somites

Summary

Summary: Paired, segmented masses of mesodermal tissue that form along the length of the neural tube during the early stage of embryonic development. They give rise to the vertebral column and other tissues including voluntary muscle, bone, connective tissue, and the dermal layers of the skin.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Opposing FGF and retinoid pathways control ventral neural pattern, neuronal differentiation, and segmentation during body axis extension
    Ruth Diez del Corral
    Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
    Neuron 40:65-79. 2003
  2. ncbi The PDGF alpha receptor is required for neural crest cell development and for normal patterning of the somites
    P Soriano
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Development 124:2691-700. 1997
  3. pmc Signaling gradients during paraxial mesoderm development
    Alexander Aulehla
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a000869. 2010
  4. ncbi Mutations affecting somite formation and patterning in the zebrafish, Danio rerio
    F J van Eeden
    MPI für Entwicklungsbiologie, Tubingen, Germany
    Development 123:153-64. 1996
  5. ncbi A clock and wavefront mechanism for somite formation
    R E Baker
    Centre for Mathematical Biology, Mathematical Institute, 24 29 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LB, UK
    Dev Biol 293:116-26. 2006
  6. ncbi A common somitic origin for embryonic muscle progenitors and satellite cells
    Jerome Gros
    Laboratoire de Genetique et de Physiologie du Developpement, Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille, CNRS UMR 6545, Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    Nature 435:954-8. 2005
  7. ncbi Intercellular coupling regulates the period of the segmentation clock
    Leah Herrgen
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Curr Biol 20:1244-53. 2010
  8. pmc WNT signaling, in synergy with T/TBX6, controls Notch signaling by regulating Dll1 expression in the presomitic mesoderm of mouse embryos
    Michael Hofmann
    Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology, Stubeweg 51, D 79108 Freiburg, Germany
    Genes Dev 18:2712-7. 2004
  9. pmc A multi-cell, multi-scale model of vertebrate segmentation and somite formation
    Susan D Hester
    Biocomplexity Institute and Department of Physics, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 7:e1002155. 2011
  10. pmc Regulation of canonical Wnt signaling by Brachyury is essential for posterior mesoderm formation
    Benjamin L Martin
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7350, USA
    Dev Cell 15:121-33. 2008

Detail Information

Publications271 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Opposing FGF and retinoid pathways control ventral neural pattern, neuronal differentiation, and segmentation during body axis extension
    Ruth Diez del Corral
    Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
    Neuron 40:65-79. 2003
    ..Our data demonstrate that FGF and RA pathways are mutually inhibitory and suggest that their opposing actions provide a global mechanism that controls differentiation during axis extension...
  2. ncbi The PDGF alpha receptor is required for neural crest cell development and for normal patterning of the somites
    P Soriano
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Development 124:2691-700. 1997
    ..These results indicate that PDGFs may exert their functions during early embryogenesis by affecting cell survival and patterning...
  3. pmc Signaling gradients during paraxial mesoderm development
    Alexander Aulehla
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a000869. 2010
    The sequential formation of somites along the anterior-posterior axis is under control of multiple signaling gradients involving the Wnt, FGF, and retinoic acid (RA) pathways...
  4. ncbi Mutations affecting somite formation and patterning in the zebrafish, Danio rerio
    F J van Eeden
    MPI für Entwicklungsbiologie, Tubingen, Germany
    Development 123:153-64. 1996
    ..In mutants of the first group, boundaries between individual somites are invisible early on, although the paraxial mesoderm is present...
  5. ncbi A clock and wavefront mechanism for somite formation
    R E Baker
    Centre for Mathematical Biology, Mathematical Institute, 24 29 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LB, UK
    Dev Biol 293:116-26. 2006
    ..which sweeps along the body axis interacting as it moves with the segmentation clock to gate cells into somites. We also show that the model can mimic the anomalies formed when progression of the wavefront is disturbed and ..
  6. ncbi A common somitic origin for embryonic muscle progenitors and satellite cells
    Jerome Gros
    Laboratoire de Genetique et de Physiologie du Developpement, Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille, CNRS UMR 6545, Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    Nature 435:954-8. 2005
    ..Here we use electroporation of green fluorescent protein in chick somites, video confocal microscopy analysis of cell movements, and quail-chick grafting experiments to show that the ..
  7. ncbi Intercellular coupling regulates the period of the segmentation clock
    Leah Herrgen
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Curr Biol 20:1244-53. 2010
    ..Here we ask whether Delta-Notch coupling additionally influences the collective period of the segmentation clock...
  8. pmc WNT signaling, in synergy with T/TBX6, controls Notch signaling by regulating Dll1 expression in the presomitic mesoderm of mouse embryos
    Michael Hofmann
    Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology, Stubeweg 51, D 79108 Freiburg, Germany
    Genes Dev 18:2712-7. 2004
    ..Our results indicate that WNT activity, in synergy with TBX6, regulates Dll1 transcription and thereby controls Notch activity, somite formation, and patterning...
  9. pmc A multi-cell, multi-scale model of vertebrate segmentation and somite formation
    Susan D Hester
    Biocomplexity Institute and Department of Physics, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 7:e1002155. 2011
    ..For reasonable initial conditions, 2D simulations of our model robustly generate spatially and temporally regular somites, realistic dynamic morphologies and spontaneous emergence of anterior-traveling stripes of Lfng...
  10. pmc Regulation of canonical Wnt signaling by Brachyury is essential for posterior mesoderm formation
    Benjamin L Martin
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7350, USA
    Dev Cell 15:121-33. 2008
    ..the mouse phenotype, demonstrating an ancient role for Brachyury in patterning all but the most anterior somites. Using cell transplantation, we show that the only essential role for Brachyury during somite formation is non-..
  11. pmc Real-time imaging of the somite segmentation clock: revelation of unstable oscillators in the individual presomitic mesoderm cells
    Yoshito Masamizu
    Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1313-8. 2006
    ....
  12. pmc Interfering with Wnt signalling alters the periodicity of the segmentation clock
    Sarah Gibb
    Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Dev Biol 330:21-31. 2009
    b>Somites are embryonic precursors of the ribs, vertebrae and certain dermis tissue. Somite formation is a periodic process regulated by a molecular clock which drives cyclic expression of a number of clock genes in the presomitic mesoderm...
  13. ncbi FGF signaling controls somite boundary position and regulates segmentation clock control of spatiotemporal Hox gene activation
    J Dubrulle
    , Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille (IBDM, , Campus de Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    Cell 106:219-32. 2001
    ..These results implicate FGF8 in ensuring tight coordination of the segmentation process and spatiotemporal Hox gene activation...
  14. ncbi FGF signaling acts upstream of the NOTCH and WNT signaling pathways to control segmentation clock oscillations in mouse somitogenesis
    Matthias B Wahl
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Development 134:4033-41. 2007
    ..Together, these experiments provide genetic evidence for the role of FGF signaling in segmentation, and identify a signaling hierarchy controlling clock oscillations downstream of FGF signaling in the mouse...
  15. ncbi Maintenance of somite borders in mice requires the Delta homologue DII1
    M Hrabe de Angelis
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
    Nature 386:717-21. 1997
    During vertebrate embryonic development, the paraxial mesoderm is subdivided into metameric subunits called somites. The arrangement and cranio-caudal polarity of the somites governs the metamerism of all somite-derived tissues and ..
  16. ncbi Distinct regulatory cascades govern extraocular and pharyngeal arch muscle progenitor cell fates
    Ramkumar Sambasivan
    Institut Pasteur, Stem Cells and Development, CNRS URA 2578, Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy, Marseille, France
    Dev Cell 16:810-21. 2009
    ..These findings identify novel genetic networks that may provide insights into myopathies which often affect only subsets of muscles...
  17. pmc BMP regulation of myogenesis in zebrafish
    Sara E Patterson
    Department of Biology, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459, USA
    Dev Dyn 239:806-17. 2010
    ..In addition, we show that while BMP overexpression is sufficient to delay myogenic differentiation, inhibition of BMP does not detectably affect this process, suggesting that other factors redundantly inhibit myogenic differentiation...
  18. pmc Tbx6-mediated Notch signaling controls somite-specific Mesp2 expression
    Yukuto Yasuhiko
    Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Division, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga 1 18 1, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 158 8501, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:3651-6. 2006
    ..This finding uncovers an additional component of the interacting network of various signaling pathways that are involved in somitogenesis...
  19. pmc Notch is a critical component of the mouse somitogenesis oscillator and is essential for the formation of the somites
    Zoltan Ferjentsik
    Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000662. 2009
    Segmentation of the vertebrate body axis is initiated through somitogenesis, whereby epithelial somites bud off in pairs periodically from the rostral end of the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm (PSM)...
  20. ncbi Synchronised cycling gene oscillations in presomitic mesoderm cells require cell-cell contact
    Miguel Maroto
    Laboratoire de Genetique et de Physiologie du Developpement, Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille, CNRS INSERM Universite de la Mediterranee AP de Marseille, Campus de Luminy, Marseille, France
    Int J Dev Biol 49:309-15. 2005
    Segmentation of the vertebrate body axis is initiated early in development with the sequential formation of somites. Somitogenesis is temporally regulated by a molecular oscillator, the segmentation clock, which acts within presomitic ..
  21. ncbi Rere controls retinoic acid signalling and somite bilateral symmetry
    Gonçalo C Vilhais-Neto
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Missouri 64110, USA
    Nature 463:953-7. 2010
    ..Here we show that a mutation in Rere (also known as atrophin2) leads to the formation of asymmetrical somites in mouse embryos, similar to embryos deprived of retinoic acid...
  22. pmc Identification of vertebra-like elements and their possible differentiation from sclerotomes in the hagfish
    Kinya G Ota
    Laboratory for Evolutionary Morphology, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan
    Nat Commun 2:373. 2011
    ..However, it has yet to be conclusively shown whether hagfish lack all vertebra-like structures, and whether their somites follow developmental processes and patterning distinct from those in lampreys and gnathostomes...
  23. ncbi Cellular and molecular investigations into the development of the pectoral girdle
    Petr Valasek
    School of Biological Sciences, Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Reading, UK
    Dev Biol 357:108-16. 2011
    ..pectoral and latissimus dorsi) develop by the "In-Out" mechanism whereby migration of myogenic cells from the somites into the limb bud is followed by their extension from the proximal limb bud out onto the thorax...
  24. pmc The T-box transcription factor Tbx18 maintains the separation of anterior and posterior somite compartments
    Markus Bussen
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Genes Dev 18:1209-21. 2004
    The compartmentalization of somites along their anterior-posterior (AP) axis is pivotal to the segmental organization of the vertebrate axial skeleton and the peripheral nervous system...
  25. ncbi Recurrent aberrations identified by array-CGH in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome
    Susanne Ledig
    Institut fur Humangenetik, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat, Munster, Germany
    Fertil Steril 95:1589-94. 2011
    ..To identify genetic causes of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  26. ncbi The occipital lateral plate mesoderm is a novel source for vertebrate neck musculature
    Susanne Theis
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Freiburg, Freiburg i Br, Germany
    Development 137:2961-71. 2010
    In vertebrates, body musculature originates from somites, whereas head muscles originate from the cranial mesoderm. Neck muscles are located in the transition between these regions...
  27. ncbi In ovo electroporation of avian somites
    Martin Scaal
    Laboratoire de Genetique et de Physiologie du Developpement, Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille IBDM, CNRS UMR 654, University Aix Marseille II, Campus de Luminy, Marseille, France
    Dev Dyn 229:643-50. 2004
    ..Electroporation of somites, however, has been hampered by low efficiency due to technical difficulties...
  28. ncbi Establishing myogenic identity during somitogenesis
    S Tajbakhsh
    Department of Molecular Biology, CNRS URA1947, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 7:634-41. 1997
    ..In addition, recent genetic, embryological, and molecular studies have shed new light on somite formation and the establishment of muscle progenitor cells...
  29. ncbi Patterning embryos with oscillations: structure, function and dynamics of the vertebrate segmentation clock
    Andrew C Oates
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, Dresden, Germany
    Development 139:625-39. 2012
    ..to govern the rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating body axis of the vertebrate embryo into somites: the precursors of the segmented vertebral column...
  30. pmc A proposed mechanism for the interaction of the segmentation clock and the determination front in somitogenesis
    Moises Santillan
    Campus Monterrey, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional IPN, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
    PLoS ONE 3:e1561. 2008
    ..whose expression levels vary along the presomitic mesoderm [PSM], that have important effects on the formation of somites)...
  31. pmc Setting the tempo in development: an investigation of the zebrafish somite clock mechanism
    Francois Giudicelli
    Vertebrate Development Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 5:e150. 2007
    The somites of the vertebrate embryo are clocked out sequentially from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) at the tail end of the embryo...
  32. pmc EphrinB2 coordinates the formation of a morphological boundary and cell epithelialization during somite segmentation
    Tadayoshi Watanabe
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916 5, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630 0192, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7467-72. 2009
    ..This is the first demonstration that Ephrin-reverse signal acts as a platform that couples distinct morphogenetic changes in cell polarity and tissue shape...
  33. ncbi Characteristics of initiation and early events for muscle development in the Xenopus limb bud
    Akira Satoh
    Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    Dev Dyn 234:846-57. 2005
    ..In order to know the contribution of myogenic cells in somites to myogenic precursor cells in the early limb bud, we used a Cre-LoxP system for tracing over a long period...
  34. ncbi FGF-4 signaling is involved in mir-206 expression in developing somites of chicken embryos
    Dylan Sweetman
    School of Biological Science, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Dev Dyn 235:2185-91. 2006
    ..miRNAs revealed the restricted expression of mir-124 in the central nervous system and of mir-206 in developing somites, in particular the developing myotome...
  35. ncbi Axial skeletal defects caused by mutation in the spondylocostal dysplasia/pudgy gene Dll3 are associated with disruption of the segmentation clock within the presomitic mesoderm
    Sally L Dunwoodie
    Division of Mammalian Development, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 129:1795-806. 2002
    ....
  36. ncbi Integrinalpha5-dependent fibronectin accumulation for maintenance of somite boundaries in zebrafish embryos
    Sumito Koshida
    Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444 8787, Japan
    Dev Cell 8:587-98. 2005
    Boundary formation and epithelialization are crucial processes in the morphological segmentation of vertebrate somites. By a genetic screening procedure with zebrafish, we identified two genes, integrinalpha5 (itga5) and fibronectin (fn),..
  37. ncbi The Netrin receptor Neogenin is required for neural tube formation and somitogenesis in zebrafish
    David J Mawdsley
    Colon Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia
    Dev Biol 269:302-15. 2004
    ..These observations suggest a role for Neogenin in determining cell polarity or migrational directionality of both neuroectodermal and mesodermal cells during early embryonic development...
  38. ncbi Fgf/MAPK signalling is a crucial positional cue in somite boundary formation
    A Sawada
    Division of Early Embryogenesis, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 411-8540 Japan
    Development 128:4873-80. 2001
    ..We report that the level of Fgf/MAPK activation (highest in the posterior PSM) serves as a positional cue within the PSM that regulates progression of the cyclic wave and thereby governs the positions of somite boundary formation...
  39. pmc Intronic delay is essential for oscillatory expression in the segmentation clock
    Yoshiki Takashima
    Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Shogoin Kawahara, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:3300-5. 2011
    ..These results indicate that introns are indeed required for Hes7 oscillations and point to the significance of intronic delays in dynamic gene expression...
  40. ncbi The zebrafish diwanka gene controls an early step of motor growth cone migration
    J Zeller
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6058, USA
    Development 126:3461-72. 1999
    ..within the spinal cord is unaffected but it is strongly impaired as motor axons enter their common path to the somites. Chimera analysis shows that diwanka gene activity is required in a small set of myotomal cells, called adaxial ..
  41. ncbi Traveling wave formation in vertebrate segmentation
    Koichiro Uriu
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
    J Theor Biol 257:385-96. 2009
    ..Based on this result, we derive a mathematical formula for how the peak of gene expression moves along the pre-somitic mesoderm...
  42. ncbi Control of extracellular matrix assembly along tissue boundaries via Integrin and Eph/Ephrin signaling
    Dörthe Jülich
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Development 136:2913-21. 2009
    ..Within the tissue, interplay between Eph/Ephrin signaling, ligand-independent Integrin clustering and reciprocal Integrin inhibition restricts de novo ECM production to somite boundaries...
  43. ncbi The epaxial-hypaxial subdivision of the avian somite
    Louise Cheng
    Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Dev Biol 274:348-69. 2004
    ..In cell aggregation assays, En1- and Sim1-expressing cells sort out, suggesting that the En1-Sim1 expression boundary may represent a true compartment boundary, foreshadowing the epaxial-hypaxial segregation of muscle...
  44. ncbi Lineage analysis of the avian dermomyotome sheet reveals the existence of single cells with both dermal and muscle progenitor fates
    Raz Ben-Yair
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120 PO Box 12272, Israel
    Development 132:689-701. 2005
    ....
  45. pmc Somitic origin of limb muscle satellite and side population cells
    Jaclyn Schienda
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Program in Genomics, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:945-50. 2006
    ..Thus, we show that the somites, which supply embryonic and fetal myoblasts, are also an important source of highly myogenic adult muscle ..
  46. ncbi Requirement of the paraxis gene for somite formation and musculoskeletal patterning
    R Burgess
    Lexicon Genetics Inc, The Woodlands, Texas 77381, USA
    Nature 384:570-3. 1996
    The segmental organization of the vertebrate embryo is first apparent when somites form in a rostrocaudal progression from the paraxial mesoderm adjacent to the neural tube...
  47. ncbi Sharp developmental thresholds defined through bistability by antagonistic gradients of retinoic acid and FGF signaling
    Albert Goldbeter
    Faculte des Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, U L B, Brussels, Belgium
    Dev Dyn 236:1495-508. 2007
    ..Given that mutually antagonistic signaling gradients are common in development, such bistable switches could represent an important principle underlying embryonic patterning...
  48. pmc Differential requirements for myogenic regulatory factors distinguish medial and lateral somitic, cranial and fin muscle fibre populations
    Yaniv Hinits
    Randall Division for Cell and Molecular Biophysics and MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, New Hunt s House, Guy s Campus, King s College London, SE1 1UL, UK
    Development 136:403-14. 2009
    ..Mrf4 does not contribute to early myogenesis in zebrafish. We suggest that the differential use of duplicated MRF paralogues in this novel two-component myogenic system facilitated the diversification of vertebrates...
  49. ncbi Transcriptional repression by the T-box proteins Tbx18 and Tbx15 depends on Groucho corepressors
    Henner F Farin
    Institute for Molecular Biology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    J Biol Chem 282:25748-59. 2007
    ....
  50. ncbi Retinoic acid controls the bilateral symmetry of somite formation in the mouse embryo
    Julien Vermot
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP College de France, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, Strasbourg, France
    Science 308:563-6. 2005
    ..of vertebrate embryos is their bilaterally symmetric body plan, which is particularly obvious at the level of the somites and their derivatives such as the vertebral column...
  51. ncbi A Pax3/Pax7-dependent population of skeletal muscle progenitor cells
    Frederic Relaix
    C N R S URA 2578, Department of Developmental Biology, Pasteur Institute, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Nature 435:948-53. 2005
    ....
  52. pmc A novel genetic hierarchy functions during hypaxial myogenesis: Pax3 directly activates Myf5 in muscle progenitor cells in the limb
    Lola Bajard
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique URA 2578, Department of Developmental Biology, Pasteur Institute, 75015 Paris, France
    Genes Dev 20:2450-64. 2006
    ..Mutation of the Pax3 site abolishes all expression controlled by the 145-bp sequence in transgenic mouse embryos. We conclude that Pax3 directly regulates Myf5 in the hypaxial somite and its derivatives...
  53. ncbi A somitic compartment of tendon progenitors
    Ava E Brent
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 113:235-48. 2003
    ..the tendons associated with the axial skeleton derive from a heretofore unappreciated, fourth compartment of the somites. Scleraxis (Scx), a bHLH transcription factor, marks this somitic tendon progenitor population at its inception, ..
  54. pmc Eph signaling is required for segmentation and differentiation of the somites
    L Durbin
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Genes Dev 12:3096-109. 1998
    ..Here we show a role for Eph and ephrin signaling in the patterning of presomitic mesoderm and formation of the somites. Ephrin-A-L1 and ephrin-B2 are expressed in an iterative manner in the developing somites and presomitic mesoderm,..
  55. ncbi Analysis of Ripply1/2-deficient mouse embryos reveals a mechanism underlying the rostro-caudal patterning within a somite
    Jun Takahashi
    Okazaki Institute for Integrative Biosciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
    Dev Biol 342:134-45. 2010
    ..We propose that the rostro-caudal pattern is established by dynamic interaction of Notch activity with two Mesp2 domains, which are defined in successive segmentation cycles by Notch, Tbx6 and Ripply1/2...
  56. ncbi Defective somite patterning in mouse embryos with reduced levels of Tbx6
    Phillip H White
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Development 130:1681-90. 2003
    During vertebrate embryogenesis, paraxial mesoderm gives rise to somites, which subsequently develop into the dermis, skeletal muscle, ribs and vertebrae of the adult...
  57. pmc Paf1 complex homologues are required for Notch-regulated transcription during somite segmentation
    Takashi Akanuma
    Okazaki Institute for Integrative Biosciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444 8787, Japan
    EMBO Rep 8:858-63. 2007
    ..Therefore, zebrafish homologues of the yeast Paf1 complex seem to preferentially affect a subset of genes, including Notch-regulated genes, during embryogenesis...
  58. ncbi Tbx24, encoding a T-box protein, is mutated in the zebrafish somite-segmentation mutant fused somites
    Masataka Nikaido
    Domestic Research Fellow, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tamaki, Watarai, Mie, 519 0423, Japan
    Nat Genet 31:195-9. 2002
    b>Somites are fundamental structures within the paraxial mesoderm of the vertebrate embryo that give rise to the vertebrae and muscle of the trunk and tail...
  59. ncbi Eph/Ephrin signaling regulates the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition of the paraxial mesoderm during somite morphogenesis
    Arantza Barrios
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 13:1571-82. 2003
    ..segmental patterns of gene activity provide the instructions by which mesenchymal cells epithelialize and form somites. Various members of the Eph family of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases and their Ephrin ligands are ..
  60. ncbi Autoinhibition with transcriptional delay: a simple mechanism for the zebrafish somitogenesis oscillator
    Julian Lewis
    Vertebrate Development Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 13:1398-408. 2003
    The pattern of somites is traced out by a mechanism involving oscillating gene expression at the tail end of the embryo...
  61. ncbi Segmental relationship between somites and vertebral column in zebrafish
    Elizabeth M Morin-Kensicki
    Institute of Neuroscience, 1254 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 1254, USA
    Development 129:3851-60. 2002
    ..In this study, we characterized alignment of somites and vertebrae, distribution of individual sclerotome progeny along the anteroposterior axis and development of ..
  62. ncbi The sub-lip domain--a distinct pathway for myotome precursors that demonstrate rostral-caudal migration
    Y Cinnamon
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, PO Box 12272, Israel
    Development 128:341-51. 2001
    ..Cells of the sub-lip domain are negative for Pax3 and desmin but express MyoD, Myf5 and FREK, suggesting that they are specific myogenic progenitors...
  63. ncbi Expression of the novel basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor cMespo in presomitic mesoderm of chicken embryos
    A Buchberger
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Braunschweig, Spielmannstrasse 7, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany
    Mech Dev 97:223-6. 2000
    ..cMespo, however, is not expressed within somites or in tailbud mesoderm...
  64. ncbi Evidence that mechanisms of fin development evolved in the midline of early vertebrates
    Renata Freitas
    Department of Zoology, University of Florida, PO Box 118525, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
    Nature 442:1033-7. 2006
    ..leading to gnathostomes before the origin of paired appendages, and show that their median fins also develop from somites and express orthologous Hox and Tbx genes...
  65. ncbi Slow muscle regulates the pattern of trunk neural crest migration in zebrafish
    Yasuko Honjo
    Institute of Neuroscience, 1254 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Development 132:4461-70. 2005
    ..Sclerotome comprises only a minor part of zebrafish somites, and the pattern of neural crest migration is established before crest cells contact sclerotome cells, suggesting ..
  66. ncbi Induction and prepatterning of the zebrafish pectoral fin bud requires axial retinoic acid signaling
    Yann Gibert
    Lehrstuhl fur Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
    Development 133:2649-59. 2006
    ..Cell-transplantation experiments show that RA production is not only crucially required from flanking somites, but is sufficient to permit fin bud initiation when the trunk mesoderm is genetically ablated...
  67. ncbi Retinoic acid regulation of the Mesp-Ripply feedback loop during vertebrate segmental patterning
    Tanya A Moreno
    The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Dev Biol 315:317-30. 2008
    ..These observations suggest that variations in a direct response to RA input may allow for changes in A-P patterning of the segments in different vertebrate species...
  68. pmc The differentiation and movement of presomitic mesoderm progenitor cells are controlled by Mesogenin 1
    Rita Fior
    Instituto de Medicina Molecular e Instituto de Histologia e Biologia do Desenvolvimento, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649 028 Lisboa, Portugal
    Development 139:4656-65. 2012
    b>Somites are formed from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and give rise to the axial skeleton and skeletal muscles...
  69. pmc Teasing out T-box targets in early mesoderm
    Fiona C Wardle
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 18:418-25. 2008
    ....
  70. ncbi Functional importance of evolutionally conserved Tbx6 binding sites in the presomitic mesoderm-specific enhancer of Mesp2
    Yukuto Yasuhiko
    Division of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1 18 1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 158 8501, Japan
    Development 135:3511-9. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that there is significant evolutionary conservation of Mesp regulatory mechanisms between fish and mice...
  71. ncbi The clock and wavefront model revisited
    Philip J Murray
    Centre for Mathematical Biology, Mathematical Institute, 24 29 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LB, UK
    J Theor Biol 283:227-38. 2011
    ..Thus the model is consistent with the idea that, although the genes involved in pattern propagation in the PSM vary, there is a conserved patterning mechanism across species...
  72. ncbi Comparative anatomy: all vertebrates do have vertebrae
    Philippe Janvier
    Museum national d histoire naturelle, UMR 7207, CP38, 8, rue Buffon 75231, Paris Cedex 05, France
    Curr Biol 21:R661-3. 2011
    ..Now, long overlooked vertebral rudiments have been analysed in hagfish, suggesting that vertebrae existed in the last common ancestor of all vertebrates...
  73. ncbi Hedgehog regulation of superficial slow muscle fibres in Xenopus and the evolution of tetrapod trunk myogenesis
    Annalisa Grimaldi
    Randall Centre, New Hunt s House, Guy s Campus, King s College London, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Development 131:3249-62. 2004
    ..In somites, several waves of muscle precursors are induced by signals from nearby tissues...
  74. ncbi Myf5 expression in somites and limb buds of mouse embryos is controlled by two distinct distal enhancer activities
    Astrid Buchberger
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Spielmannstrasse 7, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
    Development 130:3297-307. 2003
    ..A potent enhancer region regulating Myf5 expression in limb muscles and somites has been identified previously at -58/-48 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site (Hadchouel et al., 2000)...
  75. ncbi Fgf8 drives myogenic progression of a novel lateral fast muscle fibre population in zebrafish
    Julie A Groves
    MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology and Randall Division for Cell and Molecular Biophysics, New Hunt s House, King s College London, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Development 132:4211-22. 2005
    ..We conclude that Fgf8 drives terminal differentiation of a specific population of lateral muscle precursor cells within the early somite...
  76. pmc Random cell movement promotes synchronization of the segmentation clock
    Koichiro Uriu
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4979-84. 2010
    ..Finally, we discuss that the enhancement of synchronization by random cell movement occurs in several different models for the oscillation of segmentation clock genes...
  77. ncbi Segment number and axial identity in a segmentation clock period mutant
    Christian Schroter
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, D 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Curr Biol 20:1254-8. 2010
    ..The first segmental structures in the vertebrate embryo are the somites, which bud sequentially from the growing presomitic mesoderm (PSM)...
  78. ncbi Groucho-associated transcriptional repressor ripply1 is required for proper transition from the presomitic mesoderm to somites
    Akinori Kawamura
    Okazaki Institute for Integrative Biosciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444 8787, Japan
    Dev Cell 9:735-44. 2005
    Concomitant with the transition from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) to somites, the periodical gene expression characteristic of the PSM is drastically changed and translated into the segmental structure...
  79. ncbi BMP signaling in the epiblast is required for proper recruitment of the prospective paraxial mesoderm and development of the somites
    Shigeto Miura
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, MD C4 10, C458, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Development 133:3767-75. 2006
    ..restores the normal timing of recruitment of prospective paraxial mesoderm and partially rescues the development of somites. This suggests that BMP and FGF signaling function antagonistically during paraxial mesoderm development.
  80. ncbi Conserved origin of the ventral pancreas in chicken
    Kumi Matsuura
    Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics IMEG, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860 0811, Japan
    Mech Dev 126:817-27. 2009
    ....
  81. ncbi SHOX duplications found in some cases with type I Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome
    Cristina Gervasini
    Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Italy
    Genet Med 12:634-40. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to identify possible recurrent submicroscopic imbalances in a cohort of familial and sporadic cases with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome...
  82. pmc A gradient of Shh establishes mutually repressing somitic cell fates induced by Nkx3.2 and Pax3
    Dana M Cairns
    Program in Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Biology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Dev Biol 323:152-65. 2008
    ..Conversely, forced expression of Pax3 in somites can block Shh-mediated induction of sclerotomal gene expression and chondrocyte differentiation in vitro...
  83. ncbi Developmental regulation of somite derivatives: muscle, cartilage and tendon
    Ava E Brent
    Harvard Medical School, Department of Genetics, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 12:548-57. 2002
    ..The specification of somite derivatives involves the action of patterning signals secreted from adjacent tissue combined with the activation, in particular somitic compartments, of genes promoting cell lineage specification...
  84. pmc A Wnt oscillator model for somitogenesis
    Peter B Jensen
    Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Biophys J 98:943-50. 2010
    ..We find that the oscillations disappear as the ligand concentration decreases, in agreement with observations on embryos...
  85. ncbi Cell-autonomous integrin control of Wnt and Notch signalling during somitogenesis
    Charalampos Rallis
    Developmental Genetics Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 4LY, UK
    Development 137:3591-601. 2010
    ..signalling cascade that acts during the formation of the defining segmental features of the vertebrate body - the somites - in which β1-integrin activity regulates epithelialisation by controlling downstream Wnt and Notch activity ..
  86. pmc Differential axial requirements for lunatic fringe and Hes7 transcription during mouse somitogenesis
    Michael Stauber
    Developmental Genetics Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e7996. 2009
    ..Formation of cervical, thoracic and lumbar somites/vertebrae, but not sacral and adjacent tail somites/vertebrae, depends on caudal, cyclic Lfng expression...
  87. pmc Different types of oscillations in Notch and Fgf signaling regulate the spatiotemporal periodicity of somitogenesis
    Yasutaka Niwa
    Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Shogoin Kawahara, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
    Genes Dev 25:1115-20. 2011
    ..These results suggest that Notch oscillators define the prospective somite region, while Fgf oscillators regulate the pace of segmentation...
  88. ncbi Establishment of the epaxial-hypaxial boundary in the avian myotome
    Mohi U Ahmed
    Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London, United Kingdom
    Dev Dyn 235:1884-94. 2006
    ..Furthermore, it suggests that the epaxial-hypaxial boundary of the myotome is established through the late arising, mitotically active myoblasts...
  89. ncbi Genetic analysis of interactions between the somitic muscle, cartilage and tendon cell lineages during mouse development
    Ava E Brent
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 132:515-28. 2005
    ....
  90. ncbi Persistent myogenic capacity of the dermomyotome dorsomedial lip and restriction of myogenic competence
    Sara J Venters
    Department of Anatomy and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Development 129:3873-85. 2002
    ..The ablated DML of chick wing-level somites was replaced with tissue fragments from various mesoderm regions of quail embryos and their capacity to form ..
  91. ncbi Fate and function of the ventral ectodermal ridge during mouse tail development
    D C Goldman
    Department of Anatomy and Program in Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0452, USA
    Development 127:2113-23. 2000
    ....
  92. ncbi The mouse pudgy mutation disrupts Delta homologue Dll3 and initiation of early somite boundaries
    K Kusumi
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nat Genet 19:274-8. 1998
    ..formation of morphological borders in early somite formation and of rostral-caudal compartment boundaries within somites. Viability analysis also indicates an important role in early development...
  93. ncbi Met and Hgf signaling controls hypaxial muscle and lateral line development in the zebrafish
    Lynn Haines
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
    Development 131:4857-69. 2004
    b>Somites give rise to a number of different embryonic cell types, including the precursors of skeletal muscle populations...
  94. ncbi The dermomyotome dorsomedial lip drives growth and morphogenesis of both the primary myotome and dermomyotome epithelium
    C P Ordahl
    Department of Anatomy and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Development 128:1731-44. 2001
    ..Chick-quail marking experiments show that new myotome cells in such recombinant somites are derived from the donor DML and that cells from other regions of the somite are neither present nor required...
  95. ncbi Myogenic determination occurs independently in somites and limb buds
    B Kablar
    Institute for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Cancer Research Group, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada
    Dev Biol 206:219-31. 1999
    ..that a 258-bp fragment containing the core of the -20-kb MyoD enhancer activated expression in newly formed somites and limb buds in compound mutant embryos lacking both Myf-5 and MyoD...
  96. ncbi Dynamics of zebrafish somitogenesis
    Christian Schroter
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany
    Dev Dyn 237:545-53. 2008
    ..b>Somites form at a constant period along the trunk, but the period gradually increases in the tail...
  97. pmc Identification of oscillatory genes in somitogenesis from functional genomic analysis of a human mesenchymal stem cell model
    Dilusha A William
    Division of Human Genetics and Orthopaedic Surgery, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 3615 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Dev Biol 305:172-86. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate that human and mouse in vitro models can recapitulate oscillatory expression observed in embryo and that a number of genes in multiple developmental pathways display dynamic expression in vitro...
  98. ncbi Modeling the segmentation clock as a network of coupled oscillations in the Notch, Wnt and FGF signaling pathways
    Albert Goldbeter
    Faculte des Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, C P 231, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    J Theor Biol 252:574-85. 2008
    The formation of somites in the course of vertebrate segmentation is governed by an oscillator known as the segmentation clock, which is characterized by a period ranging from 30 min to a few hours depending on the organism...
  99. pmc Notch signaling, the segmentation clock, and the patterning of vertebrate somites
    Julian Lewis
    Vertebrate Development Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    J Biol 8:44. 2009
    ..One of its most fundamental roles is in the emergence of the regular pattern of somites that will give rise to the musculoskeletal structures of the trunk...
  100. pmc Expression of the oscillating gene her1 is directly regulated by Hairy/Enhancer of Split, T-box, and Suppressor of Hairless proteins in the zebrafish segmentation clock
    Tim Brend
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8103, USA
    Dev Dyn 238:2745-59. 2009
    b>Somites are segmental units of the mesoderm in vertebrate embryos that give rise to the axial skeleton, muscle, and dermis...
  101. ncbi Beta catenin-independent activation of MyoD in presomitic mesoderm requires PKC and depends on Pax3 transcriptional activity
    Silvia Brunelli
    Stem Cell Research Institute, H San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132, Milan, Italy
    Dev Biol 304:604-14. 2007
    ....

Research Grants63

  1. Regulation of TGF-beta Signaling and Embryonic Development by GTPases
    Gerald H Thomsen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The GTPBP genes are expressed during early Xenopus embryogenesis and during subsequent organogenesis of somites, blood, heart and nervous system...
  2. Identification of the transcriptional regulators of chondrocyte hypertrophy
    ANDREW BRUCE LASSAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Work in the Lassar lab has established that forced expression of Runx2 in somites can activate expression of chondrocyte hypertrophy markers (i.e...
  3. Competetive Renewal of MSM: Multiscale Studies of Segmentation in Vertebrates
    Claudio D Stern; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The vertebral column and skeletal musculature derive from embryonic structures called somites, which form sequentially from head to tail...
  4. Role of Muscle Connective Tissue in Muscle and Tendon Development
    Gabrielle Kardon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the limb, muscle derives from migratory precursors originating from the somites, while the muscle connective tissue, tendons, and skeletal elements derive from the mesoderm of the emerging ..
  5. CONTROL OF MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DURING MYOGENESIS
    Charles P Emerson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that were identified in our screen for somite-activated genes and are required for activation of MyoD in somites of avian embryos...
  6. Generation of Retinoid Signals during Development
    GREGG L DUESTER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While doing this, RA signaling also ensures that somites are generated in a bilaterally symmetric fashion. However, the mechanism of caudal RA action is still unclear...
  7. Investigating the Requirement of microRNAs in VEGF Signaling In Vivo.
    POLLONEAL OCBINA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, loss of miR-1/206 function in somites also results in increased growth and proliferation in the surrounding segmental arteries...
  8. The role of SIK1 in myogenic differentiation and skeletal muscle repair
    Rebecca L Berdeaux; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Sik1 mRNA is expressed in developing somites and SIK1 function is important for survival of myocytes and skeletal muscle in mice...
  9. Regulation of Xenopus Embryonic Development by TGFbeta Superfamily Ligands and SM
    MALCOLM R WHITMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The muscle of the body wall is made up of muscle precursor cells that migrate from the somites to the ventro-lateral body wall, where they differentiate into muscle...
  10. Amphibian Models for Bodywall Patterning
    Ann Campbell Burke; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The primaxial domain is populated exclusively by cells from the somites. The abaxial domain is made up of myoblasts from the somites and connective tissue of the lateral plate in which ..
  11. TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR FUNCTION IN CHROMATIN
    Anthony N Imbalzano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent advances allow us to examine the regulation of myogenic gene expression specifically in the somites, at the start of myogenesis in the embryo, which further extends our abilities to understand the molecular ..
  12. Identification and Characterization of the Presomitic Mesoderm Progenitor
    Craig E Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Progeny of the PSM-Pr colonize the paraxial mesoderm and give rise to the somites, which in turn produce the skeletal muscle, cartilage, and connective tissue of the embryo...
  13. Hedgehog Signaling and the Evolution of Genomic Regulatory Architecture
    KEVIN ANTHONY PETERSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..gneural tube, limb bud and somites) will provide essential information for understanding how this important signaling pathway functions in ..
  14. Regulation of mesodermal progenitors in transgenic zebrafish
    David Kimelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This progenitor population gradually releases mesodermal cells that populate the somites (primarily muscle), as well as neural cells that form the spinal cord, until the complete A-P axis has been ..
  15. AXIS FORMATION IN VERTEBRATE DEVELOPMENT
    Richard M Harland; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our particular focus will be the role of the antagonists in development of the somites, gut and skeleton...
  16. Regulation of proliferation in vertebrate embryonic mesodermal progenitors
    Cortney M Bouldin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..leave the progenitor population of the tailbud and differentiate, producing blocks of mesoderm called somites that will become the muscle and vertebrae of the adult body...
  17. Formation of the intervertebral disk: a molecular approach
    BRIAN DAVID HARFE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..pulposus (Aim 1);determine how the two cell types in the nucleus pulposus are formed (Aim 2);what the role of the somites is in the formation of the intervertebral disks (Aim 3), and identify the molecular pathways responsible for disk ..
  18. Morphogenesis of the paraxial mesoderm in mice
    Anna Katerina Hadjantonakis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we are focusing on one mesoderm subtype, the paraxial mesoderm, which gives rise to morphologically-distinct somites through a reiterative evolutionarily-conserved process amenable to genetic dissection...
  19. MECHANISMS OF MYOGENIC INDUCTION AND PATTERN IN SOMITES
    Frank Stockdale; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In the culture system that constitutes the model, we remove somites from early embryos and culture them as explants either alone, recombined with a segment of neural tube or ..
  20. CELL LINEAGE COMMITMENT IN MAMMALIAN MYOGENESIS
    Jeffrey Miller; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Cells first become committed to myogenesis and form muscle fibers in the somites. Commitment to myogenesis appears to require interaction with neural tissue and expression of the MyoD1 gene ..
  21. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OF NEURAL CREST DEVELOPMENT
    James Weston; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Trunk NC cells that disperse early on a medioventral ("medial") pathway between the neural tube and the somites give rise to both neuronal and non- neuronal derivatives...
  22. THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF AXIS FORMATION IN XENOPUS
    Janet Heasman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..catenin, embryos gastrulate and form three germ layers but lack the dorsal derivatives (neural tube, notochord, somites, anterior endoderm) of those germ layers...
  23. Global Patterning in Vertebrate Mesoderm
    Ann Burke; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..form all of the key parts of the musculoskeletal system arise from two populations of embryonic mesoderm, the somites and somatic lateral plate (abbreviated here as LP)...
  24. THE ROLE(S) OF FRZB CHICK SOMITE PATTERNING
    LAURA BURRUS; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In the mouse,fab-1 is expressed in segmental plate and newly formed somites (Leyns et al, 1997), suggesting the exciting possibility that it may function as a negative regulator of Wnt ..
  25. AVIAN MYOGENIC CELL COMMITMENT
    Frank Stockdale; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..embryonic quail myoblasts of different types, determine the migratory pathways that myogenic cells traverse from somites to developing muscles, determine the lineage interrelationships between myoblasts of different types and the ..
  26. Specification of the Avian Intermediate Mesoderm
    THOMAS SCHULTHEISS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..vertebrate kidney tissue is derived from the intermediate mesoderm (IM), a strip of tissue that lies between the somites and the lateral plate in the developing embiyo...
  27. RESEARCH ON NEURULATION
    GARY SCHOENWOLF; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..e. notochord) and paraxial (i.e. somites) mesoderm--rudiments of the vertebral column, skeletal muscle and related structures...
  28. NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN MAMMALIAN DEVELOPMENT
    Carl Keen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of ligand binding, giving rise to defective PI3K (PI3K-->Akt) and MAPK (Ras-->ERK) signaling in the somites and neural tube...
  29. Molecular Mechanism of Paraxial Mesoderm Formation
    Deborah Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..into four populations each giving rise to different tissues and organs; the paraxial mesoderm gives rise to the somites. The transcription factor, Tbx6, is absolutely required for the development of the posterior paraxial mesoderm: ..
  30. MOLECULAR BASIS OF TOXICANT INDUCED VERTEBRAL ANOMALIES
    Rocky Tuan; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..b>Somites are formed by the condensation and epithelialization of the paraxial mesoderm in a caudal-to-rostral, segmented...
  31. Mechanisms of Early Kidney Development
    TERI MAUCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Paraxial mesoderm (PM), which gives rise to somites, induces the pronephros, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying pronephros induction by the PM have ..
  32. GENETIC REGULATION OF SOMITE MORPHOGENESIS IN ZEBRAFISH
    Lilianna Solnica Krezel; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION (appended verbatim from investigator's abstract): Somites are the most prominent segmented feature of vertebrate embryos...
  33. IP3 RECEPTOR MEDIATED APOPTOSIS DURING MYOGENESIS
    Hal Skopicki; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..hypothesis is that embryonic development of striated muscle requires the predetermined elimination of primordial somites and myoblasts that is mediated, in part, via the IP3 receptor...
  34. Patterning the Anterior Border of the Avian Pronephros
    THOMAS SCHULTHEISS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..vertebrate kidney tissue is derived from the intermediate mesoderm (IM), a strip of tissue that lies between the somites and the lateral plate in the developing embryo...
  35. ORGANIZER AND EMBRYONIC REGULATION
    Claudio Stern; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Not only does it generate the midline organs of the body (notochord, somites, gut, floor plate of the neural tube), but is also responsible for inducing and patterning the whole of the ..
  36. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MYOBLAST MIGRATION IN DROSOPHILA
    KAREN KOZOPAS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Wnt signals have crucial developmental functions, including the patterning of the central nervous system and the somites, but have not previously been assigned a role in myoblast migration...
  37. ROLE OF TBX6 IN MESODERM PATTERING AND SOMITE FORMATION
    VIRGINIA PAPAIOANNOU; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The Tbx6 mutation affects the differentiation of mesoderm destined to form the somites and eventually the bulk of the musculoskeletal system...
  38. Regulation of chondrogenesis
    ANDREW LASSAR; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..2 to induce both somitic chondrogenesis and Sox-9 gene expression. Forced expression of Sox-9 in somites can similarly induce competence for subsequent BMP signals to induce chondrogenesis...
  39. Role of the Zic2 gene in CNS development & malformation
    Stephen Brown; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..development and may regulate the size of certain populations of cells in the dorsal neural tube, neural crest and somites, little is known about how the Zic genes, including Zic2, function at a cellular or molecular level...
  40. GENETIC BASIS OF VERTEBRATE SEGMENTATION
    Christopher Kintner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Segmentation is the process that produces a metameric pattem of somites during embryonic development...
  41. CELL SURFACE INTERACTIONS IN NEURAL CREST DEVELOPMENT
    Marianne Bronner Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the investigators is to identify interactions that are important in establishing the rostrocaudal polarity of the somites and the segmentation of the peripheral nervous system Using this accessible system, the investigators will look ..
  42. Gene Expression Studies of Early Spinal Development
    Kenro Kusumi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Maturation of somites involves differentiation into myotomal, chondrocyte, and dermal cell lineages...
  43. EMBRYONIC VASCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Paul Krieg; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..To accurately describe the formation of the dorsal aorta in Xenopus, 2) To determine the role of the somites during dorsal aorta formation. (3)...
  44. Regulation of paraxial mesoderm patterning
    ANDREW LASSAR; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of this project is to elucidate the regulatory circuits that pattern paraxial mesodermal cell fates in both the somites and in the cranial paraxial mesoderm...
  45. Pattern Formation in the Sympathetic Nervous System
    CYNTHIA FOREHAND; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..paraxial mesoderm, such as application of exogenous retinoic acid or fibroblast growth factor to the developing somites, or transposition of somites along the rostrocaudal axis, differentially alter the preganglionic cell pools...
  46. GENETICS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN DEVELOPMENT
    TIMOTHY OBRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It develops from the somites, a series of homologous blocks of cells that are arranged in the early embryo on either side of the neural tube ..
  47. FATE OF AVIAN NEURAL CREST-DERIVED NEUROGENIC PRECURSORS
    James Weston; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Trunk NC cells that disperse early on a medioventral ("medial") pathway between the neural tube and the somites give rise to both neuronal and non-neuronal derivatives...
  48. COMMITMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOMITIC MYOBLASTS
    Mindy George Weinstein; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..antibodies will be used to identify subpopulations of cells present within the segmental plate mesoderm and somites and to follow their pathways of migration and maturational changes during the development of the chick embryo...
  49. GENES THAT REGULATE MYOGENESIS
    Eric Olson; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..mouse embryogenesis, Meso1 is expressed in the paraxial mesoderm prior to somite formation, in the newly formed somites, and in limb buds. later in development, Meso1 expression becomes restricted to skeletal muscle and heart...
  50. Bridging Dynamic Signaling and Somite Morphogenesis
    Alivia Price; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..integrates global and local signaling with cell morphogenesis to produce an ordered array of metameric units, or somites, along the axis of vertebrate embryos...
  51. CONTROL OF SEGMENT-SPECIFIC PREGANGLIONIC AXON OUTGROWTH
    CYNTHIA FOREHAND; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Second, manipulations of the periphery, such as application of exogenous retinoic acid (RA) or transposition or somites along the rostrocaudal axis, differentially alter the preganglionic cell pools...
  52. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PAX3 INDUCTION
    STEVEN PRUITT; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..translating DV positional information into differentiation of discrete cell lineages within the neural tube and somites. Its initial expression domain marks what will ultimately be the dorsal pole of the embryo...
  53. TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION IN CARTILAGE PRECURSOR CELLS
    Claudia Kappen; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In addition, we found that distinct cis- regulatory regions control the expression of the Hoxc-8 gene in somites and in the chondrogenic lineage...
  54. HOMEOBOX CONTROL CHRONDROGENESIS/SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT
    Carla Tribioli; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..0 embryos in the mesoderm of the most newly formed somites in the group of cells corresponding to the presclerotome, the precursor of the vertebrae...
  55. Hairy-Related Factors in Cardiac Development and Disease
    ISABELLE KING; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..transcription factors (Hrt1, Hrt2 and Hrt3) are transcriptional repressors that are expressed in the somites, cardiac outflow tract, pulmonary arteries, and have mutually exclusive expression domains in the atria and ..
  56. Directing the Fate of Cells to Myogenic Lineages
    Mindy George Weinstein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..results in herniation of the organs through the ventral body wall and a reduction in skeletal muscle in the somites. The proposed studies are designed to explore the mechanism whereby MyoD positive epiblast cells promote skeletal ..
  57. EYE AND LENS DEVELOPMENT IN THE ANOPHTHALMIC MOUSE
    NEIL GONSALVES; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The ultrastructure of the tissues of the eye region of ZRDCT mouse embryos of 8-42 somites will be studied...
  58. noso and primitive streak function in mouse gastrulation
    Floria Lupu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..I will characterize and positionally clone the gene disrupted by the second of these mutations, noso (no somites)...
  59. Genetic Analysis of the Zebrafish Somitogenesis Oscillator
    Scott A Holley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..During vertebrate segmentation, ultradian oscillations govern the formation of somites, the segmented anlagen of the vertebral column...
  60. DORSAL-VENTRAL PATTERN FORMATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH EMBRYO
    Mary Mullins; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Thus it is critical to identify and study all the genetic players in this process. ..
  61. Developing a mouse model to study Notch furin processing
    GERALDINE WEINMASTER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  62. Genetic Analysis of Maternal Factors in Embryonic Devel*
    Mary Mullins; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will be relevant to the nature of human sterilities, birth defects, and human inherited disorders. ..