flagella

Summary

Summary: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. pmc The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functions
    Sabeeha S Merchant
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 318:245-50. 2007
  2. ncbi Coordinating assembly of a bacterial macromolecular machine
    Fabienne F V Chevance
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:455-65. 2008
  3. ncbi Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants
    Mikkel Klausen
    Molecular Microbial Ecology Group, BioCentrum DTU, Building 301, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    Mol Microbiol 48:1511-24. 2003
  4. ncbi Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli biofilm formation: roles of flagella, motility, chemotaxis and type I pili
    L A Pratt
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Microbiol 30:285-93. 1998
  5. ncbi Intraflagellar transport
    Joel L Rosenbaum
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:813-25. 2002
  6. ncbi Intraflagellar transport (IFT) role in ciliary assembly, resorption and signalling
    Lotte B Pedersen
    Department of Biology, Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 13, DK 2100 Copenhagen OE, Denmark
    Curr Top Dev Biol 85:23-61. 2008
  7. ncbi Flagella and bacterial pathogenicity
    Qiangde Duan
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China
    J Basic Microbiol 53:1-8. 2013
  8. pmc Chlamydomonas IFT88 and its mouse homologue, polycystic kidney disease gene tg737, are required for assembly of cilia and flagella
    G J Pazour
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    J Cell Biol 151:709-18. 2000
  9. pmc A field guide to bacterial swarming motility
    Daniel B Kearns
    Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:634-44. 2010
  10. ncbi The molecular architecture of axonemes revealed by cryoelectron tomography
    Daniela Nicastro
    Laboratory for 3D Electron Microscopy of Cells, Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, CB 347, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0347, USA
    Science 313:944-8. 2006

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications350 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functions
    Sabeeha S Merchant
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 318:245-50. 2007
    ..for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants...
  2. ncbi Coordinating assembly of a bacterial macromolecular machine
    Fabienne F V Chevance
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:455-65. 2008
    ..In this Review, we discuss this mechanism, together with others that also coordinate gene regulation and flagellar assembly in Gram-negative bacteria...
  3. ncbi Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants
    Mikkel Klausen
    Molecular Microbial Ecology Group, BioCentrum DTU, Building 301, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    Mol Microbiol 48:1511-24. 2003
    Biofilm formation by Gfp-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants in flow chambers irrigated with citrate minimal medium was characterized by the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy and comstat ..
  4. ncbi Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli biofilm formation: roles of flagella, motility, chemotaxis and type I pili
    L A Pratt
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Microbiol 30:285-93. 1998
    ..In light of the observations presented here, a working model is discussed that describes the roles of both motility and type I pili in biofilm development...
  5. ncbi Intraflagellar transport
    Joel L Rosenbaum
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:813-25. 2002
    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella, including primary cilia and sensory cilia, are highly conserved organelles that project from the surfaces of many cells...
  6. ncbi Intraflagellar transport (IFT) role in ciliary assembly, resorption and signalling
    Lotte B Pedersen
    Department of Biology, Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 13, DK 2100 Copenhagen OE, Denmark
    Curr Top Dev Biol 85:23-61. 2008
    Cilia and flagella have attracted tremendous attention in recent years as research demonstrated crucial roles for these organelles in coordinating a number of physiologically and developmentally important signaling pathways, including the ..
  7. ncbi Flagella and bacterial pathogenicity
    Qiangde Duan
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China
    J Basic Microbiol 53:1-8. 2013
    As locomotive organelles, flagella allow bacteria to move toward favorable environments. A flagellum consists of three parts: the basal structure (rotary motor), the hook (universal joint), and the filament (helical propeller)...
  8. pmc Chlamydomonas IFT88 and its mouse homologue, polycystic kidney disease gene tg737, are required for assembly of cilia and flagella
    G J Pazour
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    J Cell Biol 151:709-18. 2000
    ..protein particles along flagellar microtubules and is required for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic flagella. We cloned and sequenced a Chlamydomonas cDNA encoding the IFT88 subunit of the IFT particle and identified a ..
  9. pmc A field guide to bacterial swarming motility
    Daniel B Kearns
    Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:634-44. 2010
    How bacteria regulate, assemble and rotate flagella to swim in liquid media is reasonably well understood...
  10. ncbi The molecular architecture of axonemes revealed by cryoelectron tomography
    Daniela Nicastro
    Laboratory for 3D Electron Microscopy of Cells, Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, CB 347, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0347, USA
    Science 313:944-8. 2006
    Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are built on a 9 + 2 array of microtubules plus >250 accessory proteins, forming a biological machine called the axoneme...
  11. pmc An energy transduction mechanism used in bacterial flagellar type III protein export
    Tohru Minamino
    Graduate School of Frontier Bioscience, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
    Nat Commun 2:475. 2011
    ....
  12. pmc CEP290 tethers flagellar transition zone microtubules to the membrane and regulates flagellar protein content
    Branch Craige
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Cell Biol 190:927-40. 2010
    ..Biochemical analysis of isolated flagella revealed that the mutant flagella have abnormal protein content, including abnormal levels of intraflagellar ..
  13. pmc Coupling of flagellar gene expression to flagellar assembly in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and Escherichia coli
    G S Chilcott
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64:694-708. 2000
    ..Cell cycle control and flagellar development are codependent. We discuss how all these levels of regulation ensure efficient assembly of the flagellum in response to environmental stimuli...
  14. ncbi Motility and chemotaxis in Campylobacter and Helicobacter
    Paphavee Lertsethtakarn
    Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 65:389-410. 2011
    ..Chemoreceptors in these bacteria contain nonconserved ligand binding domains, with several chemoreceptors matched to environmental signals. Together, these mechanisms allow for swimming motility that is essential for colonization...
  15. ncbi Toll-like receptor 5 recognizes a conserved site on flagellin required for protofilament formation and bacterial motility
    Kelly D Smith
    Institute for Systems Biology, 1441 North 34th Street, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:1247-53. 2003
    ..These studies demonstrate the exquisite ability of the innate immune system to precisely target a conserved site on flagellin that is essential for bacterial motility...
  16. pmc The dynein regulatory complex is the nexin link and a major regulatory node in cilia and flagella
    Thomas Heuser
    Biology Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
    J Cell Biol 187:921-33. 2009
    Cilia and flagella are highly conserved microtubule (MT)-based organelles with motile and sensory functions, and ciliary defects have been linked to several human diseases...
  17. ncbi A molecular clutch disables flagella in the Bacillus subtilis biofilm
    Kris M Blair
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Science 320:1636-8. 2008
    ..The clutch is a simple, rapid, and potentially reversible form of motility control...
  18. pmc Radial spoke proteins of Chlamydomonas flagella
    Pinfen Yang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA
    J Cell Sci 119:1165-74. 2006
    The radial spoke is a ubiquitous component of '9+2' cilia and flagella, and plays an essential role in the control of dynein arm activity by relaying signals from the central pair of microtubules to the arms...
  19. pmc Intraflagellar transport (IFT) cargo: IFT transports flagellar precursors to the tip and turnover products to the cell body
    Hongmin Qin
    MCDB Dept, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Cell Biol 164:255-66. 2004
    ..protein particles along axonemal microtubules and is required for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic flagella and cilia. One posited role of IFT is to transport flagellar precursors to the flagellar tip for assembly...
  20. ncbi A four-tiered transcriptional regulatory circuit controls flagellar biogenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Nandini Dasgupta
    Department of Medicine Infectious Diseases, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Mol Microbiol 50:809-24. 2003
    ..Two previously uncharacterized genes, which are coordinately regulated with known flagellar genes have been identified by genome-wide analysis and their role in flagellar biogenesis was analysed...
  21. ncbi The type III secretion injectisome
    Guy R Cornelis
    Biozentrum der Universitat Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50, CH 4056, Basel, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:811-25. 2006
    ..However, despite the ongoing concerted efforts of molecular and structural biologists, the role of many of the constituent components of this nanomachine remain unknown...
  22. pmc The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii BBSome is an IFT cargo required for export of specific signaling proteins from flagella
    Karl Ferdinand Lechtreck
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 01655, USA
    J Cell Biol 187:1117-32. 2009
    ..We purified a BBSome-like complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella and found that it contains at least BBS1, -4, -5, -7, and -8 and undergoes intraflagellar transport (IFT) in ..
  23. pmc Intraflagellar transport is required for polarized recycling of the TCR/CD3 complex to the immune synapse
    Francesca Finetti
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Nat Cell Biol 11:1332-9. 2009
    ....
  24. pmc Three-dimensional cellular architecture of the flagellar pocket and associated cytoskeleton in trypanosomes revealed by electron microscope tomography
    Sylvain Lacomble
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    J Cell Sci 122:1081-90. 2009
    ..Overall, our studies reveal a highly organised, yet dynamic, area of cytoplasm and will be informative in understanding its function...
  25. ncbi Assembly of the paraflagellar rod and the flagellum attachment zone complex during the Trypanosoma brucei cell cycle
    L Kohl
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 46:105-9. 1999
    ....
  26. pmc Flagella overexpression attenuates Salmonella pathogenesis
    Xinghong Yang
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e46828. 2012
    b>Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis...
  27. pmc Polarity and asymmetry in the arrangement of dynein and related structures in the Chlamydomonas axoneme
    Khanh Huy Bui
    Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
    J Cell Biol 198:913-25. 2012
    ..These findings shed light on the intricate organization of Chlamydomonas flagella, provide clues to the mechanism that produces asymmetric flagellar beating, and pose a new challenge for the ..
  28. pmc Cell population heterogeneity during growth of Bacillus subtilis
    Daniel B Kearns
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 19:3083-94. 2005
    ..Cell population heterogeneity could enable B. subtilis to exploit its present location through the production of sessile cells as well as to explore new environmental niches through the generation of nomadic cells...
  29. pmc Identification of new flagellar genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
    Jonathan Frye
    Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Bacteriol 188:2233-43. 2006
    ..Null alleles in cheV, mcpA, mcpB, mcpC, and srfB did not affect motility, while deletion of yhjH did result in reduced motility compared to that of the wild type...
  30. ncbi The molecular motor toolbox for intracellular transport
    Ronald D Vale
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell 112:467-80. 2003
    ..Remarkably, fungi, parasites, plants, and animals have distinct subsets of Toolbox motors in their genomes, suggesting an underlying diversity of strategies for intracellular transport...
  31. pmc Bacterial nanomachines: the flagellum and type III injectisome
    Marc Erhardt
    Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg 1700, Switzerland
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a000299. 2010
    ....
  32. ncbi Ultrastructure of cilia and flagella - back to the future!
    Cathy Fisch
    ATIGE Centriole and Associated Pathologies, INSERM UEVE U829, 91000 Evry, France
    Biol Cell 103:249-70. 2011
    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella perform motility and sensory functions which are essential for cell survival in protozoans, and to organism development and homoeostasis in metazoans...
  33. pmc Intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein IFT25 is a phosphoprotein component of IFT complex B and physically interacts with IFT27 in Chlamydomonas
    Zhaohui Wang
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e5384. 2009
    ..The function of IFT proteins in flagellar assembly has been extensively investigated. However, much less is known about the molecular mechanism of how IFT is regulated...
  34. ncbi Distinct roles of the FliI ATPase and proton motive force in bacterial flagellar protein export
    Tohru Minamino
    Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1 3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nature 451:485-8. 2008
    ..The rest of the successive unfolding/translocation process of the substrates is driven by proton motive force...
  35. ncbi The trypanosome flagellar pocket
    Mark C Field
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 7:775-86. 2009
    ..In this Review we discuss the contribution of the flagellar pocket to protein trafficking, immune evasion and other processes...
  36. pmc Building the centriole
    Juliette Azimzadeh
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    Curr Biol 20:R816-25. 2010
    ..that lie at the core of the animal centrosome and play a crucial role in nucleating the formation of cilia and flagella in most eukaryotes. Centrioles have a complex ultrastructure with ninefold symmetry and a well-defined length...
  37. ncbi Dynein structure and power stroke
    Stan A Burgess
    Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology and School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
    Nature 421:715-8. 2003
    ..and image processing to reveal new structural details of dynein c, an isoform from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, at the start and end of its power stroke...
  38. pmc Secretion of virulence proteins from Campylobacter jejuni is dependent on a functional flagellar export apparatus
    Michael E Konkel
    School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:3296-303. 2004
    ..Mutations were generated in five genes encoding three structural components of the flagella, the flagellar basal body (flgB and flgC), hook (flgE2), and filament (flaA and flaB) genes, as well as in genes ..
  39. pmc Docking of cytosolic chaperone-substrate complexes at the membrane ATPase during flagellar type III protein export
    Joanne Thomas
    Department of Pathology, Cambridge University, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3945-50. 2004
    ..Our data establish a key event in the type III protein export mechanism, docking of the cytosolic chaperone-substrate complex at the ATPase of the membrane-export apparatus...
  40. pmc Expression of flagella is coincident with uropathogenic Escherichia coli ascension to the upper urinary tract
    M Chelsea Lane
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0620, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16669-74. 2007
    ..Previous studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated a modest yet important role for flagella during ascending UTI...
  41. ncbi Functional genomics in Trypanosoma brucei identifies evolutionarily conserved components of motile flagella
    Desiree M Baron
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Cell Sci 120:478-91. 2007
    Cilia and flagella are highly conserved, complex organelles involved in a variety of important functions...
  42. pmc The AlgT-dependent transcriptional regulator AmrZ (AlgZ) inhibits flagellum biosynthesis in mucoid, nonmotile Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolates
    Anne H Tart
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1064, USA
    J Bacteriol 188:6483-9. 2006
    ..Since fleQ directly or indirectly controls the expression of almost all flagellar genes, its repression ultimately leads to the loss of flagellum biosynthesis...
  43. pmc Structural studies of ciliary components
    Naoko Mizuno
    Department of Structural Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Mol Biol 422:163-80. 2012
    ..In this review, we cover recent advances in the structural and mechanistic understanding of ciliary components and IFT complexes...
  44. pmc Intraflagellar transport protein 27 is a small G protein involved in cell-cycle control
    Hongmin Qin
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Curr Biol 17:193-202. 2007
    ..IFT is essential for the assembly and maintenance of almost all eukaryotic cilia and flagella, and mutations affecting either the IFT motors or the IFT particle polypeptides result in the inability to ..
  45. ncbi Analysis of the trypanosome flagellar proteome using a combined electron transfer/collisionally activated dissociation strategy
    Sarah R Hart
    Michael Barber Centre for Mass Spectrometry, School of Chemistry and Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
    J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 20:167-75. 2009
    ..Thus, a combined ETD/CAD approach leads to the recognition of more peptides and proteins than are achieved using peptide analysis by CAD- or ETD-based tandem mass spectrometry alone...
  46. pmc Cryoelectron tomography of radial spokes in cilia and flagella
    Gaia Pigino
    Biomolecular Research Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
    J Cell Biol 195:673-87. 2011
    ..In this paper, we show the detailed three-dimensional (3D) structure of RS in situ in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella and Tetrahymena thermophila cilia that we obtained using cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET)...
  47. pmc Subunit interactions and organization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii intraflagellar transport complex A proteins
    Robert H Behal
    Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Reproductive Biology, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:11689-703. 2012
    ..antibody pulldowns, we show that all six A subunits are associated in a 16 S complex in both the cell bodies and flagella. A significant fraction of the cell body IFT43, however, exhibits a much slower sedimentation of ∼2 S and is ..
  48. ncbi Conserved and specific functions of axoneme components in trypanosome motility
    Carole Branche
    INSERM U565 and CNRS UMR5153 and MNHN USM0503, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 43 rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Cell Sci 119:3443-55. 2006
    ..Finally, our study also reveals the conservation of molecular components of the trypanosome flagellum. Coupled to the ease of reverse genetics, it raises the interest of trypanosomes as model organisms to study cilia and flagella.
  49. ncbi Trypanosome IFT mutants provide insight into the motor location for mobility of the flagella connector and flagellar membrane formation
    Jacqueline A Davidge
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RE, UK
    J Cell Sci 119:3935-43. 2006
    The flagella connector (FC) of procyclic trypanosomes is a mobile, transmembrane junction important in providing cytotactic morphogenetic information to the daughter cell...
  50. ncbi Flagellar motility is required for the viability of the bloodstream trypanosome
    Richard Broadhead
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK
    Nature 440:224-7. 2006
    The 9 + 2 microtubule axoneme of flagella and cilia represents one of the most iconic structures built by eukaryotic cells and organisms...
  51. ncbi Motility influences biofilm architecture in Escherichia coli
    Thomas K Wood
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 3122, USA
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72:361-7. 2006
    ..The presence of flagella was also found to be important as qseB and fliA mutants (which lack flagella) had less biofilm than the isogenic ..
  52. pmc The Trypanosoma brucei flagellum: moving parasites in new directions
    Katherine S Ralston
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 63:335-62. 2009
    ....
  53. ncbi Gradual activation of the response regulator DegU controls serial expression of genes for flagellum formation and biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis
    Kazuo Kobayashi
    Graduate School of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916 5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630 0192, Japan
    Mol Microbiol 66:395-409. 2007
    ..Taken together, we propose that a gradual increase in DegU and phospho-DegU levels induces a transition from growth as motile cells to growth as sessile, biofilm-forming cells...
  54. ncbi Common architecture of the flagellar type III protein export apparatus and F- and V-type ATPases
    Tatsuya Ibuki
    Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 18:277-82. 2011
    ..These results suggest that the type III protein export system and F- and V-type ATPases share a similar mechanism and an evolutionary relationship...
  55. ncbi Flagella-driven chemotaxis towards exudate components is an important trait for tomato root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens
    Sandra de Weert
    Leiden University, Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, The Netherlands
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 15:1173-80. 2002
    ..that this role of motility is based on chemotaxis toward exudate components, cheA mutants that were defective in flagella-driven chemotaxis but retained motility were constructed in four P. fluorescens strains...
  56. ncbi Energy source of flagellar type III secretion
    Koushik Paul
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    Nature 451:489-92. 2008
    Bacterial flagella contain a specialized secretion apparatus that functions to deliver the protein subunits that form the filament and other structures to outside the membrane...
  57. ncbi Mechanisms of type III protein export for bacterial flagellar assembly
    Tohru Minamino
    Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1 3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Mol Biosyst 4:1105-15. 2008
    ....
  58. ncbi Ordering genes in a flagella pathway by analysis of expression kinetics from living bacteria
    S Kalir
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Science 292:2080-3. 2001
    ..The observed temporal program of transcription was much more detailed than was previously thought and was associated with multiple steps of flagella assembly.
  59. pmc Asymmetry of inner dynein arms and inter-doublet links in Chlamydomonas flagella
    Khanh Huy Bui
    Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, CH8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Cell Biol 186:437-46. 2009
    ..molecular arrangement of proteins binding to the nine microtubule doublets in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella. The eight inner arm dynein heavy chains regulate and determine flagellar waveform...
  60. ncbi The genome of Naegleria gruberi illuminates early eukaryotic versatility
    Lillian K Fritz-Laylin
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell 140:631-42. 2010
    ..The Naegleria genome, analyzed in the context of other protists, reveals a remarkably complex ancestral eukaryote with a rich repertoire of cytoskeletal, sexual, signaling, and metabolic modules...
  61. pmc Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella: insights into their function from structural similarities
    Ariel Blocker
    Sir W Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:3027-30. 2003
    Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella are broadly compared at the level of their genetic structure, morphology, regulation, and function, integrating structural information, to provide an overview of how they might function at ..
  62. ncbi Conformational spread as a mechanism for cooperativity in the bacterial flagellar switch
    Fan Bai
    Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK
    Science 327:685-9. 2010
    ..We expect that conformational spread will be important in explaining cooperativity in other large signaling complexes...
  63. ncbi Genetic defects in ciliary structure and function
    Maimoona A Zariwala
    Department of Medicine, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 69:423-50. 2007
    ..Recent mutational analysis demonstrated that 38% of PCD patients carry mutations of the dynein genes DNAI1 and DNAH5. Increased understanding of the pathogenesis will aid in better diagnosis and treatment of PCD...
  64. ncbi The ciliary pocket: an endocytic membrane domain at the base of primary and motile cilia
    Anahi Molla-Herman
    Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris 75014, France
    J Cell Sci 123:1785-95. 2010
    Cilia and flagella are eukaryotic organelles involved in multiple cellular functions. The primary cilium is generally non motile and found in numerous vertebrate cell types where it controls key signalling pathways...
  65. ncbi A predator unmasked: life cycle of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus from a genomic perspective
    Snjezana Rendulic
    Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Science 303:689-92. 2004
    ..A plethora of paralogous gene families coding for enzymes, such as hydrolases and transporters, are used throughout the life cycle of B. bacteriovorus for prey entry, prey killing, and the uptake of complex molecules...
  66. ncbi Proteomic profiling of accessory structures from the mouse sperm flagellum
    Wenlei Cao
    Center for Research on Reproduction and Women s Health, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Mol Cell Proteomics 5:801-10. 2006
    ..This proteomic analysis identified a number of unexpected and novel proteins in the accessory structures of the mammalian flagellum...
  67. pmc Evolution: Tracing the origins of centrioles, cilia, and flagella
    Zita Carvalho-Santos
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, 6 P 2780 156 Oeiras, Portugal
    J Cell Biol 194:165-75. 2011
    ..bodies (CBBs) are microtubule-based cylindrical organelles that nucleate the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella. CBBs, cilia, and flagella are ancestral structures; they are present in all major eukaryotic groups...
  68. ncbi Developmental pathway for biofilm formation in curli-producing Escherichia coli strains: role of flagella, curli and colanic acid
    C Prigent-Combaret
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Génétique, CNRS UMR 5577, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France
    Environ Microbiol 2:450-64. 2000
    ..sessile communities by light and electron microscopic techniques, the role of protein surface structures, such as flagella and curli, and saccharidic surface components, such as the E...
  69. ncbi Swarming motility in undomesticated Bacillus subtilis
    Daniel B Kearns
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Mol Microbiol 49:581-90. 2003
    ..We conclude that robust swarming is a feature of undomesticated B. subtilis and that this behaviour has been lost or attenuated in laboratory strains through the accumulation of multiple genetic defects...
  70. ncbi Assembly of the flagellum and its role in cell morphogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei
    Sue Vaughan
    School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:453-8. 2010
    Eukaryotic flagella are microtubule-based structures required for a variety of functions including cell motility and sensory perception...
  71. ncbi Campylobacter flagella: not just for motility
    Patricia Guerry
    Enteric Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Trends Microbiol 15:456-61. 2007
    ..The motility imparted by the polar flagella of these pathogens is required for colonization of the mucus lining of the gastrointestinal tract...
  72. pmc Characterizing the flagellar filament and the role of motility in bacterial prey-penetration by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus
    Carey Lambert
    Institute of Genetics, School of Biology, University of Nottingham, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Mol Microbiol 60:274-86. 2006
    ..Here we show that flagella are not always shed upon prey entry and we study the six fliC flagellin genes of B...
  73. ncbi Hedgehog signalling in the mouse requires intraflagellar transport proteins
    Danwei Huangfu
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 426:83-7. 2003
    ..transport (IFT) proteins were first identified as essential factors for the growth and maintenance of flagella in the single-celled alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
  74. pmc Intraflagellar transport particle size scales inversely with flagellar length: revisiting the balance-point length control model
    Benjamin D Engel
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    J Cell Biol 187:81-9. 2009
    The assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic flagella are regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional traffic of IFT particles (recently renamed IFT trains) within the flagellum...
  75. ncbi Regulation of flagellar assembly
    Phillip Aldridge
    Department of Microbiology, Box 357242, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Curr Opin Microbiol 5:160-5. 2002
    ..The flagellum provides a model system for understanding how gene regulation functions to ensure the efficient assembly of a complex structure and fundamental mechanisms common to all type III secretion systems...
  76. ncbi Transcription of sigma54-dependent but not sigma28-dependent flagellar genes in Campylobacter jejuni is associated with formation of the flagellar secretory apparatus
    David R Hendrixson
    Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, 5641 Medical Science II, Box 0620, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0620, USA
    Mol Microbiol 50:687-702. 2003
    ..jejuni...
  77. ncbi More than one way to build a flagellum: comparative genomics of parasitic protozoa
    Laura J Briggs
    Curr Biol 14:R611-2. 2004
  78. ncbi Trypanosoma brucei FLA1 is required for flagellum attachment and cytokinesis
    Douglas J LaCount
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:17580-8. 2002
    ..brucei cells depleted of FLA1, procyclic T. brucei expressing GP72 continued to divide despite having detached flagella, demonstrating that flagellar attachment is not absolutely necessary for cytokinesis...
  79. pmc A novel gene inactivation system reveals altered periplasmic flagellar orientation in a Borrelia burgdorferi fliL mutant
    M A Motaleb
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834, USA
    J Bacteriol 193:3324-31. 2011
    ..Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) of intact organisms revealed that the periplasmic flagella in the fliL mutant were frequently tilted toward the cell pole instead of their normal orientation toward the ..
  80. pmc Pseudomonas aeruginosa pili and flagella mediate distinct binding and signaling events at the apical and basolateral surface of airway epithelium
    Iwona Bucior
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002616. 2012
    ..In this paper, we rigorously explore the role of two major bacterial adhesins, type IV pili (Tfp) and flagella, in bacterial adherence to distinct host receptors at the apical (AP) and basolateral (BL) surfaces of polarized ..
  81. pmc Flagella and pili-mediated near-surface single-cell motility mechanisms in P. aeruginosa
    Jacinta C Conrad
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA
    Biophys J 100:1608-16. 2011
    ..b>Flagella and pili interact cooperatively in a launch sequence whereby bacteria change orientation from horizontal to ..
  82. ncbi Nucleotide-induced global conformational changes of flagellar dynein arms revealed by in situ analysis
    Tandis Movassagh
    Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:761-7. 2010
    ..nucleotide-induced global structural changes of the outer and inner dynein arms of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella in situ using electron cryotomography...
  83. ncbi C14ORF179 encoding IFT43 is mutated in Sensenbrenner syndrome
    Heleen H Arts
    Department of Human Genetics 855, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein zuid 10, 6525 GA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Med Genet 48:390-5. 2011
    ..Sensenbrenner syndrome is a heterogeneous ciliopathy that is characterised by skeletal and ectodermal anomalies, accompanied by chronic renal failure, heart defects, liver fibrosis and other features...
  84. ncbi Interaction of the atypical prokaryotic transcription activator FlhD2C2 with early promoters of the flagellar gene hierarchy
    Laurent Claret
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, UK
    J Mol Biol 321:185-99. 2002
    ..footprinting, we describe the binding of the FlhD2C2 heterotetramer to the promoter regions of four class II flagella operons, fliAZ, flhBA and the divergent flgAMN and flgBCD(EFGHIJ)...
  85. pmc Cryo-electron tomography reveals conserved features of doublet microtubules in flagella
    Daniela Nicastro
    Rosenstiel Basic Medical Sciences Research Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E845-53. 2011
    The axoneme forms the essential and conserved core of cilia and flagella. We have used cryo-electron tomography of Chlamydomonas and sea urchin flagella to answer long-standing questions and to provide information about the structure of ..
  86. pmc Flagella allow uropathogenic Escherichia coli ascension into murine kidneys
    William R Schwan
    Department of Microbiology, University of Wisconsin La Crosse, 1725 State Street, La Crosse, WI 54601, USA
    Int J Med Microbiol 298:441-7. 2008
    ..To determine if the flagella were responsible for the ascension of UPEC to the kidneys, a fliC mutation in strain NU149 was created...
  87. pmc The maximum number of torque-generating units in the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli is at least 11
    Stuart W Reid
    Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8066-71. 2006
    ..Strains of Escherichia coli lacking functional stator proteins produce flagella that do not rotate, and induced expression of the missing proteins leads to restoration of motor rotation in ..
  88. ncbi Bacterial flagellar diversity and evolution: seek simplicity and distrust it?
    Lori A S Snyder
    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Trends Microbiol 17:1-5. 2009
    b>Flagella are the chief organelles of motility in bacteria...
  89. ncbi Charged residues in the cytoplasmic loop of MotA are required for stator assembly into the bacterial flagellar motor
    Yusuke V Morimoto
    Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1 3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Mol Microbiol 78:1117-29. 2010
    ....
  90. ncbi Self-assembly and type III protein export of the bacterial flagellum
    Tohru Minamino
    Dynamic NanoMachine Project, ICORP, JST, Osaka, Japan
    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 7:5-17. 2004
    ....
  91. pmc Gliding motility revisited: how do the myxobacteria move without flagella?
    Emilia M F Mauriello
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, 16 Barker Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 3204, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 74:229-49. 2010
    ..While most bacteria move by using specialized appendages, usually external or periplasmic flagella, some bacteria use other mechanisms for their movements that are less well characterized...
  92. pmc Structural insight into the regulatory mechanisms of interactions of the flagellar type III chaperone FliT with its binding partners
    Katsumi Imada
    Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8812-7. 2010
    ....
  93. pmc Functional characterization of flagellin glycosylation in Campylobacter jejuni 81-176
    Cheryl P Ewing
    Enteric Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Bacteriol 191:7086-93. 2009
    ..The data implicate certain glycans in mediating filament-filament interactions resulting in AAG and other glycans appear to be critical for structural subunit-subunit interactions within the filament...
  94. pmc The paraflagellar rod of kinetoplastid parasites: from structure to components and function
    Neil Portman
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX13RE, UK
    Int J Parasitol 40:135-48. 2010
    ....
  95. ncbi Comparative genomics identifies a flagellar and basal body proteome that includes the BBS5 human disease gene
    Jin Billy Li
    Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Cell 117:541-52. 2004
    Cilia and flagella are microtubule-based structures nucleated by modified centrioles termed basal bodies. These biochemically complex organelles have more than 250 and 150 polypeptides, respectively...
  96. pmc Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of flagellar regeneration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii identifies orthologs of ciliary disease genes
    Viktor Stolc
    Genome Research Facility, National Aeronautic and Space Administration, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:3703-7. 2005
    The important role that cilia and flagella play in human disease creates an urgent need to identify genes involved in ciliary assembly and function...
  97. pmc Evasion of Toll-like receptor 5 by flagellated bacteria
    Erica Andersen-Nissen
    Institute for Systems Biology, 1441 North 34th Street, Seattle, WA 98103, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:9247-52. 2005
    ....
  98. pmc Response regulator output in bacterial chemotaxis
    U Alon
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA
    EMBO J 17:4238-48. 1998
    ..The complex relationship between single flagella rotation and free-swimming behavior was examined; our results indicate that there is an additional level of ..
  99. ncbi CHE-3, a cytosolic dynein heavy chain, is required for sensory cilia structure and function in Caenorhabditis elegans
    S R Wicks
    Division of Molecular Biology, Center for Biomedical Genetics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam, 1066 CX, The Netherlands
    Dev Biol 221:295-307. 2000
    ..elegans...
  100. ncbi An investigation of the expression and adhesin function of H7 flagella in the interaction of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 with bovine intestinal epithelium
    Arvind Mahajan
    Division of Infection and Immunity, The Roslin Institute, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Penicuik EH25 9EZ, UK
    Cell Microbiol 11:121-37. 2009
    ..In this study, bovine terminal rectal primary epithelial cells were used to examine the role of H7 flagella in epithelial adherence...
  101. pmc Pseudomonas aeruginosa evasion of phagocytosis is mediated by loss of swimming motility and is independent of flagellum expression
    Eyal Amiel
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
    Infect Immun 78:2937-45. 2010
    ..These findings provide an explanation for the well-documented observation of nonmotility in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates and for how this phenotype confers upon the bacteria an advantage in the context of immune evasion...

Research Grants74

  1. Biophysics of the morphology and motility of Borrelia burgdorferi in diverse envi
    Charles W Wolgemuth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..B. burgdorferi swims by rotating helical filaments (flagella) that reside in the periplasmic space (the space between the outer membrane and the cell wall material)...
  2. Quorum sensing regulation of EHEC virulence genes
    Vanessa Sperandio; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and subsequently phosphorylates its cognate response regulator (RR) QseB, leading to activation of the flagella regulon. Additionally, QseC also phosphorylates two non-cognate RRs, KdpE and QseF...
  3. FASEB SRC on
    Bradley K Yoder; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for junior investigators involved in research relevant to NIDDK to attend the 2013 FASEB Biology of Cilia and Flagella Summer Conference...
  4. Reciprocal Control of Motility and Adherence in UTI
    Harry L Mobley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The abilities to swim using flagella and to adhere by certain fimbriae have been demonstrated to be virulence traits for both organisms...
  5. The role of IFT80 in bone formation
    Shuying Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are microtubule based transport machinery, which are essential for the assembly and maintenance of all cilia and flagella. Recent findings have not only revealed the various roles of cilia and flagella in motility, sensory reception, ..
  6. Mechanisms of Pseudomonas Resistance to Membrane Permeabilization by SP-A
    Gee W Lau; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..aeruginosa confers resistance/susceptibility to Surfactant Protein A may lead to new treatment strategies for life-threatening pneumonias. ..
  7. Effect of Helicobacter pylori cell shape on pathogenesis
    LAURA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..H pylori express polar flagella on its surface, and both flagellar-based motility and chemotaxis are required for infection of the gastric mucosa ..
  8. Functional Characterization of the Chlamydomonas CEP290/Nephrocystin-6 Homologue
    Branch Craige; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..multiple organisms, including Chlamydomonas, suggests that CEP290 localizes to the transition zone of cilia and flagella-a structurally complex region about which very little is known...
  9. FASEB on Biology of Cilia and Flagella
    Bradley K Yoder; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..travel expenses of junior investigators to attend the 2010 FASEB Summer Conference on the Biology of Cilia and Flagella. The goal of the conference is to convey recent advances in cilia and flagella biology and to foster interactions ..
  10. MOLECULAR BASIS OF MAMMALIAN SPERM MOTILITY
    Jerome F Strauss; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The assembly of the sperm flagellum, the coordination of flagella formation with other events during spermiogenesis, the maintenance of flagellar structural integrity, and the regulation of the ..
  11. Gamete membrane adhesion and fusion during fertilization
    William J Snell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the first phase of fertilization, adhesion between the flagella of plus and minus gametes brings them together and also activates both to expose cell membrane sites specialized ..
  12. Structure and mechanism of the dynein motor
    Ronald D Vale; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Dynein was first discovered as the microtubule-based motor that powers the movement of cilia and flagella. Subsequently, a cytoplasmic form of dynein was found to move numerous cargos (membrane organelles, the nucleus, ..
  13. CELL SURFACE RECOGNITION AND CELL INTERACTIONS
    William J Snell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    The long-term goals of my research are to understand the cellular and molecular properties of cilia/flagella that underlie their functions...
  14. REGULATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI
    CHING CHUNG WANG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We plan to look into the detailed mechanism behind it, delineate the functions of TbPLK and TbAUK1 in conducting this unique event and develop it into a potential target for anti-sleeping sickness chemotherapy. ..
  15. The novel cross-linking of the flagellar hook protein of Borrelia burgdorferi
    NYLES CHARON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The ability of bacteria to move is important for many of them to cause disease;many swim by rotating their flagella, one component of which are the flexible 'hooks'...
  16. Campylbacter jejuni flagellar regulation and synthesis
    David R Hendrixson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas, and Helicobacter species, that are programmed to produce a limited number of flagella and place these organelles only at the poles, unlike more commonly studied peritrichous bacteria such as E...
  17. The Control of Centriole Duplication and Degeneration
    Meng Fu Bryan Tsou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..formation of the mitotic spindle, (ii) cell polarity and asymmetric cell division, (iii) assembly of cilia and flagella, and (iv) suppression of parthenogenesis. In each case, strict control over centrosome biogenesis is required...
  18. Regulation of Genes Encoding Flagellar Proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    JASON MITCHELL BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cilia and flagella extend from human cell surfaces and function in motility and signaling...
  19. Biochemical and Functional Analysis of Trypanin
    Kent L Hill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The trypanosome flagellum is analogous to cilia and flagella in other eukaryotes, including humans...
  20. Regulation of cell division in Trypanosoma brucei
    Ziyin Li; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The outcome from these studies would not only have important biological significance, but also could provide novel targets for anti-trypanosomiasis chemotherapy. ..
  21. Dissection of the structural basis of MEIG1 in assembling sperm flagella
    Zhibing Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..reach the egg for fertilization, and normal sperm motility is largely dependent on formation and function of the flagella. An elongating spermatid-specific, the manchette, has been proposed to play a central role in sperm flagella ..
  22. Calcium regulation of flagellar motility
    Elizabeth F Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In mammals, motile cilia / flagella are required for sperm propulsion, removal of debris from the respiratory tract, circulation of cerebrospinal ..
  23. Regulation of motility and organelle assembly at the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pole
    Barbara I Kazmierczak; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Two polar surface organelles of P. aeruginosa-Type IV pili and flagella-play important roles in host-pathogen and pathogen-pathogen interactions required for infection and colonization...
  24. Transmission Electron Microscope for Core EM Facility
    Roger Craig; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..receptors, the structure and function of spliceosomes, and the structure and function of cilia and flagella in normal and diseased states...
  25. Integrating lipid biosynthesis with bacterial cell cycle progression
    Sean Murray; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e. not present in humans), we can identify new antibiotic targets. If we can prevent the synthesis of these lipids, we can prevent bacteria from dividing. ..
  26. Symbiosis of E. coli and the Intestinal Microbiota in a Mouse Model
    Tyrrell Conway; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 3 we wil determine whether surface structures, including O-polysaccharides, flagella, and capsule, target E...
  27. REGULATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI
    Ching Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..research as well as a potential target for anti-trypanosomiasis chemotherapy. well O.0 x<3y ... L2 3.3 CND TAD 7'' Da 7C y@ f0/1 E ... 575 >'0 .,,, T-0 00Z5 m-~ c) ..N Of" off 30 .L. ..
  28. Centrosome and mitotic functions of ciliary proteins
    Stephen Doxsey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. The molecular mechanisms by which mammalian Fused regulates motile cilia function
    Pao Tien Chuang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Dysfunction of motile cilia and flagella underlies the human syndrome of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD)...
  30. Molecular architecture, function and biogenesis of the ventral disc in Giardia in
    Scott C Dawson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The "Hydrodynamic Model" of giardial attachment posits that the ventral flagella produce a hydrodynamic current enabling suction-based attachment...
  31. Control of P. aeruginosa algD transcription
    Daniel J Wozniak; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..aeruginosa virulence determinants (alginate, type IV fimbriae, and flagella), an understanding of the structure-function relationships of this protein as well as other members of the AmrZ ..
  32. Mechanisms of the Unusual Cytokinesis in Trypanosomes
    Ziyin Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The outcome from these studies would not only have important biological significance, but also could provide novel targets for anti-trypanosomiasis chemotherapy. ..
  33. Structure and function of prokaryotic appendages by cryo-electron tomography
    Elizabeth R Wright; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many prokaryotes use extracellular appendages, notably the flagella and pili, for motility and colonization of biotic and abiotic substrates...
  34. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF FLAGELLAR DYNEIN FUNCTION
    Stephen M King; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Dynein molecular motors are required for many essential motile cellular processes. In cilia/flagella, dyneins form the inner and outer arms that power these organelles;defects in these enzymes and their regulatory systems lead to a broad ..
  35. Structural Components of the Campylobacter jejuni Polar Flagellar Motor
    David R Hendrixson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and function of a prototypic flagellar nanomachine is largely derived from cumulative studies of peritrichous flagella from Salmonella species and Escherichia coli...
  36. Study of the interplay of motility mechanisms during swaming of Myxococcus xanthu
    Mark Alber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Swarming is observed in cells that are propelled by rotating flagella, by the secretion of slime, and by retracting type IV pili...
  37. SENSORY TRANSDUCTION IN BACTERIAL CHEMOTAXIS
    Howard C Berg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cells with flagella do this by controlling the direction of rotation of motors that drive helical propellers...
  38. MOLECULAR AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF FLAGELLAR DYNEINS
    David R Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This proposal focuses on the assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. These organelles are found on nearly every human cell and are also essential in the life cycles of most other ..
  39. Flagellin-induced gut epithelial chemokine secretion
    Andrew T Gewirtz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..revealed that ligation of toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) by bacterial flagellin, the primary structural component of flagella, is a dominant means of activating innate immune signaling in intestinal epithelial cells...
  40. Directed gene targeting to study intraflagellar transport
    Daniel F Voytas; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and much of our knowledge of the proteins required for IFT comes from studies of the assembly of Chlamydomonas flagella. Defects in IFT have been directly associated with processes required for kidney development, for establishment ..
  41. Adenine Nucleotide Metabolism and Signaling in Mammalian Sperm
    George L Gerton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Information gained from these studies may aid in the understanding of globally important diseases/infections involving flagella (e.g., polycystic kidney disease, trypanosomes).
  42. Flagellar targeting and sensory function of a glucose transporter in L. mexicana.
    KHOA DANG TRAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies aim to elucidate a flagellar targeting pathway that likely operates for multiple membrane proteins in Leishmania and related trypanosomes, as well as identify a flagellar specific sensory role for this glucose transporter. ..
  43. Swarming as a model for surface-sensing in Salmonella typhimurium
    Rasika M Harshey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Swarmer cells generally make more flagella, and excrete surfactants and polysaccharides that aid surface motility by generating wetness and providing ..
  44. Role of Adaptive Immunity in the Development of Colitis in TLR5 Deficient Mice
    Matam Vijay Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Bacterial protein flagellin, the monomeric subunit of flagella, is a dominant innate immune activator of intestinal epithelial cells...
  45. Subcellular architecture of regulatory protein complexes at the bacterial pole
    LUCILLE SHAPIRO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Dynamical information in live cells will be extracted from imaging at differen times of the cell cycle, thus providing an unprecedented view of the structure as well as the dynamics controlling bacterial cell organization and function. ..
  46. H.Pylori Infection in Hispanic Children: Immune response pathway SNP pattterns
    Eric Brown; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction pathway regulates immune response to gram negative bacteria with flagella, including H. pylori. We hypothesize that H...
  47. Molecular mechanism of Kinesin-2 motility
    William Olaf Hancock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Kinesin-2 motors carry out anterograde transport in cilia and flagella, as well as other bidirectional transport processes in cells...
  48. Protein-protein covalent bonding and Treponema motility
    Michael R Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Spirochete periplasmic flagella (PFs) are essential for motility and virulence. The hook structure is an essential component of all bacterial PFs...
  49. Subcellular Protein Localization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence
    Kimberly N Cowles; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  50. Yersinia Type III Transport of Yop Proteins into Immune Cells
    Olaf Schneewind; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..rotational symmetry and several of their components share significant structural homology with the basal body of flagella and with type III machines of other bacteria...
  51. Identifying Signaling Mechanisms Controlling Flagellar Length in Chlamydomonas
    PRACHEE AVASTHI CROFTS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The structure and assembly of cilia are highly conserved and are readily studied in the motile flagella of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
  52. Structure and Function of the Trypanosome Flagellar Membrane
    David M Engman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the Trypanosome Flagellar Membrane A number of closely related calcium-binding proteins are found in the flagella of the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei: a 24 kDa flagellar calcium binding protein (..
  53. Tetrahymena Basal Body Duplication
    Mark Winey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..characteristic of a conserved radial array of nine microtubule structures and serve to nucleate cilia and flagella. Dysfunction in basal body or ciliary components results in pleiotropic human diseases, collectively known as ..
  54. Transmission Electron Microscope in the Academic Health Center
    Wei Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..from patients with diabetes and other diseases;3) study the structure and assembly of Eukaryotic cilia and flagella that serve vital sensory and motile functions;4) study localization of calprotectin in keratinocytes, ..
  55. Trypanosome transmembrane kinases
    Marilyn Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  56. Host-specific cell surface receptors on African trypanosomes
    Kent L Hill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of cell surface proteins with state-of-the-art proteomics and a pioneering method for isolating intact flagella, we are now able to define the surface proteome of T...
  57. Mechanics of Bacterial Swarming
    Howard C Berg; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The cells become multinucleate, elongate, synthesize large numbers of flagella, excrete wetting agents, and advance across the surface in coordinated packs...
  58. An Interdisciplinary Approach to PKD2 Function
    Terry J Watnick; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition we find that Amo is concentrated at the tip of the sperm flagella suggesting a conserved role for TRPPs in axonemal structures...
  59. Structure-Function Relationships in the Spirochetal Flagellar Motor
    Jun Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..information resulting from these studies can be readily applied to understanding the motility of many pathogenic bacteria that depend on flagella-based movement to colonize, establish infection, and disseminate in humans and other hosts.
  60. Combined multiscale modeling and experimental study of bacterial swarming
    Mark Alber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One mode of surface motility, called swarming, is observed in cells that are propelled by rotating flagella, by the secretion of slime, and by retracting type IV pili...
  61. A Cellular Chip for High-Throughput Measurements of Single, Growing Cells
    Philippe Cluzel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the transcriptional network that regulates the assembly of complex, multi-protein machines such as the flagella;and investigate the transcriptional response to multiple antibiotic stresses-a proble that is extremely relevant ..
  62. Structure and function of membrane receptor signaling complex in bacterial chemot
    Peijun Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..signaling complex, and generating a diffusible intracellular signal that ultimately regulates the rotation of the flagella motor. The chemotactic signaling pathway in E...
  63. Conferene on the basic cell and molecular biology of cilia and flagella as relate
    Joel Rosenbaum; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..It has been almost 20 years since the last comprehensive meeting occurred on the Biology of Cilia and Flagella. Since that time, new discoveries in the basic cell and molecular biology of cilia and flagella have led to an ..
  64. PERIPLASMIC FLAGELLA OF TREPONEMA DENTICOLA
    John Ruby; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..denticola's role as a pathogen in oral disease. Spirochete swimming is mediated by the periplasmic flagella (PFs) which reside between the protoplasmic cylinder and outer membrane sheath...
  65. MALE INFERTILITY: SPERM MOTILITY AND AXONEMAL STABILITY
    REGINA TURNER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  66. Transcriptional Control of the Helicobacter pylori RpoN Regulon
    TIMOTHY RANDALL HOOVER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pylori use a cluster of polar flagella to accomplish this...
  67. GENE ANALYSIS OF SPIROCHETE PERIPLASMIC FLAGELLA
    NYLES CHARON; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The present proposal aims to answer certain questions relating to the structure of spirochete periplasmic flagella (PFs) and motility. Spirochete PFs are the most complex of any bacterial flagellar filament...
  68. INTRAFLAGELLAR TRANSPORT IN CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII
    DOUGLAS COLE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are ancient cellular appendages that have been adapted for motile and sensory functions...
  69. Automated analysis of cell cycle genes in Trypanosoma brucei
    LAWRENCE RUBEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Consequently, cell cycle disruption is accompanied by the accumulation of nuclei, flagella or kinetoplasts, and the inappropriate segregation of basal bodies or Golgi...
  70. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI
    Irving Nachamkin; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Studies on the pathogenesis of cholera and salmonella infections suggest that bacterial flagella may be more important than just serving as structures of motility...
  71. Cloning & in vivo role of flagellar protein Kinase A
    David Howard; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Numerous diseases are caused by defective cilia and/or flagella, including primary ciliary dyskinesia, polycystic kidney disease, lateralization defects, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, retinal degeneration, and male infertility...
  72. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF BACTERIAL FLAGELLA
    David Derosier; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..It has been suggested that this structure is an important element of the motor. Freeze-fracture, deep-etch, shadowed replicas of Aquaspirillum serpens and Salmonella typhimurium will be used to visualize the structure. ..
  73. DNA TOPOISOMERASES--BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS AND MECHANISMS
    James Wang; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Experiments will also be carried out to test further the dispensability of DNA topoisomerases in the initiation of replication in eukaryotes. ..
  74. PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA FLAGELLAR BIOGENESIS PATHWAY
    Reuben Ramphal; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In addition to their role in motility, some flagella are attachment organelles, others are used for the secretion of virulence factors, and all are likely to be ..