sequences
    Andrew E Armitage
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Virol 82:8743-61. 2008
    ..To characterize their mutational preferences in detail, we analyzed single-copy, near-full-length HIV-1 proviruses which had been hypermutated in vitro by hA3G or hA3F...
  25. pmc Intensity of deoxycytidine deamination of HIV-1 proviral DNA by the retroviral restriction factor APOBEC3G is mediated by the noncatalytic domain
    Yuqing Feng
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    J Biol Chem 286:11415-26. 2011
    ..The data demonstrate that the balance between the jumping and sliding of Apo3G is needed for efficient mutational inactivation of HIV-1...
  26. pmc The antiviral factor APOBEC3G improves CTL recognition of cultured HIV-infected T cells
    Nicoletta Casartelli
    Unité Virus et Immunite, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Exp Med 207:39-49. 2010
    ..Enzymatically inactive A3G mutants failed to enhance CTL activation. We also engineered proviruses bearing premature stop codons in their genome as scars of A3G editing...
  27. pmc Transcriptional competence of the integrated HIV-1 provirus at the nuclear periphery
    Mariacarolina Dieudonne
    Laboratory of Molecular Virology, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology ICGEB, Trieste, Italy
    EMBO J 28:2231-43. 2009
    ....
  28. ncbi Biology and evolution of the endogenous koala retrovirus
    R Tarlinton
    School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Sutton Bonington, United Kingdom
    Cell Mol Life Sci 65:3413-21. 2008
    ..Part of a multi-author review)...
  29. pmc DNA methylation and expression of LINE-1 and HERV-K provirus sequences in urothelial and renal cell carcinomas
    A R Florl
    Urologische Klinik, , , Germany
    Br J Cancer 80:1312-21. 1999
    ..In contrast, transcripts from HERV-K proviruses were restricted to teratocarcinoma cell lines...
  30. ncbi Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: recent knowledge about an ancient infection
    Kristien Verdonck
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Lancet Infect Dis 7:266-81. 2007
    ..The understanding of the interaction between virus and host response has improved markedly, but there are still no clear surrogate markers for prognosis and there are few treatment options...
  31. pmc Relationship between residual plasma viremia and the size of HIV proviral DNA reservoirs in infected individuals receiving effective antiretroviral therapy
    Tae Wook Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:135-8. 2011
    ..Novel therapeutic strategies aimed at targeting the source of residual viremia may be necessary to achieve viral eradication...
  32. ncbi Characterization of the three HERV-H proviruses with an open envelope reading frame encompassing the immunosuppressive domain and evolutionary history in primates
    N de Parseval
    , CNRS UMR 1573, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, Villejuif Cedex, 94805, France
    Virology 279:558-69. 2001
    ..The associated proviruses, HERV-H/env62, HERV-H/env60, and HERV-H/env59 were sequenced together with their flanking DNA and mapped by FISH,..
  33. pmc Human endogenous retrovirus family HERV-K(HML-2) RNA transcripts are selectively packaged into retroviral particles produced by the human germ cell tumor line Tera-1 and originate mainly from a provirus on chromosome 22q11.21
    Klemens Ruprecht
    Institut fur Virologie, Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes, Haus 47, 66421 Homburg Saar, Germany
    J Virol 82:10008-16. 2008
    ....
  34. ncbi Usefulness of proviral load measurement for monitoring of disease activity in individual patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
    Norihiro Takenouchi
    Division of Molecular Pathology and Genetic Epidemiology, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Japan
    J Neurovirol 9:29-35. 2003
    ..These findings indicate that clinical progression of HAM/TSP is associated with increased proliferation or immigration of HTLV-I-infected lymphocytes in the central nervous system...
  35. ncbi Quantitative proviral DNA and antibody levels in the natural history of HTLV-I infection
    A Manns
    Viral Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA
    J Infect Dis 180:1487-93. 1999
    ..These viral markers were significantly lower in asymptomatic carriers than in HAM/TSP or ATL patients. Therefore, proviral load and antibody titers may be useful as predictive markers of disease among carriers...
  36. ncbi Natural progression of Bovine Leukemia Virus infection in Argentinean dairy cattle
    Gerónimo Gutierrez
    Instituto de Virologia, Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agronomicas, INTA, CC 1712, Castelar, Argentina
    Vet Microbiol 151:255-63. 2011
    ....
  37. pmc Infective dermatitis has similar immunological features to human T lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
    M C F Nascimento
    Servico de Imunologia, Hospital Universitario Professor Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    Clin Exp Immunol 156:455-62. 2009
    ..The similarities between the immunological response in patients with IDH and HAM/TSP and the high proviral load observed in IDH provide support that IDH is a risk factor for development of HAM/TSP...
  38. ncbi Presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) proviral DNA in genital tract tissues of superovulated dairy goat does
    F Fieni
    Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Theriogenology 59:1515-23. 2003
    ..01). This study demonstrated the presence of CAEV-infected cells in the goat genital tract. The presence of CAEV-infected cells in the uterus and oviducts suggests potential for vertical transmission of CAEV from doe to embryo or fetus...
  39. pmc Antisense transcription in gammaretroviruses as a mechanism of insertional activation of host genes
    Mads Heilskov Rasmussen
    Department of Molecular Biology, C F Møllers Allé 3, 1 130, Aarhus University, DK 8000 Arhus C, Denmark
    J Virol 84:3780-8. 2010
    ..Elucidation of the nature and potential regulatory role of 5' LTR antisense transcription will be relevant to the design of therapeutic vectors and may contribute to the increasing recognition of pervasive eukaryotic transcription...
  40. pmc RET: a poly A-trap retrovirus vector for reversible disruption and expression monitoring of genes in living cells
    Y Ishida
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 27:e35. 1999
    ..Finally, because of loxP-containing LTRs at both ends, the integrated proviruses can be removed from the genome of infected cells by Cre-mediated homologous recombination...
  41. ncbi Anti-Tax antibody levels in asymptomatic carriers, oligosymptomatic carriers, patients with rheumatologic disease or with HAM/TSP do not correlate with HTLV-1 proviral load
    Jaqueline Gontijo de Souza
    Laboratório de Biologia de Microrganismos Intracelulares, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
    J Clin Virol 50:13-8. 2011
    ..Biomarkers are needed to predict patients who are at risk for HAM/TSP. Tax is highly immunogenic and is a major target protein recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Anti-Tax antibodies are involved in HAM/TSP pathogenesis...
  42. pmc Characterization of a full-length endogenous beta-retrovirus, EqERV-beta1, in the genome of the horse (Equus caballus)
    Antoinette C van der Kuyl
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Centre for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Viruses 3:620-8. 2011
    ..Phylogenetically, EqERV-beta1 most closely resembles an unclassified retroviral sequence from cattle (Bos taurus), and the murine beta-retrovirus MMTV...
  43. pmc HTLV-1-infected T cells contain a single integrated provirus in natural infection
    Lucy B Cook
    Department of Immunology, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
    Blood 120:3488-90. 2012
    ..We conclude that a typical host possesses a large number of distinct HTLV-1-infected T-cell clones...
  44. ncbi Emergence of protease inhibitor resistance-associated mutations in plasma HIV-1 precedes that in proviruses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by more than a year
    Xiuqiong Bi
    AIDS Clinical Center, International Medical Center of Japan, and Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 34:1-6. 2003
    ..Plasma viruses had more PI resistance-associated mutations than PBMC proviruses (P = 0.0004)...
  45. pmc The encapsidated genome of Microplitis demolitor bracovirus integrates into the host Pseudoplusia includens
    Markus H Beck
    Department of Entomology, 413 Biological Sciences Bldg, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    J Virol 85:11685-96. 2011
    ..PDVs persist in wasps as integrated proviruses but are packaged as circularized and segmented double-stranded DNAs into the virions that wasps inject into ..
  46. ncbi The avidity and lytic efficiency of the CTL response to HTLV-1
    Tarek Kattan
    Department of Immunology, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 182:5723-9. 2009
    ..CTL quality determines the position of virus-host equilibrium in persistent HTLV-1 infection...
  47. pmc Proviruses selected for high and stable expression of transduced genes accumulate in broadly transcribed genome areas
    Jiri Plachy
    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, CZ 14220, Prague 4, Czech Republic
    J Virol 84:4204-11. 2010
    ..these tumors represent clonal expansions of cells bearing transcriptionally active replication-defective proviruses. Therefore, integration sites in our study distinguished genomic loci favorable for the expression of integrated ..
  48. ncbi Retroviruses in foreign species and the problem of provirus silencing
    J Svoboda
    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo n 2, 166 37, Prague 6, Czech Republic
    Gene 261:181-8. 2000
    Retroviruses are known to integrate in the host cell genome as proviruses, and therefore they are prone to cell-mediated control at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels...
  49. ncbi Viral biogeography revealed by signatures in Sulfolobus islandicus genomes
    Nicole L Held
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Environ Microbiol 11:457-66. 2009
    ..The combination of host and virus biogeography suggests a model for viral diversification driven by host immunity and local adaptation...
  50. ncbi HIV-1 proviral DNA excision using an evolved recombinase
    Indrani Sarkar
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, D 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Science 316:1912-5. 2007
    ..Although a long way from use in the clinic, we speculate that this type of technology might be adapted in future antiretroviral therapies, among other possible uses...
  51. ncbi Human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K113 is capable of producing intact viral particles
    Klaus Boller
    Paul Ehrlich Institut, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 51 59, D 63225 Langen, Germany
    J Gen Virol 89:567-72. 2008
    ..Thus, the HERV-K113 sequence is a candidate for particle production in vivo and for an active human endogenous retrovirus of today...
  52. pmc Splicing of human immunodeficiency virus RNA is position-dependent suggesting sequential removal of introns from the 5' end
    Jens Bohne
    Department of Virology, Universität Heidelberg D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:825-37. 2005
    ....
  53. ncbi Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1
    Lynn M Herrmann-Hoesing
    US Department of Agriculture, Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, Pullman, WA 99164 6630, USA
    Immunogenetics 60:749-58. 2008
    ..013-0.043) with higher OPP provirus levels. These results suggest that Ovar-DRB1 contributes as one host genetic factor that controls OPP provirus levels, but does not fully account for the breed-specific OPP proviral differences...
  54. pmc An infectious progenitor for the murine IAP retrotransposon: emergence of an intracellular genetic parasite from an ancient retrovirus
    David Ribet
    Unité des rétrovirus endogènes et éléments rétroïdes des eucaryotes supérieurs, CNRS UMR 8122, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, F 94805, France
    Genome Res 18:597-609. 2008
    ....
  55. ncbi Histone deacetylase mediated transcriptional activation reduces proviral loads in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients
    Agnes Lezin
    Laboratoire de Virologie Immunologie and Jeune Equipe JE 2503, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Fort de France, Fort de France, Martinique, France
    Blood 110:3722-8. 2007
    ..This trial is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov/as no. NCT00519181...
  56. pmc T-cell receptor signaling enhances transcriptional elongation from latent HIV proviruses by activating P-TEFb through an ERK-dependent pathway
    Young Kyeung Kim
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Room W200, Cleveland, OH 44106 4960, USA
    J Mol Biol 410:896-916. 2011
    Latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proviruses are thought to be primarily reactivated in vivo through stimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR)...
  57. pmc Sustained induction of NF-kappa B is required for efficient expression of latent human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Samuel A Williams
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, 1650 Owens Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    J Virol 81:6043-56. 2007
    Cells harboring infectious, but transcriptionally latent, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviruses currently pose an insurmountable barrier to viral eradication in infected patients...
  58. pmc BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: Quantitation of bovine leukemia virus proviral load using the CoCoMo algorithm
    Mayuko Jimba
    Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Retrovirology 7:91. 2010
    ....
  59. ncbi The multifactorial nature of HIV-1 latency
    Kara Lassen
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 879 BRB, 733N, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Trends Mol Med 10:525-31. 2004
    ..Therefore, latency is not simply due to an inaccessibility of the integrated proviruses to the transcriptional machinery...
  60. pmc Genome-wide analysis of chromosomal features repressing human immunodeficiency virus transcription
    M K Lewinski
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 79:6610-9. 2005
    ..and separated cells into populations containing well-expressed (GFP-positive) or poorly expressed (GFP-negative) proviruses. We then determined the chromosomal locations of the two classes by sequencing 971 junctions between viral and ..
  61. ncbi Involvement of IL-2/IL-2R system activation by parasite antigen in polyclonal expansion of CD4(+)25(+) HTLV-1-infected T-cells in human carriers of both HTLV-1 and S. stercoralis
    Masao Satoh
    Division of Pathology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4 6 1 Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo 108 8639, Japan
    Oncogene 21:2466-75. 2002
    ..stercoralis infection induces polyclonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells by activating the IL-2/IL-2R system in dually infected carriers, an event which may be a precipitating factor for ATL and inflammatory diseases...
  62. pmc The discovery of endogenous retroviruses
    Robin A Weiss
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, UK
    Retrovirology 3:67. 2006
    ..Here I recount some of the key observations in birds and mammals that led to the discovery of ERV, and comment on their evolution, cross-species dispersion, and what remains to be elucidated...
  63. pmc BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: a useful tool for evaluating bovine leukemia virus infection status
    Mayuko Jimba
    Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    BMC Vet Res 8:167. 2012
    ..In this study, we compared the sensitivity of our BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR method for detecting BLV proviruses with the sensitivities of two real-time PCR systems, and also determined the differences of proviral load with ..
  64. pmc Chromosomal distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus proviral sequences in the sheep genome
    Jonathan Carlson
    Department of Microbiology, Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    J Virol 77:9662-8. 2003
    ..Southern blot hybridization studies indicate that there is little active replication or movement of the enJSRV proviruses in these species. Two approaches were used to investigate the distribution of proviral loci in the sheep genome...
  65. ncbi Genetic map of the region surrounding the retrovirus restriction locus, Fv1, on mouse chromosome 4
    J P Stoye
    National Institute for Medical Research, Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, UK
    Mamm Genome 6:31-6. 1995
    ..We have typed 368 backcross mice for the four proviruses, Nppa, Lck, and D4Smh6b...
  66. ncbi Insertional mutation of int protooncogenes in the mammary tumors of a new strain of mice derived from the wild in China: normal- and tumor-tissue-specific expression of int-3 transcripts
    N H Sarkar
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta 30912
    Virology 203:52-62. 1994
    ....
  67. ncbi Genome-wide analysis of retroviral DNA integration
    Frederic Bushman
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6076, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:848-58. 2005
    ..Here, we review retroviral DNA integration, with emphasis on recent genome-wide studies of targeting and on the status of efforts to modulate target-site selection...
  68. pmc hnRNP C is required for postimplantation mouse development but Is dispensable for cell viability
    D J Williamson
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2363, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 20:4094-105. 2000
    ..These results indicate that the C1 and C2 hnRNPs are not required for any essential step in mRNA biogenesis; however, the proteins may influence the rate and/or fidelity of one or more steps...
  69. pmc Dynamics of viral and proviral loads of feline immunodeficiency virus within the feline central nervous system during the acute phase following intravenous infection
    G Ryan
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    J Virol 77:7477-85. 2003
    ..A final observation in this study was that there was no direct correlation between viral loads in regions of brain or ocular tissue and the presence of histopathology...
  70. pmc Endogenous MMTV proviruses induce susceptibility to both viral and bacterial pathogens
    Sanchita Bhadra
    Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 2:e128. 2006
    Most inbred mice carry germline proviruses of the retrovirus, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) (called Mtvs), which have multiple replication defects...
  71. pmc A sensitive, quantitative assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration
    Una O'Doherty
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6060, USA
    J Virol 76:10942-50. 2002
    ..It is specific for integration events, since no proviruses are detected in cells infected either in the presence of an integrase inhibitor or with an integrase-deficient ..
  72. ncbi Host factors exploited by retroviruses
    Stephen P Goff
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute HHSC 1310c, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 701 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:253-63. 2007
    ..Ongoing efforts are identifying an enormous array of cellular proteins that are used by the viruses in the course of their travels. These host factors are potential new targets for therapeutic intervention...
  73. pmc Short communication: activation of latent HIV type 1 gene expression by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), an HDAC inhibitor approved for use to treat cutaneous T cell lymphoma
    Leonard C Edelstein
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Immunology, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:883-7. 2009
    ..Activation of latent proviruses from the infected cells in combination with ART is a therapeutic strategy that may lead to the complete ..
  74. ncbi Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-specific CD4+ T cells: immunodominance hierarchy and preferential infection with HTLV-I
    Peter K C Goon
    Department of Immunology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 172:1735-43. 2004
    ..Finally, we conclude that HTLV-I-specific CD4(+) T cells are preferentially infected with HTLV-I...
  75. ncbi Presence of Maedi Visna virus (MVV)-proviral DNA in the genital tissues of naturally infected ewes
    C Cortez-Romero
    Department of Research into Health Risks and Biotechnology of Reproduction, Nantes Atlantic National College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering ONIRIS, France
    Reprod Domest Anim 46:e1-6. 2011
    ..This suggests that there is a risk of vertical and/or horizontal transmission of MVV during embryo transfer from embryos produced in vivo or in vitro...
  76. ncbi Variable regions 1 and 2 (VR1 and VR2) in JSRV gag are not responsible for the endogenous JSRV particle release defect
    Claus Hallwirth
    Department of Virology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
    Virus Genes 30:59-68. 2005
    ..These results point to a small number of amino acids lying outside of VR1 and VR2 that may be responsible for the particle defect of enJS56A1 Gag...
  77. pmc Near full-length genome analysis of low prevalent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subclade F1 in São Paulo, Brazil
    Sabri Saeed Sanabani
    Fundação Pró Sangue, Hemocentro, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Virol J 6:78. 2009
    ..In this study we aimed to characterize and define the molecular prevalence of HIV-1 subclade F1 currently circulating in São Paulo, Brazil...
  78. ncbi Effect of raltegravir intensification on HIV proviral DNA in the blood and gut mucosa of men on long-term therapy: a randomized controlled trial
    Duncan Chege
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    AIDS 26:167-74. 2012
    ..However, despite completely suppressive HAART, it has been suggested that low-levels of viral replication may persist in the gut mucosa and elsewhere in individuals on long-term HAART...
  79. ncbi Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the human endogenous retrovirus K113
    Nadine Beimforde
    Robert Koch Institut, ZBS 4, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Virology 371:216-25. 2008
    ..It carries inactivating mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene. These mutations can be reversed to reconstitute the active enzyme, but the reversion is not sufficient to reconstitute replication capacity of the virus...
  80. ncbi Insertional polymorphisms of full-length endogenous retroviruses in humans
    G Turner
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Curr Biol 11:1531-5. 2001
    ..endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) is distinctive among the retroviruses in the human genome in that many HERV-K proviruses were inserted into the human germline after the human and chimpanzee lineages evolutionarily diverged [1, 2]...
  81. ncbi Archaeal proviruses TKV4 and MVV extend the PRD1-adenovirus lineage to the phylum Euryarchaeota
    Mart Krupovic
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Biocenter 2, P O Box 56 Viikinkaari 5, FIN 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    Virology 375:292-300. 2008
    ..In this study we characterize the genomic sequences of two archaeal proviruses, TKV4 and MVV, integrated into the 5'- and 3'-distal regions of tRNA genes of the euryarchaeal species ..
  82. pmc Discovery of a novel murine type C retrovirus by data mining
    L Bromham
    Department of Zoology, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
    J Virol 75:3053-7. 2001
    ..This virus is present in multiple copies in the mouse genome and expressed in a range of mouse tissues...
  83. ncbi Presence of dUTPase in the various human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) families
    Jens Mayer
    Human Genetics, Building 60, University of Saar, Medical Faculty, 66421 Homburg, Germany
    J Mol Evol 57:642-9. 2003
    ..Our analysis provides informations on dUTPase phylogeny and further shows that endogenous retroviruses provide important informations regarding retrovirus evolution...
  84. pmc Characterization of hortulanus endogenous murine leukemia virus, an endogenous provirus that encodes an infectious murine leukemia virus of a novel subgroup
    Christopher H Tipper
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    J Virol 79:8316-29. 2005
    ..Thus, HEMV is a relatively recent introduction into the Mus germ line but is representative of a relatively ancestral MLV group...
  85. ncbi Evolution of endogenous retrovirus-like elements of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and its relatives
    A D Greenwood
    Division of Vertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 10024 5192, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 18:840-7. 2001
    ....
  86. pmc Human endogenous retrovirus K106 (HERV-K106) was infectious after the emergence of anatomically modern humans
    Aashish R Jha
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e20234. 2011
    ..and HERV-K115 have been considered to be among the youngest HERVs because they are the only known full-length proviruses that are insertionally polymorphic and maintain the open reading frames of their coding genes...
  87. ncbi Single-tube nested quantitative PCR: a rational and sensitive technique for detection of retroviral DNA. Application to RERV-H/HRV-5 and confirmation of its rabbit origin
    Anna Forsman
    Section of Virology, Department of Medical Sciences, Academic Hospital, Uppsala University, SE 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Virol Methods 111:1-11. 2003
    ..It is concluded that the stnQPCR developed to detect and quantify minute amounts of RERV-H/HRV-5 DNA is a principle which can be applied widely and HRV-5 is a RERV-H. Its presence in a few human blood samples could not be explained...
  88. pmc Active nuclear import of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 preintegration complexes
    M I Bukrinsky
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:6580-4. 1992
    ....
  89. pmc Microviridae goes temperate: microvirus-related proviruses reside in the genomes of Bacteroidetes
    Mart Krupovic
    Unité Biologie Moléculaire du Gène chez les Extrêmophiles, Department of Microbiology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e19893. 2011
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the putative major capsid proteins places the identified proviruses into a group separate from the previously characterized microviruses and gokushoviruses, suggesting that the ..
  90. ncbi A thaumarchaeal provirus testifies for an ancient association of tailed viruses with archaea
    Mart Krupovic
    Institut Pasteur, Unité Biologie Moléculaire du Gène chez les Extrêmophiles, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    Biochem Soc Trans 39:82-8. 2011
    ....
  91. ncbi Human T lymphotropic virus types I and II proviral sequences in Argentinian blood donors with indeterminate Western blot patterns
    A M Mangano
    Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Retrovirus, Hospital Nacional de Pediatria J P Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Med Virol 74:323-7. 2004
    ..However, seroreactivity to env proteins, in particular to GD21, may indicate infection and a follow-up study of each seroreactive blood donor should be considered...
  92. pmc Complete nucleotide sequence of simian endogenous type D retrovirus with intact genome organization: evidence for ancestry to simian retrovirus and baboon endogenous virus
    A C van Der Kuyl
    Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 71:3666-76. 1997
    ..Comparison of the evolution of BaEV, exogenous simian retrovirus types 1 to 3 (SRV1 to SRV3), and SERV suggests that SERV is ancestral to both BaEV and the SRVs...
  93. pmc Genetic analysis of Gv1, a gene controlling transcription of endogenous murine polytropic proviruses
    P L Oliver
    Division of Virology, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Virol 73:8227-34. 1999
    ..this assay demonstrates that Gv1 controls transcription of polytropic but not of modified polytropic endogenous proviruses. A combination of genetic techniques were used to map Gv1; these analyses demonstrate that Gv1 lies ..
  94. pmc Reticuloendotheliosis virus sequences within the genomes of field strains of fowlpox virus display variability
    Pratik Singh
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61802, USA
    J Virol 77:5855-62. 2003
    ..As to the in vivo environment, retention of the REV provirus may confer some benefit to FPV for infection of poultry previously vaccinated against fowlpox...
  95. pmc A single amino acid substitution in a segment of the CA protein within Gag that has similarity to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 blocks infectivity of a human endogenous retrovirus K provirus in the human genome
    David J Heslin
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Virol 83:1105-14. 2009
    ..component for the production of retrovirus particles, we investigated the abilities of Gag from two HERV-K proviruses to support production of virus-like particles and viral infectivity...
  96. ncbi Endogenous retroviruses and cancer
    K Ruprecht
    Institut fur Virologie, Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar, Germany
    Cell Mol Life Sci 65:3366-82. 2008
    ..Although available data suggest a potential role of HERVs in human cancers, in particular germ cell tumors, the contributions of HERVs to human tumorigenesis warrant further elucidation. (Part of a multi-author review)...
  97. ncbi Longitudinal monitoring of 2-long terminal repeat circles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic HIV-1 infection
    Audrey Brussel
    Departement des Maladies Infectieuses, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Universite Rene Descartes, Paris, France
    AIDS 17:645-52. 2003
    ..To evaluate the potential use of 2-long terminal repeats (LTR) HIV circular DNA quantification for the monitoring of ongoing virus replication in treated HIV-1-infected patients...
  98. ncbi Mutation of the major 5' splice site renders a CMV-driven HIV-1 proviral clone Tat-dependent: connections between transcription and splicing
    Jens Bohne
    Department of Virology, Universitat Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    FEBS Lett 563:113-8. 2004
    ..This defect was restored when a Tat expression plasmid was cotransfected. Our results support recent reports indicating an influence of the recognition of splice sites on efficient transcriptional elongation...
  99. ncbi Polymorphism in the interleukin-10 promoter affects both provirus load and the risk of human T lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
    Amir H Sabouri
    Department of Neurology and Geriatrics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan
    J Infect Dis 190:1279-85. 2004
    ..7% (standard deviation, +/-13.1%) of potential cases of HAM/TSP, which indicates that it defines one component of the genetic susceptibility to HAM/TSP in the cohort...
  100. pmc Identification of an infectious progenitor for the multiple-copy HERV-K human endogenous retroelements
    Marie Dewannieux
    Unité des rétrovirus endogènes et éléments rétroïdes des eucaryotes supérieurs, UMR 8122 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif Cedex, France
    Genome Res 16:1548-56. 2006
    ....
  101. pmc Integration of reporter transgenes into Schistosoma mansoni chromosomes mediated by pseudotyped murine leukemia virus
    Kristine J Kines
    Department of Tropical Medicine, and Biomedical Sciences Program, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    FASEB J 22:2936-48. 2008
    ....

Research Grants69

  1. Glial-neuronal interactions underlying the molecular feedback between HIV viral p
    Sulie L Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, the proposed studies have high clinical relevance and will contribute significantly to the understanding and treatment of neurological complications associated with substance abuse, HIV infection, and AIDS. ..
  2. HTLV-1 &Cellular Factors in Neuroinflammatory Disease
    Brian Wigdahl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  3. Retroviral Subversion of ERAD and Intrinsic Immunity
    JAQUELIN PAGE DUDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the second specific aim, exciting preliminary data have been presented showing that MMTV proviruses lacking RemCT expression have many G to A mutations compared to wild-type proviruses...
  4. Endogenous Retroviruses and the Immune Response to Pathogens
    JAQUELIN PAGE DUDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For example, endogenous proviruses related to the betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) (aka Mtvs) are known to affect the T-cell ..
  5. Markers of HIV Brain Disease under HAART: Validation in a Mouse Model
    David J Volsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  6. HIV integrase/DNA complexes and concerted integration
    Duane P Grandgenett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will determine if LEDGF/p75 physically interacts with SC and test whether it influences host-site selection on chromatinized supercoiled target DNA that contains HIV-1 host-site consensus sequences. ..
  7. Development of Novel AIDS Gene Therapy Strategies in the Macaque SHIV Model
    Hans Peter Kiem; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of gene-modified cells and explore means to reduce the potential for enhancer activation by integrated vector proviruses. In aim 3 we will challenge monkeys that have high marking levels to determine if our gene therapy approach can ..
  8. Cocaine induced selective epigenetic and signaling pathways enhance HIV replicati
    Mudit Tyagi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  9. Mode of action of a new Tat HIV-1 inhibitor
    Susana T Valente; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In order to generate a backup compound we will evaluate additional analogs generated during the course of this project. These analogs will be subsequently tested in the humanized mouse model. ..
  10. POTENTIATED STATE OF THE HSP70 HEAT SHOCK GENE
    DAVID SCOTT GILMOUR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DSIF and P-TEFb both contribute to transcription of the HIV provirus, and an inhibitor of P-TEFb is in phase 2 clinical trials for cancer therapy. ..
  11. A New Insight into HIV-1 Latency Through a Novel in Vitro System
    Fabio Romerio; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The new knowledge we expect to draw from these studies could lead to the design of new therapies aimed at the pool of latently infected cells, and to virus eradication. ..
  12. Drugs of abuse and the epigenetic and signaling pathways controlling HIV latency
    Richard M Ransohoff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..latently infected microglial cells and neurons we will study the impact METH on the induction of latent HIV proviruses and their subsequent neurotoxicity...
  13. The Significance of Polymorphic Endogenous Retroviruses to Human Mental Health
    JULIA HALO WILDSCHUTTE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The HERV-K(HML-2) proviruses represent the most recently integrated HERV group...
  14. Tpl2 in Intestinal Tumorigenesis
    Philip N Tsichlis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Work proposed in this application will focus on the role of Tpl2 in the regulation of pre-LOH and post-LOH events in intestinal tumorigenesis induced by APC mutations. ..
  15. Cocaine enhances HIV replication by inducing transcriptionally active chromatin s
    Mudit Tyagi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore, it would not be surprising if the gene expression of integrated HIV proviruses are also influenced with this type of stimuli...
  16. Regulation of HTLV-1 and cellular gene transcription by the viral protein HBZ
    ISABELLE MICHELE LEMASSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test whether abnormal expression of specific genes underlies certain biological aspects of HTLV-1 infection that may relate to development or clinical presentations of ATL. ..
  17. P-TEFb and HIV Latency
    Andrew P Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, these patients possess a reservoir of cells harboring latent HIV-1 proviruses that spontaneously reactivate upon cessation of anti-viral drugs, thereby precluding a cure of infection...
  18. Racial disparities in human endogenous retrovirus and breast cancer
    Li Tang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  19. HERV-K18 as a Risk Factor for CFIDS
    Brigitte T Huber; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We propose a novel genetic aspect in the EBV/ CFS association, namely the presence of certain HERV-K18 alleles that differ in their superantigen activity. ..
  20. Retroviral Integration &HDAC inhibitors
    Monica J Roth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Understanding the role of the IN protein in establishing this epigenetic state is a new and significant area for gene delivery. ..
  21. Mechanisms of chromatin regulation that drive HIV latency
    David M Margolis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..To overcome HIV latency a more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind persistent infection is needed. ..
  22. Innovative therapies to elimate persistent HIV Infection
    David M Margolis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Within the Integrated Program, we will facilitate the study of "anti-latency therapy" on cells from HIV infected patients, and in model systems to move towards reagents might be used in future efforts to clear HIV infection. ..
  23. Integration of Retroviral DNA: Accessing Host Target DNA
    Anna Marie Skalka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..comprehensive and systematic approaches to distinguish the physical and functional epigenetic features of silent proviruses that are established soon after infection (initiation) and after long-term passage (maintenance)...
  24. Control of Latent/Persistent HIV Infection in Primary CD4 T Cells
    Celsa A Spina; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Knowledge derived from these studies will add significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling HIV latency --- which is a critical step in the path to developing new treatment strategies. ..
  25. Specific killing of latently HIV-1-infected cells after provirus reactivation
    Qigui Yu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mainly due to the persistent existence of long-lived latently-infected cells harboring replication-competent proviruses. Efforts to purge these infected cells have focused on reactivation of the proviruses...
  26. HIV mutagenesis and evolution
    Louis M Mansky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, we will investigate the origins of G-to-A transition mutations in HIV-1 proviruses to determine if frequent, yet sublethal cytosine deamination induced by APOBEC3 proteins impact HIV-1 variation...
  27. Synthetic Molecular Sensors to Target Latently Infected Cells for HIV Eradication
    Christopher H Woelk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., adeno-associated virus) for the treatment of HIV-infected patients, where, in contrast to gene therapy, they will only require transient expression to induce the destruction of latently infected cells. ..
  28. Elucidation of the Mechanisms of CD8+ T Cell Noncytolytic Antiviral Response
    Kevin O Saunders; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Determining the mechanism of this immune response will provide a greater understanding of the host pathogen-interaction in HIV infection and potentially lead to the development of novel HIV therapeutics. ..
  29. Decay rate of archived HIV-1 drug resistance mutations
    DAVID ALLENBERG KATZENSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The information generated will have important implications for developing future treatment options for ART strategies to reduce clinical failure and mitigate the transmission of drug resistance. ! ..
  30. Functional analysis of a symbiotic polydnavirus
    Gaelen R Burke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..braconid wasps evolved from pathogenic nudiviruses but are now beneficial symbionts that persist as integrated proviruses but which replicate at a very specific time in the wasp life cycle to produce virions...
  31. RETROVIRUS EVOLUTION
    John M Coffin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to become integrated in the genome of their host species and passed down through the generations as endogenous proviruses. In the prior project period, we have engaged all these aspects of retrovirus evolution: We have studied the ..
  32. HIV-1 evolution in the female genital tract and trafficking to the blood
    Lisa M Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..virions to generate a viral load of 50-500c/mL, this gave further support to a developing hypothesis that HIV proviruses are amplified in proliferating cells, and that at times these cells produce virions without full rounds of ..
  33. Regulatuion of HIV-1 Gene Expression in Latency by YY1, RuvB2, and ZAP
    STEPHEN PAINE GOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Multiple mechanisms have been reported by which HIV-1 proviruses are maintained in a silent state in these cells...
  34. CD8+ T cell mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication in Elite Suppressors
    Joel N Blankson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This project plans to determine how CD8+ T cells from ES control the virus;the results may be applicable to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. ..
  35. Towards therapy-induced lethal HIV mutagenesis
    J VICTOR GARCIA-MARTINEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  36. HIV-1 Replication Without Integration
    David N Levy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 4. Develop descriptive and predictive mathematical models of uDNA's contribution to HIV-1 replication and diversification to explore our main hypothesis. ..
  37. Development and Safety Evaluation of Chemo-Protective Gene Therapy Vectors
    Brian C Beard; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ....
  38. Mechanism of HIV-1 Tat Function
    Andrew Rice; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will screen the human kinome for kinases that are involved in reactivation of latent HIV-1 proviruses. Our initial results of this screen have identified candidate kinases that when over-expressed appear to ..
  39. Determining the Role of APOBEC3 Proteins in HIV-1 Drug Resistance
    JOHN SQUIRE ALBIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In sufficient numbers, these mutations lead to the inactivation of proviruses. In patients, APOBECS-mediated restriction is incapable of controlling viral replication because the most potent ..
  40. Targeted Modification of Host and Proviral DNA to Treat Latent HIV Infection
    Hans Peter Kiem; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given our leading roles in Transplantation and HIV research, we believe we are uniquely positioned to move these concepts from a highly relevant nonhuman primate HIV/SHIV model toward a cure for HIV-infected patients. ..
  41. Transcription mechanisms that contribute to HIV-1 latency
    Andrew J Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..point for HIV transcription and that NELF, a factor that pauses RNA polymerase II, re-enforces repression of HIV proviruses by recruiting a termination factor Pcf11 and transcriptional corepressors to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat...
  42. Mutagenesis Screen for Prostate Cancer
    Grant D Trobridge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These genes can be targeted in future studies to inhibit prostate cancer or used as biomarkers. In future studies our approach may be used for other types of cancer to accelerate the pace of cancer research with broad potential impact. ..
  43. Transcriptional mechanisms that contribute to HIV-1 latency
    Andrew J Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..point for HIV transcription and that NELF, a factor that pauses RNA polymerase II, re-enforces repression of HIV proviruses by recruiting a termination factor Pcf11 and transcriptional corepressors to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat...
  44. Effects of cocaine on HIV infection of quiescent T cells
    Dimitrios N Vatakis; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  45. New Inhibitors of HIV Replication
    Gabriele Varani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..therapy and has prompted continued interest in developing inhibitors that block the re-emergence of latent proviruses. The goal of this research project is to continue the development of new antiviral leads that target the HIV TAR ..
  46. Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS-V)
    Kathryn M Anastos; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also continue our excellent operational performance in providing high volume, complete, high quality data both for the WIHS core activities, and all substudies. ..
  47. Tat cofactors and control of HIV-1 latency
    Qiang Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of HIV-1 are the principal impediment to eradication of infection as they harbor transcriptionally silent proviruses that resume replication once therapy is disrupted...
  48. HIV-1 evolution in the female genital tract and trafficking to the blood
    Lisa M Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the genital tract of women, proliferation of cells with proviruses is probably due to exposures to infections and to traumas (e.g., sexual intercourse, tampons, etc.)...
  49. Regulation of HIV Transcription Elongation
    Andrew J Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  50. Martin Delaney Collaboratory to Eradicate HIV-1 Infection
    David M Margolis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We are convinced that together we will catalyze advances that will ultimately lead to the eradication of HIV infection. ..
  51. Simulator for Primary HIV Replication and Evolution
    Ha Youn Lee; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This project will develop a computational simulation that can be used to model this critical phase of virus infection. The model is expected to have important utility in helping to design safe and effective HIV/AIDS vaccines. ..
  52. Efficacy of antiretroviral inhibitors in HIV cell-to-cell transmission
    WALTHER H MOTHES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importanty, it increases the number of proviruses in infected target cells thereby leading to higher viral gene expression as compared to infections by cell-free ..
  53. ANALYSIS OF CELLULAR ONCOGENES IN VIRUS-INDUCED TUMORS
    David Steffen; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..15 precent of MoMLV-induced lymphomas have proviruses integrated next to a known proto-oncogene, c-myc...
  54. Quantifying The Effect Of HIV Latency
    THOMAS K LEITNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  55. An Ex Vivo Model of HIV-1 Latency and Reactivation using Primary Memory Cells
    Vicente Planelles; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This model faithfully recapitulates salient features of the in vivo latent reservoir. For example, latent proviruses in this system are devoid of any detectable gene expression, yet, they are perfectly competent for gene ..
  56. Mechanism/predictors of genital/rectal HIV shedding during ART w/plasma <50c/mL
    Lisa M Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A better understanding of this discordant genital tract and rectal shedding should allow us to develop better treatment strategies that should reduce HIV transmission. ..
  57. Cell Surface Marker Combinations to Identify Latently Infected CD4+ Cells In Vivo
    Fabio Romerio; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This work is a partnership with Nicolas Chomont at VGTI-Florida, who developed ultra-sensitive techniques to measure integrated HIV-1 provirus in clinical samples, and viral RNA after ex vivo reactivation. ..
  58. A Micro-Co-Culture Assay for Single-Cell Analysis of HIV Latency
    Matthew C Strain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Single-cell analyses using these correlated measurements will quantitatively assess the importance of replication-defective proviruses and of homeostatic proliferation.
  59. The Center for HIV RNA Studies (CRNA)
    Alice Telesnitsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..including the development of novel antiviral compounds, design of new strategies for the reactivation of latent proviruses, and the augmentation of host defenses against HIV infection...
  60. Roles of endothelial cells in HIV infection and latency in resting CD4+ T cells
    Anding Shen; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..from patients or from in vitro generation will be co-cultured with endothelial cells to examine reactivation of proviruses. 3) to identify cellular factors potentially involved in allowing HIV infection in endothelial-cell- stimulated ..
  61. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF THE HIV ENV GENE PRODUCT
    Eric Hunter; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  62. FUNCTION FOR VPR AND VPX OF PRIMATE LENTIVIRUSES
    Mario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  63. Genoplasty in Ocular Gene Therapy
    JOHN NICKERSON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..goal circumvents most major problems associated with current strategies of gene therapy mediated by viruses or proviruses, antisense oligonucleotides, or ribozymes...
  64. RECOGNITION OF LEUKEMIA ANTIGEN BY ANTI-VIRAL CTL'S
    HILLARY WHITE; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The cell surface viral antigens expressed by these proviruses and recognized by CTL will then be studied and compared by transfecting recombinant proviral subclones into ..
  65. PREVALENCE AND PATHOLOGIC BURDEN OF HTLV-II INFECTION
    Brian Hjelle; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The goal of this study is to define any potential of HTLV-II to induce lymphoid neoplasms in the HTLV-II-endemic populations...
  66. MMTV GENE PRODUCTS AND TRANSFORMATION
    Janis Racevskis; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..interaction will be studied with the full length as well as the truncated forms of the LTR found in amplified proviruses of certain leukemia cells...
  67. TRANSCOMPLEMENTATION SYSTEM TO STUDY PROVIRUS SYNTHESIS
    John Kappes; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Importantly, our preliminary data demonstrate that the DNA synthesis of IN and RT defective proviruses can be restored by trans complementation with Vpr-RT and Vpr-IN fusion proteins, respectively...
  68. Oxalamate Derivatives as HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors
    John Babu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The rationally designed compounds of this proposal would increase the repertoire of the IN inhibitors which is hitherto limited and some of these compounds may be useful in the treatment of drug resistance to IN inhibitors. ..
  69. TARGETED GENE THERAPY FOR HEMOPHILIA A
    Wadie Bahou; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..for fVIII gene therapy strategies, as AAV infection is not associated with human diseases, and cells carrying proviruses fail to express novel cell-surface antigens, thereby failing to serve as immunological targets...